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TOWARD A HEALTHIER WORLD Connecting the dots between Environmental Health & Public Health

CLIMATE, AIR QUALITY & HEALTH The environment around us profoundly impacts our health. C40 and Johnson & Johnson are working in partnership to connect the dots between climate action, improved air quality and better health amongst citizens. C40 has undertaken cutting-edge research to demonstrate the air quality and health benefits of climate action - working with 26 cities to date to measure potential health gains and use this to make a stronger case for action. Based on these learnings, C40 and Johnson & Johnson are setting out a call to action on the challenge and the opportunity for all cities.

THE TIME FOR URGENT CLIMATE ACTION

CITIES ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR

70%

OF GLOBAL

Cities have a leading role in limiting temperature increase to 1.5°C, in line with the Paris Agreement. Climate change causes serious hazards experienced by cities, such as extreme cold and hot weather, floods and droughts.

CO 2

UNDERSTANDING THE PROBLEM Before cities can begin to plan climate action, they must first establish a clear understanding of the problem – what are the main sources of both greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution? These challenges are often understood from differing perspectives, and approached from different policy arenas. However, evidence shows that both the sources of climate change and air pollution are generally aligned and solutions should be found to address them simultaneously.

80%

The first step that cities should take in formulating climate action is recognising the full extent to which sources of air pollution and GHG emissions overlap and, therefore, where cities should be focussing in order to tackle both.

CLIMATE CHANGE

AIR POLLUTION

Sources of GHG Emissions

Sources of PM 2.5 Concentration

8% Waste 9% Industry

2% Other1

25% Road Traffic

20% Other2

37% Road Traffic

13% Natural background3

16% Buildings

3% Other Transport

THE NEED TO TACKLE AIR QUALITY

OF PEOPLE IN CITIES ARE EXPOSED TO UNSAFE AIR QUALITY

PM 2.5 is discussed here as an indicator of both ambient and indoor air pollution. The average contribution of sources to GHG emissions and PM 2.5 concentration across the 96 C40 cities is shown below.

52% Buildings Populations in low-income countries are the most impacted. 97% of cities in low- and middle-income countries with more than 100,000 inhabitants don’t meet WHO air quality guidelines.

14% Industry 1

Agriculture, forestry and fishing activities 2 Unspecified sources of human origins 3 Soil dust and sea salt

GHG source apportionment takes into account Scope 1 (not including energy generation) and 2 emissions, while PM2.5 considers Scope 1 only. See methodology report for details.

THE HEALTH BURDEN

7M

PREMATURE DEATHS A YEAR FROM POOR AIR QUALITY GLOBALLY

Ambient and indoor air pollution is a critical issue, contributing to an estimated one-quarter of all adult deaths from heart diseases and strokes, 43% from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 29% from lung cancer.

In order to simultaneously tackle air quality and climate change, cities need clean, efficient transport, buildings and industry solutions. Decarbonising the grid will need to be pursued in parallel with this in order to reduce climate change impacts and improve air quality on a wider scale.

For further details refer to methodology report

TOWARD A HEALTHIER WORLD Connecting the dots between Environmental Health & Public Health

CLEAN BUILDINGS PRIORITY ACTIONS THAT TACKLE CLIMATE CHANGE AND AIR QUALITY

CLEAN TRANSPORT ALL-CITY ACTIONS

ALL-CITY ACTIONS Stringent standards for new buildings Retrofit envelope HVAC and water heating Lighting, automation and controls

Global climate and air quality goals: clean transport, buildings and industry are common goals required to achieve climate-safe and healthy cities. Priority actions: we have identified a set of priority actions that will produce the greatest impact on both air quality and climate. However, every city will have to implement a different mix of actions specific to their context. City-specific actions: cities should prioritise actions based on both their specific sources of GHG emissions and air pollution, as well as the key characteristics of size, density, income and climate.

Walking, cycling and mass transit Transit-oriented development Emission standards Zero tailpipe-emission vehicles Freight optimisation Zero emission area

CITY-SPECIFIC ACTIONS

CITY-SPECIFIC ACTIONS

Please refer to www.c40.org/benefits for further details on the case studies.

HIGHER-INCOME HIGHER-DENSITY

CLEAN INDUSTRY

CASE STUDY:

Passive design, clean district heating & cooling Low-carbon heat networks

Industrial operational improvements and energy efficient technologies Emissions capture Fugitive emissions control Maintenance and monitoring

CASE STUDY:

MEXICO CITY

Voluntary programme to regulate industrial emissions

WASTE HEAT FROM INDUSTRIAL PROCESS TO POWER HEAT NETWORKS

HIGHER-INCOME LOWER-DENSITY CASE STUDY:

SANTIAGO

Net zero carbon buildings, on-site generation Rooftop solar and energy efficiency retrofits

Reduce congestion

CASE STUDY:

Zero emission zone

BARCELONA

PARIS

ALL-CITY ACTIONS

HIGHER-INCOME HIGHER-DENSITY

HIGHER-INCOME LOWER-DENSITY ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING STATIONS IN ALL NEW BUILDINGS

CASE STUDY:

Low emission zone

VENICE LOWER-INCOME HIGHER-DENSITY

LOWER-INCOME

Retrofits of informal settlements, solar-powered stoves and lighting

CASE STUDY:

CASE STUDY:

Air quality in informal settlements

LOWER-INCOME LOWER-DENSITY

JOHANNESBURG

Reduce use and electrify private vehicles

Reduce congestion, develop public transport and leapfrog to electric Bus electrification

