consequences

10 schools - ... Ministry 2018. 20. “12 Ways Pornography Just Doesn't Show Enough,” April 4, 2017, ...... Pornography-s-Effects-on-Adults-and-Chil...

21 downloads 42 Views 6MB Size

Recommend Documents


Consequences
Editions Bim, CH-1674 Vuarmarens, Switzerland i fp ov bebeobo bo. Euph.2 9: ģis. #. Euph.2. 1 be. 9:45. g . vor .. Tuba 1. 100 solo, secco. Tuba 2. v v. ' bo.. obo.

Consequences Ladder
Consequences Ladder. Level. Examples of Behaviour. Consequences. C1. • Lateness to school or ... Failing to get Report Book signed or loss of Report Book.

Adverse Consequences
the care for patients with respiratory symptoms before and after the start of public ..... specific for pneumonia (eg, delirium, fever, chest pain). Fi- ..... Casalino LP.

Eternal Consequences
Eternal Consequences. Genesis 3:22 ...... If anyone's name was not found written in the book of life, he was thrown into the lake of fire. Revelation 21:1 - 6.

Dishonesty: Clues and Consequences
students discuss the consequences of the crimes for all stakeholders (persons who ... This lesson is from the Good Ideas book, available for purchase from the ...

ANTECEDENTS AND CONSEQUENCES OF
A LONGITUDINAL STUDY. Karen J. Jansen. University of Virginia. McIntire School of Commerce. Monroe Hall. Charlottesville, VA 22904. Phone/Fax: (434) 243- ...

Choices and Consequences A
Choices and Consequences A. What is the situation? ... teaching purposes. Reproduction authorized only for use in the school site that has purchased this book.

concepts, causes and consequences
social, political and economic institutions. Direct measures of .... In Trust and Reciprocity: Interdisciplinary Lessons for Experimental Research, edited by Elinor ...

choices, consequences & results
Get a FREE COPY of my book, HIGH PAYING CLIENTS at: trevorcrane.com/freebook ... Choices, consequences, and rewards, because every choice has a ...

Consequences of Anabolic Steroid Use
Jun 26, 2007 - Nearly all of the anabolic steroids taken by mouth cause abnormal liver ... thinning of head hair and possible baldness, deepening of the voice,.

CONSEQUENCES

CONSEQUENCES MISCELLANEOUS............................................................................................................. 5 INTRO ............................................................................................................................... 19 #1 MARRIAGE AND PORN .............................................................................................. 23 #2 FAMILY AND PORN ....................................................................................................60 #3 THE INDIVIDUAL AND PORN ..................................................................................... 66 #4 THE COMMUNITY AND PORN.................................................................................... 84 #5 PARENTING AND PORN............................................................................................. 86 #6 GOOGLE = SEX ED .....................................................................................................92 #7 DIVORCE AND PORN .................................................................................................93 #8 CHILDREN AND PORN ............................................................................................ 101 THE IMPACT OF PORNOGRAPHY ON CHILDREN ................................................ 144 #9 CHILD PORN ............................................................................................................ 156 #10 GIRLS AND PORN .................................................................................................. 158 #11 STUDENTS AND PORN ......................................................................................... 166 #12 YOUTH AND PORN ................................................................................................ 173 #13 SEXUAL AGGRESSION AND PORN ..................................................................... 183 #14 RELATIONSHIPS AND PORN ................................................................................ 201 #15 A LEARNING EXPERIENCE AND PORN............................................................... 222 #16 CHILD SEX TRAFFICKING AND PORN................................................................. 224 #17 VIDEO GAMES AND PORN.................................................................................... 228 Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

2

#18 HARMFUL ............................................................................................................... 232 #19 CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR AND PORN........................................................................ 244 #20 PIED: PORN INDUCED ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.............................................. 256 #21 SEXUAL ORIENTATION AND PORN ..................................................................... 269 #22 PUBLIC HEALTH CRISIS AND PORN ................................................................... 270 #23 WOMEN AND PORN............................................................................................... 312 #24 MEN AND PORN..................................................................................................... 338 #25 TOLERANCE TO PORN ......................................................................................... 351 #26 BYSTANDER WILLINGNESS TO INTERVENE...................................................... 355 #27 MISCELLANEOUS .................................................................................................. 357 #28 MILITARY................................................................................................................ 361 #29 WOMAN RAPE MYTH ............................................................................................ 363 #30 PORN WEBSITES................................................................................................... 368 #31 PORN AND SEXUAL PRACTICES ......................................................................... 370 #32 FINANCES AND PORN .......................................................................................... 382 #33 TIME ON INTERNET AND PORN ........................................................................... 384 #34 THE INTERNET AND PORN ................................................................................... 385 #35 GLOBAL PORN STATS.......................................................................................... 392 #36 WHY USE PORN..................................................................................................... 398 #37 PASTORS AND PORN ........................................................................................... 407 #38 JIHADISTS AND PORN .......................................................................................... 408

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

3

#39 MORALITY AND PORN .......................................................................................... 409 #40 CULTURE AND PORN............................................................................................ 410 #41 PORN AFFECTS SEXUAL TASTES....................................................................... 423 #42 PORN PARTICIPANTS & CONSENUALITY........................................................... 425 #43 PORN & LONELINESS ........................................................................................... 427 #44 PORN & SEX CONSEQUENCE .............................................................................. 429

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

4

MISCELLANEOUS MISCELLANEOUS – Values of Living Porn Free 1. “The best version of yourself doesn’t watch porn” “I know he’s not a real man, but do you think the character James Bond was watching porn in between killing bad guys and slaying gorgeous women? Do you think George Clooney and Brad Pitt were spending hours streaming porn and fapping in their trailers on the set on Ocean’s 13.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

“There’s not a chance.” “Guys who live lives that you envy, get girls you want, and carry themselves like you should, don’t waste their time jerking off to internet porn. They are ambitious. They approach women and are smooth when they do so. The best version of you can be like this. Or you can turn to your laptop when you get aroused. Up to you.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

2. “Porn makes you lazy” “Men no longer have to make any attempt at fulfilling their sexuality. It is the worst thing that ever happened to the race. Men used to go out of their way to win the hearts of women they wanted. They used to be romantic and bold. Now they just stay home and spend countless hours jerking off to internet porn instead.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

3. “Porn strips you of your desire for improvement” “There is no reason to go to the gym. There is no reason to do your hair and make yourself look good. Porn will never reject you no matter how you look, and regardless of how much money you make. When there is no primal need to impress the opposite sex in order to fill mans instinctive need for lust, men let themselves go and lurk their house in their underwear.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stop-watchingporn/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

5

4. “Porn causes insecurity” “Porn sets unrealistic standards for men. To be in porn men must have abnormally large ‘talent.’ Men who watch porn consistently grow to see that as the norm and themselves as inadequate.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

“It’s a slippery slope because this insecurity keeps men from having sex with women, in turn driving them deeper into porn use.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

5. “Many men find porn more stimulating then sex” “Porn is now so fantastically HD, with every sexual fantasy imaginable at the click of a mouse. The pleasure of watching porn is starting to overtake the pleasure of actual sex, if it hasn’t already done so.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

“Men searching hundreds of fetishes and videos in the matter of an hour now find sex with a woman of the standard they can get (because of the porn) boring, and unpleasurable.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stopwatching-porn/)

“I could link you 100 + examples easy, of just men who write about it online. If this sounds like you, you really need to sort yourself out. Get on the forums, there are many people who have been through the same thing who can help you along the way.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

6. “Porn causes ED” “Because of reason 4 and 5, porn causes erectile dysfunction in an enormous amount of men. Porn becomes the only thing that can stimulate them because of the intense visual experience it offers the brain. This experience is unnatural, and real sex become bland and unstimulating.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