CHENNAI

CASE STUDY:

Reduce use of private vehicles, introduce emission standards and checks Vehicle testing

QUITO

GRID DECARBONISATION COMMON ACTIONS Expand renewable mix Energy storage

HIGHER- Mix of centralised and decentralised renewables, INCOME grid balancing through storage and controls. CASE STUDY:

ISTANBUL

Large-scale solar power retrofit

LOWER- Mostly decentralised renewables (solar), INCOME on-site storage CASE STUDY:

DURBAN

Rooftop solar framework

For further details refer to methodology report

TOWARD A HEALTHIER WORLD Connecting the dots between Environmental Health & Public Health

CLEAN TRANSPORT, BUILDINGS AND INDUSTRY HAVE MAJOR CLIMATE, AIR QUALITY AND HEALTH BENEFITS By taking these priority actions on climate change and air pollution, cities can work towards clean transport, buildings and industry, all underpinned by a decarbonised grid. Achieving these goals represents a massive opportunity to improve climate, air quality and health but ambitious, city-wide action is required. Cities, and others, are already leading the way,

PROBLEM

for example through committing to Fossil Fuel Free Streets, Net Zero Carbon Buildings and 100% renewable energy.

and will also impact health through reduced frequency of extreme weather conditions and floods.

Due to constraints in data availability, clean buildings and industry are grouped together (see methodology report). The benefits of curbing climate change, although not quantified, will be massive

However, the path to get there won’t be easy and cities can’t do this alone - we need national and regional governments, business and civil society, alongside cities, to take bold action.

SOLUTION

OUTCOME

ANNUAL BENEFITS

CLIMATE CHANGE Sources of GHG Emissions

Industry

Road Traffic GHG REDUCTION

25% CLEAN TRANSPORT

PM2.5 REDUCTION

19%

PREMATURE DEATHS AVERTED

ECONOMIC IMPACT

86k

$76-224bn

Buildings

AIR POLLUTION Sources of PM2.5 Concentration

ZERO CARBON GRID

Road Traffic

PM2.5 REDUCTION

30%

CLEAN BUILDINGS & INDUSTRY

PREMATURE PREMATURE DEATHS AVERTED DEATHS AVERTED

137k 133K

ECONOMIC IMPACT ECONOMIC IMPACT

$117-346 BN $122-359bn

IF ALL 96 C40 CITIES COMMIT TO CLEAN TRANSPORT, BUILDINGS AND INDUSTRY

Industry

Buildings

GHG REDUCTION

61%

GHG source apportionment takes into account Scope 1 (not including energy generation) and 2 emissions, while PM2.5 considers Scope 1 only. See methodology report for details.

For further details refer to methodology report

TOWARD A HEALTHIER WORLD Connecting the dots between Environmental Health & Public Health

HOW CITIES GET THE JOB DONE Based on learnings from C40’s experience of working with the cities participating in this programme, we have identified key elements to be considered throughout the whole decision-making process.

THE TIME FOR ACTION IS NOW These elements can support cities to better address potential barriers and to drive bold and ambitious action tackling simultaneously climate change and air quality while improving the health of their citizens.

PRIORITISATION

COLLABORATION

START FROM THE PROBLEM

CITIES CAN'T DO THE JOB ALONE

Understand the problem to identify the best solution

Collaboration with different scales of government, private and civic sector partners is required to successfully drive action

THINK HOLISTICALLY

CROSS-SECTOR AND CROSS-CITY

Map all potential impacts, identify synergies and make a stronger case on a wider range of benefits

Engagement with different departments within a city and with other cities to join efforts and share learnings

AMBITION

INCLUSIVE CLIMATE ACTION

THINK BIG

EQUITY

Take bold and radical action, scaling up and leapfrogging to more ambitious solutions

Ensure the fair distribution of negative and positive impacts across different population groups

THINK QUICK

INCLUSIVITY

Harness the potential of short-term action while ensuring they are part of a longer-term strategy

Include all relevant stakeholders in the process, to ensure equitable and fair policy-making

IMPACT

COMMUNICATION

NET IMPACT

STAKEHOLDER PRIORITIES

Consider both positive and negative impacts (social, environmental and economic) to ensure best overall impact from action

Identify at the start the priority benefits that speak to decision-makers and gain buy-in

EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION

UNLOCK AND DRIVE ACTION

Consider contingent and contextual factors (e.g. political, social, economic, climatic) affecting the outcomes of an action

Once impacts of actions have been quantified, communicate the results to tell a compelling story

Delivering on the objectives of the Paris Agreement will require all cities to take transformative actions and yet climate change is far from being the only topic on the agenda for citizens and their leaders.

BOLD AND AMBITIOUS ACTIONS Radical action is needed to stop climate change and improve the quality of life for people living in cities. Demonstrating the health and wider benefits enables cities to tackle multiple priorities and maximise impact on the ground.

CLEAN TRANSPORT, BUILDINGS AND INDUSTRY Cities are leading the way by taking bold action towards a healthier and more sustainable future, by committing to clean transport, buildings and industry. Every city is different: cities need to develop their own roadmap of actions, considering pollution sources, contextual factors and city characteristics.

THE WIN

87% Cities could expect an 87% drop in GHG emissions

49% Cities could expect a 49% drop in PM 2.5 levels

223k Cities could avoid 223,000 premature deaths per year

These are the climate, air quality, health and economic benefits generated if all 96 C40 cities took action on clean transport, buildings and industry

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