“The experience of porn is so unnatural, that it actually causes the brain to release unnatural amounts of Dopamine, the reward chemical. The brain becomes so accustom to this unnatural level of Dopamine that Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

6

without porn you can not achieve an erection and you straight feel like crap.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

“It is a proven fact that porn affects the brain the exact same way as other addictive drugs. Educate yourself on the matter.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

7. “You will find women more attractive” “I think the greatest gift of living a porn free is how you start to perceive women around you. After months free of porn, your attraction to women will go through the roof. It is truly remarkable.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top10-reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

“Just the sight of a woman’s skin will turn you on” “Being free of porn you start to really appreciate the beauty of women. Just the sight of a woman’s skin, or her smell will be enough to throw your attraction into overdrive. Your sexual instincts will be back where they are supposed to be, and you will crave women like never before.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

“You will start to notice women you once found unattractive” “Women that once were not up to your porn standards really start to pop out at you. You will start to see the beauty in women that you once overlooked because they did not have the bodies of porn stars. I find myself more and more surprised at some of the women I find attractive and for what reasons. It is really a beautiful thing.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

8. “You will be better with women” “This should be reason enough for anyone to stop watching internet porn. I promise you that after months of no porn, and even better, no masturbation, you will be better with women (out of necessity!). And not just a little better, but a lot better.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

7

“You will crave women, instead of craving your favorite videos” “Have you ever gotten that incredible sexual urge that comes out of nowhere. To a regular porn viewer to first thing they do is head to the internet. To men who don’t watch porn, the first thing they do is head to their cell phone to call a real girl. Or they go out and meet one.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

“You will find it easier to talk to women” “Many men who give up porn find that they start to interact much smoother with women. A lot of their anxiety towards the opposite sex fades and they start to feel more confident and smooth.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

9. “Sex will be more satisfying” “Instead of having ED and not finding sex as satisfying as porn, you will be the opposite. After months without porn in your life your pleasure for sex will skyrocket.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stop-watchingporn/)

“You will have better, harder erections with women” “Without porn numbing your sexual stimulation, just the touch of a woman will be enough to get you up and going. Actual sex will feel so different than it ever did. So much more powerful and pleasurable.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

“Your intimacy levels during sex will be something that you never experienced before” “If you are like most men who started porn at an extremely young age, you have probably never even experienced intense intimacy. You have sexually numbed yourself from porn for years, and your first sexual experience free from porn will be like a sexual awakening.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

8

“You will also be much better at sex itself. You will be more in touch with a woman’s body, and your own. You won’t have any performance anxiety issues and your sexual freedom and spirituality will increase.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

“Sex can be the greatest experience there is, you just need to lose the porn.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

10. “You will simply be a better version of yourself” “It’s a fact that if you can give up porn you will be a better version of yourself.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

– “You will think clearer and be less stressed” – “You will find women more attractive” – “You will be better with women” – “Your sex life will improve” – “You will have more energy” “Try it. If it doesn’t work, porn will be waiting for you right where you left it.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

“10 REASONS WHY YOU SHOULD QUIT WATCHING PORN” “A recent survey of a Reddit community called NoFap, which is committed to abstaining from porn and masturbation, has helped researchers open the door to a better understanding of the effects of pornography on our lives. While the results are not entirely conclusive, there are certainly some statistics that should give a moment’s pause. Here are some of the reasons why it may be a good idea to stick to Netflix next time you open up your laptop:” 1. “For those addicted to porn, arousal actually declined with the same mate. Those who regularly found different mates were able to continue their arousal. It’s known as the Coolidge Effect, or a tendency toward novelty-seeking behavior. Porn, after all, trains the viewer to expect constant newness. (Scott Christian, “10 Reasons Why You Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

9

Should Quit Watching Porn”, GQ, November 20, 2013, http://www.gq.com/story/10-reasonswhy-you-should-quit-watching-porn)

2. “One in five people who regularly watch porn admitted to feeling controlled by their own sexual desires.” (Scott Christian, “10 Reasons Why You Should Quit Watching Porn”, GQ, November 20, 2013, http://www.gq.com/story/10-reasonswhy-you-should-quit-watching-porn)

3. “12 percent of NoFappers report watching five or more hours of Internet porn every week. 59 percent report watching between four and fifteen (!!) hours of porn every week.” (Scott Christian, “10 Reasons Why You Should Quit Watching Porn”, GQ, November 20, 2013, http://www.gq.com/story/10-reasonswhy-you-should-quit-watching-porn)

4.

“Almost 50 percent of those on NoFap have never had sex in their lives, meaning their only experience with intimacy is purely digital.” (Scott Christian, “10 Reasons Why You Should Quit Watching Porn”, GQ, November 20, 2013, http://www.gq.com/story/10-reasons-why-you-should-quit-watching-porn)

5. “42 percent of male college students report visiting porn sites regularly.” (Scott Christian, “10 Reasons Why You Should Quit Watching Porn”, GQ, November 20, 2013, http://www.gq.com/story/10-reasons-why-you-should-quit-watching-porn)

6. “53 percent of the NoFappers had developed a regular porn habit between the ages of 12 and 14. An alarming 16 percent said they started watching before they were 12.” (Scott Christian, “10 Reasons Why You Should Quit Watching Porn”, GQ, November 20, 2013, http://www.gq.com/story/10-reasonswhy-you-should-quit-watching-porn)

7. “64 percent report that their tastes in porn have become more extreme or deviant.” (Scott Christian, “10 Reasons Why You Should Quit Watching Porn”, GQ, November 20, 2013, http://www.gq.com/story/10-reasons-why-you-should-quitwatching-porn)

8. “Among 27- to 31-year-olds on NoFap: 19 percent suffer from premature ejaculation, 25 percent are disinterested in sex with their partner, 31 percent have difficulty reaching orgasm, and 34 percent experience erectile dysfunction.” (Scott Christian, “10 Reasons Why You Should Quit Watching Porn”, GQ, November 20, 2013, http://www.gq.com/story/10-reasons-why-youshould-quit-watching-porn)

9. “After committing to no masturbation/porn, 60 percent of those on NoFap felt that their sexual functions had improved.” (Scott Christian, “10 Reasons Why You Should Quit Watching Porn”, GQ, November 20, 2013, http://www.gq.com/story/10-reasons-why-you-should-quit-watching-porn)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

10

10. “And 67 percent had an increase in energy levels as well as productivity.” (Scott Christian, “10 Reasons Why You Should Quit Watching Porn”, GQ, November 20, 2013, http://www.gq.com/story/10-reasons-why-you-should-quit-watching-porn)

“We’re not religious. We don’t judge. We’ve been avid Porn fans for most of our lives. But we just know the benefit of living a life without it and want you to experience it too.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

“Not all men have a problem with porn. Some can watch it when they want and lead healthy successful lives and crush it with the ladies. But if it holds you back (with women or in general), even a little, then this is something to think about.”(Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

“The top ten reasons to stop watching porn:” 1. “The best version of yourself doesn’t watch porn” “I know he’s not a real man, but do you think the character James Bond was watching porn in between killing bad guys and slaying gorgeous women? Do you think George Clooney and Brad Pitt were spending hours streaming porn and fapping in their trailers on the set on Ocean’s 13.” “There’s not a chance.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

“Guys who live lives that you envy, get girls you want, and carry themselves like you should, don’t waste their time jerking off to internet porn. They are ambitious. They approach women and are smooth when they do so. The best version of you can be like this. Or you can turn to your laptop when you get aroused. Up to you.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

2. “Porn makes you lazy” “Men no longer have to make any attempt at fulfilling their sexuality. It is the worst thing that ever happened to the race. Men used to go out of their way to win the hearts of women they wanted. They used to be romantic and bold. Now they just stay home and spend countless hours jerking off to internet porn instead.” (Sean Russell, “The Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

11

Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

3. “Porn strips you of your desire for improvement” “There is no reason to go to the gym. There is no reason to do your hair and make yourself look good. Porn will never reject you no matter how you look, and regardless of how much money you make. When there is no primal need to impress the opposite sex in order to fill mans instinctive need for lust, men let themselves go and lurk their house in their underwear.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

4. “Porn causes insecurity” “Porn sets unrealistic standards for men. To be in porn men must have abnormally large ‘talent.’ Men who watch porn consistently grow to see that as the norm and themselves as inadequate.” “It’s a slippery slope because this insecurity keeps men from having sex with women, in turn driving them deeper into porn use.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

5. “Many men find porn more stimulating then sex” “Porn is now so fantastically HD, with every sexual fantasy imaginable at the click of a mouse. The pleasure of watching porn is starting to overtake the pleasure of actual sex, if it hasn’t already done so.” “Men searching hundreds of fetishes and videos in the matter of an hour now find sex with a woman of the standard they can get (because of the porn) boring, and unpleasurable.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

“I could link you 100 + examples easy, of just men who write about it online. If this sounds like you, you really need to sort yourself out.

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

12

Get on the forums, there are many people who have been through the same thing who can help you along the way.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

6. “Porn causes ED” “Because of reason 4 and 5, porn causes erectile dysfunction in an enormous amount of men. Porn becomes the only thing that can stimulate them because of the intense visual experience it offers the brain. This experience is unnatural, and real sex become bland and un-stimulating.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stopwatching-porn/)

“The experience of porn is so unnatural, that it actually causes the brain to release unnatural amounts of Dopamine, the reward chemical. The brain becomes so accustom to this unnatural level of Dopamine that without porn you can not achieve an erection and you straight feel like crap.” “It is a proven fact that porn affects the brain the exact same way as other addictive drugs. Educate yourself on the matter.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

7. “You will find women more attractive” “I think the greatest gift of living a porn free is how you start to perceive women around you. After months free of porn, your attraction to women will go through the roof. It is truly remarkable.” Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

“Just the sight of a woman’s skin will turn you on” “Being free of porn you start to really appreciate the beauty of women. Just the sight of a woman’s skin, or her smell will be enough to throw your attraction into overdrive. Your sexual instincts will be back where they are supposed to be, and you will crave women like Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

13

never before.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stopwatching-porn/)

“You will start to notice women you once found unattractive” “Women that once were not up to your porn standards really start to pop out at you. You will start to see the beauty in women that you once overlooked because they did not have the bodies of porn stars. I find myself more and more surprised at some of the women I find attractive and for what reasons. It is really a beautiful thing.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

8. “You will be better with women” “This should be reason enough for anyone to stop watching internet porn. I promise you that after months of no porn, and even better, no masturbation, you will be better with women (out of necessity!). And not just a little better, but a lot better.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top10-reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

“You will crave women, instead of craving your favorite videos” “Have you ever gotten that incredible sexual urge that comes out of nowhere. To a regular porn viewer to first thing they do is head to the internet. To men who don’t watch porn, the first thing they do is head to their cell phone to call a real girl. Or they go out and meet one.”(Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

“You will find it easier to talk to women” “Many men who give up porn find that they start to interact much smoother with women. A lot of their anxiety towards the opposite sex fades and they start to feel more confident and smooth.”(Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

14

“Sex will be more satisfying” “Instead of having ED and not finding sex as satisfying as porn, you will be the opposite. After months without porn in your life your pleasure for sex will skyrocket.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

“You will have better, harder erections with women” “Without porn numbing your sexual stimulation, just the touch of a woman will be enough to get you up and going. Actual sex will feel so different than it ever did. So much more powerful and pleasurable.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stopwatching-porn/)

“Your intimacy levels during sex will be something that you never experienced before” “If you are like most men who started porn at an extremely young age, you have probably never even experienced intense intimacy. You have sexually numbed yourself from porn for years, and your first sexual experience free from porn will be like a sexual awakening.”(Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

“You will also be much better at sex itself. You will be more in touch with a woman’s body, and your own. You won’t have any performance anxiety issues and your sexual freedom and spirituality will increase.”(Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stopwatching-porn/)

“Sex can be the greatest experience there is, you just need to lose the porn.”(Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

9. “You will simply be a better version of yourself”

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

15

“It’s a fact that if you can give up porn you will be a better version of yourself.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

• “You will think clearer and be less stressed” • “You will find women more attractive” • “You will be better with women” • “Your sex life will improve” • “You will have more energy” “PORNOGRAPHY AND ITS CONSEQUENCES” “It has moved from the margins of our culture to the mainstream.” (Cathy Cleaver Ruse, “Pornography and its consequences,” LifeSite, July 31, 2014, https://www.lifesitenews.com/opinion/pornography-and-its-consequences)

“…pornography alters both sexual attitudes and behavior…cannot be seen as a private choice without public consequence.” (Cathy Cleaver Ruse, “Pornography and its consequences,” LifeSite, July 31, 2014, https://www.lifesitenews.com/opinion/pornography-andits-consequences)

“Speaking before a U.S. Senate Sub-committee in 2005, Dr. Jill Manning offered testimony about the effects of pornography that were ‘not rooted in anecdotal accounts or personal views, but rather in findings from studies in peer-reviewed research journals.’ She listed seventeen trends associated with pornography use, including ‘increased marital distress, and risk of separation and divorce,’ ‘increased appetite for more graphic types of pornography and sexual activity associated with abusive, illegal or unsafe practices,’ and ‘devaluation of monogamy, marriage and child rearing.’” (Jill C. Manning, “Hearing on Pornography’s Impact on Marriage and the Family Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights and Property Rights Committee on Judiciary United States Senate, Amazon, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf) (Lara Updike, “Research Confirms Pornography Harms”, Family Policy Institute, January 21, 2015, http://www.fpiw.org/blog/2015/01/21/research-confirms-pornography-harms/)

“…masturbation is the one great habit that is a ‘primary addiction,’ and that the other addictions, for example, alcohol, morphine, tobacco, excessive gambling, etc., only enter into life as a substitute and replacement for it.” –

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

16

Sigmund Freud (Matt Fradd, “Does Porn Impact the Brain?”, Covenant Eyes, February 17, 2015,

http://www.covenanteyes.com/2015/02/17/porn-impact-brain/)

“…more elusive sexual jolt…” (Dr.Judith Reisman, Dr. Jeffrey Stainover, Dr. Mary Anne Layden & Dr. James B. Weaver, III, “Hearing on the Brain Science Behind Pornography Addition and the Effects of Addiction on Families and Communities”, CCV.org, November 11, 2004, http://www.ccv.org/wpcontent/uploads/2010/04/Judith_Reisman_Senate_Testimony-2004.11.18.pdf)

“Thus, drugs are no longer at the heart of the matter. ‘What is coming up fast as being the central core issue ... is continued engagement in self-

destructive behavior despite adverse consequences,’ says Steven Grant of NIDA.” (Dr.Judith Reisman, Dr. Jeffrey Stainover, Dr. Mary Anne Layden & Dr. James B. Weaver, III, “Hearing on the Brain Science Behind Pornography Addition and the Effects of Addiction on Families and Communities”, CCV.org, November 11, 2004, http://www.ccv.org/wpcontent/uploads/2010/04/Judith_Reisman_Senate_Testimony-2004.11.18.pdf)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

17

“Brain Damage: Porn Sins Against the Body” (Luke Gilkerson, “Hot Bods, the Bible, and the Brain: Understanding Porn Addiction”, Covenant Eyes, February 10, 2015, http://www.covenanteyes.com/2014/02/10/hot-bods-bible-brain/)

“Sin, at its root, is idolatry in the heart. But just because desires in the heart are at the root of pornography doesn’t mean there aren’t physical consequences. Disease is not just a metaphor for sin. In a very real sense, porn actually makes our brains sick.” (Luke Gilkerson, “Hot Bods, the Bible, and the Brain: Understanding Porn Addiction”, Covenant Eyes, February 10, 2015, http://www.covenanteyes.com/2014/02/10/hot-bods-bible-brain/)

“Pornography users are more likely to hold a college degree, more likely to have moved, and they also attend church less frequently.” (Michael Malcolm, George Naufal, “Are Pornography and Marriage Substitutes for Young Men? IZA Discussion Paper No. 8679, November 2014, http://ftp.iza.org/dp8679.pdf)

“Pornography makes sex small and momentary, like a cigarette, instead of massive and lifelong, like it is in marriage.” (Marshall Segal, “Never Harmless, Never Private, Never Safe”, Desiring God.Org, October 26, 2016, http://www.desiringgod.org/articles/never-harmless-never-private-never-safe)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

18

INTRO “With the wide acceptance of porn has come the porn effect. Porn’s antisocial effect is, essentially, society’s adoption of six principles: (Dustin Murphy, thefederalist.com, “12 Ways Pornography Just Doesn’t Show Enough,” April 4, 2017, http://thefederalist.com/2017/04/04/12-ways-pornography-just-doesnt-show-enough/)

• It’s alright to use, abuse, or mistreat others for self-gratification, if only simulated; (Dustin Murphy, thefederalist.com, “12 Ways Pornography Just Doesn’t Show Enough,” April 4, 2017, http://thefederalist.com/2017/04/04/12-ways-pornography-justdoesnt-show-enough/) • It’s alright to view the use, mistreatment, or abuse of a human person; (Dustin Murphy, thefederalist.com, “12 Ways Pornography Just Doesn’t Show Enough,” April 4, 2017, http://thefederalist.com/2017/04/04/12-ways-pornography-justdoesnt-show-enough/) • Individuals can treat another human with indifference as long as it furthers a personal goal or fulfills a personal pleasure; (Dustin Murphy, thefederalist.com, “12 Ways Pornography Just Doesn’t Show Enough,” April 4, 2017, http://thefederalist.com/2017/04/04/12-wayspornography-just-doesnt-show-enough/) • We should always seek pleasure and avoid pain; (Dustin Murphy, thefederalist.com, “12 Ways Pornography Just Doesn’t Show Enough,” April 4, 2017, http://thefederalist.com/2017/04/04/12-wayspornography-just-doesnt-show-enough/) • Pleasure guides principle, meaning sexual passion trumps moral objectives; and (Dustin Murphy, thefederalist.com, “12 Ways Pornography Just Doesn’t Show Enough,” April 4, 2017, http://thefederalist.com/2017/04/04/12-ways-pornography-justdoesnt-show-enough/) • Children are a burden to personal goals, pleasures, or society, which makes procreation a dirty word.” (Dustin Murphy, thefederalist.com,

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

19

“12 Ways Pornography Just Doesn’t Show Enough,” April 4, 2017, http://thefederalist.com/2017/04/04/12-ways-pornography-just-doesnt-show-enough/)

“Let’s focus on number six. One of the greatest tragedies of porn’s antisocial effects is that it fuels an anti-child culture. Thinking sex should be open to procreation, or that the two go hand-in-hand, is regarded like VHS tapes: out of style. Some people consider parents with three or more children to be crazy, and children are generally viewed as a burden. Anyone with a large family has probably experienced negative comments in grocery stores or coffee shops.” (Dustin Murphy, thefederalist.com, “12 Ways Pornography Just Doesn’t Show Enough,” April 4, 2017, http://thefederalist.com/2017/04/04/12ways-pornography-just-doesnt-show-enough/)

“With these antisocial behaviors attendant to the porn-consonant “sex is purely about momentary pleasure. Their participation in pornography trains them to approach others as vehicles for their desires, rather than respecting them as separate human individuals who deserve love and respect, not mere use like objects.” (Dustin Murphy, thefederalist.com, “12 Ways Pornography Just Doesn’t Show Enough,” April 4, 2017, http://thefederalist.com/2017/04/04/12ways-pornography-just-doesnt-show-enough/)

“Common warning signs that an adolescent may be experiencing compulsive sexual behavior problems” (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/howpornography-addiction-affects-the-teenage-brain-infographic/)

“A demonstrated lack of empathy toward other individuals involved (either directly or indirectly) in the child’s sexual behavior.” (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/how-pornography-addiction-affects-theteenage-brain-infographic/)

“Viewing and/or masturbating to pornography for multiple hours per day/night.” (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/how-pornography-addictionaffects-the-teenage-brain-infographic/)

“Decreased interest in and/or declining performance in school and extracurricular activities.” (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/howpornography-addiction-affects-the-teenage-brain-infographic/)

“Diminished interest in ad/or ability to socialize with peers.”

(“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now,

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

20

September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/how-pornography-addiction-affects-theteenage-brain-infographic/)

“Excessive interest (or a total lack of interest) in typical adolescent dating activity.” (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/how-pornographyaddiction-affects-the-teenage-brain-infographic/)

“Secretiveness around computer and smartphone usage such as erasing browser histories, password protecting devices, etc. (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/how-pornography-addiction-affects-theteenage-brain-infographic/)

“Lying to parents or others about the nature or the amount of sexual/romamtic activities.” (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/howpornography-addiction-affects-the-teenage-brain-infographic/)

“Sexual aggression, incest, age-inappropriate relationships, etc.” (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/how-pornography-addiction-affects-theteenage-brain-infographic/)

“Secrecy in general, such as spending large amounts of time alone in a room with the door locked.” (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/how-pornography-addiction-affects-the-teenage-brain-infographic/)

“Sexual behavior involving drug use.”

(“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/how-pornography-addiction-affects-the-teenage-brain-infographic/) Sources http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3050060 http://www.fightthenewdrug.org/get-the-facts#porn-is-addictive http://www.thefix.com/content/youth-and-pornography-addiction http://www.salvomag.com/new/articles/salvo13/13hilton.php http://thegospelcoalition.org/article/9-things-you-should-know-about-pornography-and-the-brain/ http://yourbrainonporn.com/ http://www.freedominstitute.org/blog/adolescents/teenagers-porn-and-sexual-addiction-what-s-theproblem/ http://youtu.be/wSF82AwSDiU http://youtu.be/1Ya67aLaaCc (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/how-pornography-addiction-affects-the-teenage-brain-infographic/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

21

“Individuals who never view sexually explicit material report higher relationship quality and lower rates of infidelity than those who do.” (“Pornography”, Enough is Enough, Accessed 3.20.2017, http://www.enough.org/stats_porn_industry)

“Exposure to sexually pornographic material is correlated with: “Concentration problems” (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/howpornography-addiction-affects-the-teenage-brain-infographic/)

“Low motivation” (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/how-pornographyaddiction-affects-the-teenage-brain-infographic/)

“Depression” (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/how-pornography-addictionaffects-the-teenage-brain-infographic/)

“Social Anxiety” (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/how-pornographyaddiction-affects-the-teenage-brain-infographic/)

“Negative self-perceptions in terms of physical appearance and sexual functioning.” (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/howpornography-addiction-affects-the-teenage-brain-infographic/)

“Erectile dysfunction” (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/howpornography-addiction-affects-the-teenage-brain-infographic/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

22

#1 MARRIAGE AND PORN “A growing number of researchers and clinicians are beginning to recognize a connection between pornography use and abuse in marriage (Laaser, 1996; Wildmon-White & Young, 2002; Ryu, 2004; Hinson Shope, 2004). It is not uncommon for wives of pornography users to report being asked to reenact pornographic scenes, consume pornography with their partner, or be pressured or coerced into sexual acts they find uncomfortable or demeaning (Laaser, 1996; Ryu, 2004; Hinson Shope, 2004). While conducting my own doctoral research (Manning, 2006), I was surprised to learn how many women had experienced marital rape when asked about how pornography had impacted their marriage. Unfortunately, my experience as a researcher was not unique. For example, Bergen (1998) found in her research on marital rape that one third of the females in her sample reported that their partner consumed pornography and that there was a correlation between pornography use and the most sadistic rapes. (Jill C. Manning, Ph.D., July 2008, “The Impact of Pornography on Women: Social Science Findings and Clinical Observation”, http://afaofpa.org/wp-content/uploads/The-Impact-of-Pornography-on-Women.pdf)

“Studies published in the Social Psychological and Personality Science Journal suggest that porn use provokes extramarital affairs.” “How does it do this? By skewing your perception of reality: Those who viewed porn were more likely to report that they had ‘higher quality romantic alternatives’ to their spouse.” “Although you may feel a high of euphoria when viewing porn, it is quickly followed by feelings of shame. These shameful feelings cause isolation in your life.” (Luke Gibbons, “6 things the porn industry doesn’t want you to find out”, Premier Christianity, September 13, 2017, https://www.premierchristianity.com/Blog/6-things-the-porn-industrydoesn-t-want-you-to-find-out)

“In their experiment, Zillmann and Bryant found a direct correlation between the amount of pornography one viewed and one’s overall sexual satisfaction in real relationships. Participants from the Massive Exposure Group reported less satisfaction with their intimate partners: they were less Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

23

likely to be pleased with their partner’s physical appearance, affection, and sexual performance.” (Luke Gilkerson, “Your Brain on Porn”, Covenant Eyes, Accessed July 29, 2016, http://www.covenanteyes.com/brain-ebook/)

“Zillmann and Bryant concluded that porn consumers eventually compare their spouse with images of porn models. Another study appearing in the Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy in 2002 found similar results. When men and women were exposed to pictures of female centerfold models from Playboy and Penthouse, this significantly lowered their judgments about the attractiveness of ‘average’ people.” (Raymond M. Bergner and Ana J. Bridges, “The significance of heavy pornography involvement for romantic partners: research and clinical implications,” Journal of sex marital therapy vol.28, issue 3, 2002.) (Luke Gilkerson, “Your Brain on Porn”, Covenant Eyes, Accessed July 29, 2016, http://www.covenanteyes.com/brain-ebook/)

“After watching less than five hours of pornography over a six-week period, the Massive Exposure group was more likely to devalue marriage, the idea of having children, and the importance of faithfulness in a relationship. They also showed a greater acceptance of premarital sex.” (Dolf Zillmann, Jennings Bryant, “Pornography’s Impact on Sexual Satisfaction”, Journal of Applied Scoial Psychology, April 1988, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1111/j.15591816.1988.tb00027.x/abstract) (Luke Gilkerson, “Your Brain on Porn”, Covenant Eyes, Accessed July 29, 2016, http://www.covenanteyes.com/brain-ebook/)

“Viewers of pornography assign increased importance to sexual relations without emotional involvement, says Dr. Fagan. ‘The emotional distance fostered by pornography…can often be just as damaging to the relationship as real-life infidelity, and both men and women tend to put online sexual activity in the same category as having an affair.” (Catherine Briggs, June 9, 2014, Lifesite News, “Porn use can lead to divorce: study”, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/porn-use-can-lead-to-divorce-study)

“In a survey of 63 wives of self-identified sex addicts:51 ➢ “70% met most criteria for a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder.” ➢ “75% discovered evidence of compulsive or addictive sexual behaviors themselves (as opposed to a planned disclosure on the part of a husband).” Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

24

➢ “71% demonstrated a severe level of functional impairment in major areas of their lives.” ➢ “Length of marriage at disclosure and umber of prior traumatic event exposures were the best predictors increased trauma symptoms.” 51. Barbara A. Steffens and Robyn L. Rennie, “The traumatic nature of disclosure for wives of sexual addicts,” Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity 13 (2006): 247–267. (CovenantEyes,

Pornography Statistics, 2014 Edition)

“Porn-watching was linked to infidelity in another study, again American, which found that seeing multiple sexual partners on screen subtly wounds a committed relationship by convincing the watcher that the grass will be greener on the other side, no matter how happy you are with your current situation.” (Guy Kelly, “The Scary Effects of Pornography: How the 21st Century’s Acute Addiction is Rewiring our Brains”, The Telegraph, September 11, 2017, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/men/thinkingman/scary-effects-pornography-21st-centurys-accute-addiction-rewiring/)

“Porn-watching was linked to infidelity in another study, again American, which found that seeing multiple sexual partners on screen subtly wounds a committed relationship by convincing the watcher that the grass will be greener on the other side, no matter how happy you are with your current situation.” (Guy Kelly, “The Scary Effects of Pornography: How the 21st Century’s Acute Addiction is Rewiring our Brains”, The Telegraph, September 11, 2017, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/men/thinkingman/scary-effects-pornography-21st-centurys-accute-addiction-rewiring/)

“Based on the on-going researches, the following topics seem to be the most prominent in regards to the internet pornography consumption and marital relationship: “When asked about the effect of cybersex on their sexual relationship, fully half of the 94 respondents (49, or 52.1%) said that their husbands were not interested, or hardly interested in sex with them.” “Cybersex addict alone has lost interest in couple sex. Thirty-two respondents (34%) reported that although they still wanted a sexual relationship, the cybersex addict had withdrawn his sexual (and general) attention from the partner and family and devoted his (or her) time and energy instead to computer sex. (Jennifer P. Schneider, “Effects of cybersex addiction on the family: Results of a survey”, site accessed 9.21.17, http://www.jenniferschneider.com/articles/cybersex_family.html)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

25

“As this study has shown, there are additional consequences for the partner and family which result specifically from the sexual content of the user’s internet addiction. These are: • “Many users lie repeatedly about the sexual activities; in response, their partners feel distrust and betrayal.” • “The devastating emotional impact of a cybersex affair is described by many partners as similar if not the same as that of a real affair. The partner’s self-esteem may be damaged; strong feelings of hurt, betrayal, abandonment, devastation, loneliness, shame, isolation, humiliation, and jealousy are evoked.” • “The couple’s sexual relationship suffers, not only generally because the user stays up much of the night, but specifically because the spouse (and often the user) compares her body and her sexual performance to that of the on-line women, and believes she can’t measure up.” • “Online sexual activities may be followed by physical contact with others; the partner may retaliate or seek solace in extramarital affairs.” • “Children may be exposed to pornography and may develop unhealthy attitudes towards sex and women.” (Jennifer P. Schneider, “Effects of cybersex addiction on the family: Results of a survey”, site accessed 9.21.17, http://www.jenniferschneider.com/articles/cybersex_family.html)

“Among 68% of the couples one or both had lost interest in relational sex: 52.1% of addicts had decreased interest in sex with spouse, as did 34% of partners. Some couples had had no relational sex in months or years.” (Jennifer P. Schneider, “Effects of cybersex addiction on the family: Results of a survey”, site accessed 9.21.17, http://www.jenniferschneider.com/articles/cybersex_family.html)

“Online Sexual Pursuits As A Predictor Of Marital Distress, Separation, And Divorce” “A survey research conducted by Bridges, Bergner and Hesson-McInnis (2003) found that married women are significantly more distressed by the partner’s online pornography consumption than women in dating Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

26

relationships, and that internet pornography consumption is viewed as a threat to the marital relationship. The distress reported by the women increased according to the perceived frequency of online sexual activities and, surprisingly, was not as strongly influenced by religious beliefs. In 2000, Schneider found that cybersex addiction was a major contributing factor to separation and divorce for affected couples. Level I (or mild) pornography consumption may seem to be culturally acceptable or tolerable, it has negative impact on marital relationships despite the belief of the culture. An informal survey data was collected at the November 2002 meeting of the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers in Chicago, Illinois regarding the impact of internet usage on marriages. This professional organization comprises the nation’s top 1600 divorce and matrimonial law attorneys who specialize in matrimonial law, including divorce and legal separation. At this meeting, 62% of the 350 attendees said that internet had been a significant factor in divorces they had handled during the year of 2000. Additionally, the following observations were made by the lawyers polled with regard to how the internet had played a role in divorces that year:” (Vivian Chan, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Well, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impact-ofpornography-on-marital-relationships/)

“68% of the divorce cases involved one party meeting a new love interest over the internet” (Vivian Chan, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Well, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impact-ofpornography-on-marital-relationships/) “56% of the divorce cases involved one party having an obsessive interest in pornographic websites” (Vivian Chan, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Well, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impact-of-pornography-on-maritalrelationships/)

“47% of the divorce cases involved one party spending excessive time on the computer” (Vivian Chan, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Well, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impact-of-pornography-on-maritalrelationships/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

27

“33% of the divorce cases cited excessive time communicating in sexualized chat rooms or forums” (Vivian Chan, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Well, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impact-of-pornography-on-maritalrelationships/)

“Decreased Sexual Satisfaction” “Prior to internet pornography becoming readily available, Zillman and Bryant (1988) conducted a study that looked at the impact of consuming common, non-violent pornographic material on male and female participants. Results showed that exposure to pornography negatively impacted self-assessment of sexual experience, while other aspects of life (e.g., professional satisfaction) remained unchanged. There is less satisfaction with their intimate partner specifically with their partner’s affection, physical appearance, sexual curiosity, and sexual performance.” (Vivian Chan, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Well, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impact-ofpornography-on-marital-relationships/)

“Decreased Sexual Intimacy” Schneider’s 2000 study has concluded that when one partner has cybersex compulsivity and/or addiction, adverse effects on the sexual relationship within marriage are reported, including decreased sexual intimacy. Based on the results, more than half (52.1%) of the cybersex users had lost interest in relational sex, as had one-third (33.3%) of the partners. Schneider also points out that spouses of pornography users often report being repulsed by the partner’s sexual pursuits. For the cybersex users who have already substituted online sexual activity for relational sexual intimacy, their perception of their partner’s repulsion and loss of interest is not as problematic or distressing compared to average couples. Recurring themes are reported in Schneider’s study:” (Vivian Chan, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Well, January Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

28

11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impactof-pornography-on-marital-relationships/) “Cybersex user often makes excuses to avoid sexual intimacy with the partner” (Vivian Chan, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Well, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impact-ofpornography-on-marital-relationships/) “The partner feels hurt, angry, sexually rejected, inadequate, and unable to compete with computer images and sexy online women (or men) who are willing to do anything upon request” (Vivian Chan, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Well, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/theimpact-of-pornography-on-marital-relationships/) “During relational sex, the cybersex user appears distant, emotionally detached, and interested only in his/her own pleasure” (Vivian Chan, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Well, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impact-ofpornography-on-marital-relationships/) “The partner ends up doing most or all of the initiating, either to get her/his own needs met or as an attempt to get the cybersex user to decrease the online activities” (Vivian Chan, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Well, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impactof-pornography-on-marital-relationships/) “Cybersex user often blames the partner for their sexual problems” (Vivian Chan, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Well, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impact-ofpornography-on-marital-relationships/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

29

“Cybersex user often wants the partner to participate in sexual activities that she/he finds objectionable” (Vivian Chan, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Well, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impactof-pornography-on-marital-relationships/) “The recurring themes listed above are typical characteristics of people with any types of addictions. It is believed that people with addictions tend to blame others for the problem’s existence and take no responsibility for the situation.” .” (Vivian Chan, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Well, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impact-of-pornography-on-maritalrelationships/)

“Infidelity” “Infidelity is commonly understood as a violation of the marital agreement, a betrayal of one’s trust, and a threat to the marital bond. Although pornography consumption seems to be commonly accepted by the culture, it is nevertheless a violation of marital agreement because one seeks sexual fulfillment outside of the marriage and that sexual intimacy is no longer exclusive between the married couple. Stack, Wasserman, and Kern (2004) found individuals who have had an extramarital affair were 3.18 times more likely to have used internet pornography than individuals who had not had an affair. The same study also revealed that people who have engaged in paid sex (i.e. prostitution) were 3.7 times more apt to use internet pornography than those who had not used internet pornography. Unfortunately, the study failed to indicate a causal relationship between internet pornography consumption and unfaithful behaviour; the statistics indicate that internet pornography is associated with activities that undermine marital exclusivity and fidelity. Further research is needed to explore whether internet pornography influence unfaithful behaviours, or whether unfaithful behaviours coincide with preexisting traits that predispose someone to engage in internet pornography. In conclusion, the study conducted by Stack et al. (2004) has validated a correlation between internet pornography consumption and infidelity and that online infidelity are perceived as an act of betrayal similar to any offline unfaithful behaviours.” .” (Vivian Chan, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Well, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impact-of-pornography-on-maritalrelationships/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

30

“Based on the on-going researches, the following topics seem to be the most prominent in regards to the internet pornography consumption and marital relationship:” (Vivan Chan, MC, RCC, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Wells, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/theimpact-of-pornography-on-marital-relationships/)

“Online sexual pursuits as a predictor of marital distress, separation, and divorce” (Vivan Chan, MC, RCC, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Wells, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impactof-pornography-on-marital-relationships/)

“Decreased sexual satisfaction” (Vivan Chan, MC, RCC, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Wells, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impact-of-pornography-on-maritalrelationships/)

“Decreased sexual intimacy” (Vivan Chan, MC, RCC, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Wells, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impact-of-pornography-on-maritalrelationships/)

“Infidelity” (Vivan Chan, MC, RCC, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Wells, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impactof-pornography-on-marital-relationships/)

“An informal survey data was collected at the November 2002 meeting of the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers in Chicago, Illinois regarding the impact of internet usage on marriages. This professional organization comprises the nation’s top 1600 divorce and matrimonial law attorneys who specialize in matrimonial law, including divorce and legal separation. At this meeting, 62% of the 350 attendees said that internet had been a significant factor in divorces they had handled during the year of 2000. Additionally, the following observations were made by the lawyers polled with regard to how the internet had played a role in divorces that year:” (Vivan Chan, MC, RCC, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Wells, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impact-of-pornography-onmarital-relationships/)

“68% of the divorce cases involved one party meeting a new love interest over the internet” (Vivan Chan, MC, RCC, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Wells, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impact-ofpornography-on-marital-relationships/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

31

“56% of the divorce cases involved one party having an obsessive interest in pornographic websites” (Vivan Chan, MC, RCC, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Wells, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/theimpact-of-pornography-on-marital-relationships/)

“47% of the divorce cases involved one party spending excessive time on the computer” (Vivan Chan, MC, RCC, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Wells, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impact-ofpornography-on-marital-relationships/)

“33% of the divorce cases cited excessive time communicating in sexualized chat rooms or forums” (Vivan Chan, MC, RCC, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Wells, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impact-of-pornography-on-marital-relationships/)

“Fifty-six percent of divorces involve one spouse with a pornography addiction (mind-armor.com).” (Susan Knight, The Five Stages of Pornography Addiction”, News OK, April 6, 2016, http://newsok.com/article/5407775)

“Acting out sexually. Acting out is the next stage of escalation. The addict moves from viewing pornography to seeking a real world experience. It leads to risky behaviors, like stealing from joint bank accounts to pay for prostitutes, binge drinking for heightened courage to act out, unexplained anger or promiscuous sex. The latter may, and does, cause STDs (Sexually Transmitted Diseases). Leaving their boring spouses behind, who long ago failed to fulfill sexual gratification, addicted men and women actively seek other live sex partners. If married, the addict will think nothing of committing adultery to satiate the craving for intense sexual novelty. Men will visit prostitutes, women will pick up men in bars or at the gym, or resort to cyber porn (including email, chat rooms, and social media). Chatting with strangers who vicariously satisfy sexual needs behind closed doors is adultery—ask any spouse who is victim of their partner's porn addiction and has acted out in the cyber world. It's emotional adultery and may lead to acting out with live partners.” (Susan Knight, The Five Stages of Pornography Addiction”, News OK, April 6, 2016, http://newsok.com/article/5407775)

“Other issues such as overspending and debt, and decreased job security.” (Vivian Chan, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Well, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impact-of-pornography-on-maritalrelationships/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

32

“Pornography And Sex” “In pornography, sex exists without love. It is just raw and ritualistic intercourse—not spiritual, only physical. There is no tenderness or gentleness. There are no consequences and no children. There's no giving, only getting. The man's pleasure and how he performs are all that's important. Orgasm is the only and ultimate goal. Their wives are imprisoned by their husbands’ desires.” (Sam Serio, “Preaching and Pornography”, Preaching.com, August 22, 2012, http://www.preaching.com/resources/articles/11674938/?page=4)

“Along the way, normal sexual relations with one's wife become boring to porn addicts. …These men are trapped.” (Sam Serio, “Preaching and Pornography”, Preaching.com, August 22, 2012, http://www.preaching.com/resources/articles/11674938/?page=4)

“Because the wife can't produce or perform as the other women he has seen, the man feels entitled and compelled to go elsewhere. Sexual desire ultimately takes precedence over marital vows. Adultery is common for porn addicts in the quest for the ultimate sex partner. The wife can't produce the goods he wants, so he goes on the prowl for delivery. Her body is not as curvy or flexible, her breasts are not as ample, her taste for sexual adventure is not as wild, and her mouth is not as willing. The list continues.” (Sam Serio, “Preaching and Pornography”, Preaching.com, August 22, 2012, http://www.preaching.com/resources/articles/11674938/?page=4)

“After he has exhausted his wife with all the possible sexual practices, he then goes after different sexual partners. An enslaved man is never content, never satisfied. He is not enthusiastic about the wife of his youth anymore; she alone no longer satisfies him (Proverbs 5:29). Instead, he plunges into a world of fantasy, not reality. He feels much safer in a world of pages, pictures, partners, perversions and sexual positions. The last thing the porn addict wants is a spiritual partnership. He only wants sexual pleasure.” (Sam Serio, “Preaching and Pornography”, Preaching.com, August 22, 2012, http://www.preaching.com/resources/articles/11674938/?page=4)

“God doesn't want us to enter the marriage bed with previous experiences, partners or memories…” (Sam Serio, “Preaching and Pornography”, Preaching.com, August 22, 2012, http://www.preaching.com/resources/articles/11674938/?page=4)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

33

“In North American culture, it is most common for people to select a marriage partner according to romantic love as opposed to family arrangement or economic necessity…is useful in clarifying what romantic love entails from a social science perspective. They found that romantic love embodies the following characteristics:” (Roberts, M. (1982). Men and women: Partners, lovers and friends. In K. Davis & T. Mitchell (Eds.), Advances in descriptive psychology, 2, pp. 57–78: Greenwhich, CT: JAI Press.) (Davis, K., & Todd, M. (1982). Friendship and love relationships. In K. Davis & T. Mitchell (Eds.), Advances in descriptive psychology, 2, pp. 79–122: Greenwhich, CT: JAI Press.) (Davis, K. (1985, February). Near and dear: Friendship and love compared. Psychology Today, 22–30.) and Bergner (2000)69

“Investment in the well-being of the beloved” “Respect” “Admiration” “Sexual desire” “Intimacy” “Commitment” “Exclusivity” “Understanding.” (Bergner, R. M. & Bridges, A. J. (2002). The significance of heavy pornography involvement for romantic partners: Research and clinical implications. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 28, 193–206.) (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“The researchers found that when these characteristics are present in a romantic relationship, people tend to feel fully loved. On the other hand, when there are violations to these characteristics and the violations are sufficient in magnitude, partners will commonly conclude that they are no longer loved as they once were and re-evaluates their place in their partners’ world. As Bergner and Bridges (2002) point out, many women who discover a partner’s intense involvement with pornography engage in just such a reappraisal of their relationship.” (Bergner, R. M. & Bridges, A. J. (2002). The significance of heavy pornography involvement for romantic partners: Research and clinical implications. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 28, 193–206.) (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Moreover, according to data from the General Social Survey in 2000 (N = 531), people who report being happily married are 61 percent less likely to report using Internet pornography compared to those who also used the Internet and who had completed the General Social Survey in 2000.” (Stack, Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

34

S., Wasserman, I., & Kern, R. (2004). Adult social bonds and use of Internet pornography. Social Science Quarterly, 85(1), 75–88.) (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Stack, Wasserman, and Kern (2004) found individuals who have had an extramarital affair were 3.18 times more likely to have used internet pornography than individuals who had not had an affair. The same study also revealed that people who have engaged in paid sex (i.e. prostitution) were 3.7 times more apt to use internet pornography than those who had not used internet pornography. Unfortunately, the study failed to indicate a causal relationship between internet pornography consumption and unfaithful behaviour; the statistics indicate that internet pornography is associated with activities that undermine marital exclusivity and fidelity.” (Vivan Chan, MC, RCC, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Wells, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impact-of-pornography-on-maritalrelationships/)

“Internet usage is negatively associated with marriage formation. Pornography consumption specifically has an even stronger effect.” (Michael Malcolm, George Naufal, “Are Pornography and Marriage Substitutes for Young Men?” The Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), November, 2014, http://www.iza.org/en/webcontent/publications/papers/viewAbstract?dp_id=8679)

“…we find that for young men there is a large degree of substitutability between Internet and pornography usage and marriage – heavy Internet usage generally, and use of pornography specifically, are associated with lower participation in marriages.” (Michael Malcolm, George Naufal, “Are Pornography and Marriage Substitutes for Young Men?” The Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), November, 2014, http://www.iza.org/en/webcontent/publications/papers/viewAbstract?dp_id=8679)

“We assert that increasing ease of accessing pornography is an important factor underlying the decline in marriage formation and stability.” (Michael Malcolm, George Naufal, “Are Pornography and Marriage Substitutes for Young Men?” The Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), November, 2014, http://www.iza.org/en/webcontent/publications/papers/viewAbstract?dp_id=8679)

“…find that pornography usage is associated with a negative attitude towards women and with premarital sexual permissiveness generally, both of which suggest a negative association with marriage formation.” (Lo, Ven-Hwei and Wei, Ran (2005). Exposure to Internet Pornography and Taiwanese Adolescents’ Sexual Attitudes and Behavior. Journal of Broadcasting

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

35

and Electronic Media 49: 221-237.) (Lam, Chun Bun and Chan, Darius K.S. (2007). The Use of Cyberpornography by Young Men in Hong Kong: Some Psychosocial Correlates. Archives of Sexual Behavior 36: 588-598.) (Michael Malcolm, George Naufal, “Are Pornography and Marriage Substitutes for Young Men?” The Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), November, 2014, http://www.iza.org/en/webcontent/publications/papers/viewAbstract?dp_id=8679)

“Doran and Price show that adults who watch X-rated films are more likely to be unhappy in their marriages, more likely to have extramarital affairs and more likely to divorce.” (Doran, Kirk, and Price, Joseph (2014). "Pornography and Marriage." Forthcoming in Journal of Family and Economic Issues.) (Michael Malcolm, George Naufal, “Are Pornography and Marriage Substitutes for Young Men?” The Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), November, 2014, http://www.iza.org/en/webcontent/publications/papers/viewAbstract?dp_id=8679)

Cheaper pornography expands the budget set in the single state and so, if a man can choose whether to get married at the beginning of the period, higher utility from marriage is required in order for the man to marry.” (Michael Malcolm, George Naufal, “Are Pornography and Marriage Substitutes for Young Men? IZA Discussion Paper No. 8679, November 2014, http://ftp.iza.org/dp8679.pdf)

“For Internet usage generally, all models show a negative and statistically significant association between hours of web usage and marital status.” (Michael Malcolm, George Naufal, “Are Pornography and Marriage Substitutes for Young Men? IZA Discussion Paper No. 8679, November 2014, http://ftp.iza.org/dp8679.pdf)

“It is not surprising that the negative association between marriage and pornography specifically is stronger than the association between marriage and web usage generally since viewing pornography is a strict subset of Internet usage.” (Michael Malcolm, George Naufal, “Are Pornography and Marriage Substitutes for Young Men? IZA Discussion Paper No. 8679, November 2014, http://ftp.iza.org/dp8679.pdf)

“Declining rates of marriage formation and deteriorating stability of marriages that do form bring with them a multiplicity of demographic and socio-economic changes. Friedman (2000) argues that stable marriages create substantial welfare improvements for society, especially to the degree that marital stability produces high-quality children.” (Friedman, David D. (2000). Law’s Order: What Economics Has to Do with Law and Why It Matters. Princeton: Princeton University Press) (Michael Malcolm, George Naufal, “Are Pornography and Marriage Substitutes for Young Men? IZA Discussion Paper No. 8679, November 2014, http://ftp.iza.org/dp8679.pdf)

“As policymakers seek to understand and respond to these rapid changes in marital behavior, an awareness of the causal factors that lie behind them is crucial. In this paper, we have explored the possibility that the rapidlyproliferating Internet is in some way substitutable for marriage, especially to Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

36

the extent that use of pornography can provide low-cost sexual gratification. If one of the important reasons to get married has a low-cost alternative, then it is natural to wonder about the extent to which one can replace the other.” (Michael Malcolm, George Naufal, “Are Pornography and Marriage Substitutes for Young Men? IZA Discussion Paper No. 8679, November 2014, http://ftp.iza.org/dp8679.pdf)

“Manning (2006) and Zitzman and Butler (2009) also argue that pornography consumption can reduce the happiness and stability associated with existing marriages.” (Manning, Jill C. (2006). The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research. Sexual Addiction and Compulsivity 13: 131-165) (Zitzman, Spencer T. and Butler, Mark H. (2009). Wives’ Experience of Husbands’ Pornography Use and Concomitant Deception as an Attachment Threat in the Adult Pair-Bond Relationship. Sexual Addiction and Compulsivity 16: 210-240) (Michael Malcolm, George Naufal, “Are Pornography and Marriage Substitutes for Young Men? IZA Discussion Paper No. 8679, November 2014, http://ftp.iza.org/dp8679.pdf)

“The Impact Of Pornography On Marital Relationships” Schneider’s 2000 study has concluded that when one partner has cybersex compulsivity and/or addiction, adverse effects on the sexual relationship within marriage are reported, including decreased sexual intimacy. Based on the results, more than half (52.1%) of the cybersex users had lost interest in relational sex, as had one-third (33.3%) of the partners.” (Vivian Chan, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Well, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impact-of-pornography-on-marital-relationships/)

“Cybersex user often makes excuses to avoid sexual intimacy with the partner” “The partner feels hurt, angry, sexually rejected, inadequate, and unable to compete with computer images and sexy online women (or men) who are willing to do anything upon request” (Vivian Chan, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Well, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impact-of-pornography-on-maritalrelationships/)

“During relational sex, the cybersex user appears distant, emotionally detached, and interested only in his/her own pleasure” (Vivian Chan, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Well, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impact-of-pornography-on-maritalrelationships/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

37

“The partner ends up doing most or all of the initiating, either to get her/his own needs met or as an attempt to get the cybersex user to decrease the online activities” (Vivian Chan, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Well, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impact-of-pornography-on-maritalrelationships/)

“Cybersex user often blames the partner for their sexual problems” (Vivian Chan, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Well, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impact-of-pornography-on-maritalrelationships/)

“Cybersex user often wants the partner to participate in sexual activities that she/he finds objectionable” (Vivian Chan, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Well, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impact-of-pornography-on-maritalrelationships/)

“Researcher Patric Fagan, Ph.D. completed a major study of pornography…56% of divorces had one partner with an obsessive interest in porn…I believe well over 90% of the men that will read this (including the one writing it) have viewed porn on the internet.” (“The Effects of Porn on Marriage”, All Pro Dad, Accessed October 19, 2015, http://www.allprodad.com/the-effects-of-porn-on-marriage/)

“On average, 40 million Americans regularly view porn, and the overwhelming majority are men. That’s the admitted figure. I feel safe writing to you that I believe well over 90% of the men that will read this (including the one writing it) have viewed porn on the internet. If allowed to fester in our lives, porn slowly erodes not only our rational senses but our very souls. A marriage is diseased when outside sexual influences work their way into it, and as those influences progress, the marriage falls deeper and deeper into despair.” (“The Effects of Porn on Marriage”, All Pro Dad, Accessed October 19, 2015, http://www.allprodad.com/the-effects-of-porn-on-marriage/)

“True Passion Is Nullified” “Great marital sex has little to do with technique, stamina, or experience. The genuine passion built up between two people in love connecting in the highest physical form of intimacy is what makes for great marital sex. This is difficult to achieve even without porn introduced into the equation.” (“The Effects of Porn on Marriage”, All Pro Dad, Accessed October 19, 2015, http://www.allprodad.com/the-effects-of-porn-on-marriage/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

38

“…many women will say they don’t feel that their porn addicted husband is truly present when they make love.” (“The Effects of Porn on Marriage”, All Pro Dad, Accessed October 19, 2015, http://www.allprodad.com/the-effects-ofporn-on-marriage/)

“Now, we need to proclaim a positive sexual apologetic, one that articulates the goodness of God’s design and develops a positive theology of sexuality to counteract the increasingly alluring false worldview that has captured so many.” (David White, “The Normalization of Porn in the Church: What the Church Needs to do Now”, Harvest USA, Fall 2013, http://www.harvestusa.org/the-normalization-of-porn-in-the-church-what-thechurch-needs-to-do-now/#.VXnbwflVhBd)

“We need a compelling argument for how God’s design for sexuality is the best argument against the many and growing forms of sexual brokenness, inside and outside the church.” (David White, “The Normalization of Porn in the Church: What the Church Needs to do Now”, Harvest USA, Fall 2013, http://www.harvestusa.org/thenormalization-of-porn-in-the-church-what-the-church-needs-to-do-now/#.VXnbwflVhBd)

“The Porn Problem” “For nearly four years, David’s days typically started and ended the same way. Around 6 a.m., he’d wake up, grab his phone or tablet from next to his bed and begin watching porn. Leaving little time to get ready and have breakfast, he’d head off to work around 8 a.m., where he would keep himself heavily caffeinated, anxiously waiting to leave. After work, he would head home, ‘literally running,’ and sometimes skip dinner to spend the rest of the evening fully engrossed in the clicks and hits of Internet pornography.” (Heather Schroering, “The Porn Problem,” Chicago Tribune, July 14, 2015, www.chicagotribune.com/news/redeye-porn-addiction-20150714-story.html#page=1)

“‘I’d go until 11:30, 12, sometimes 1 [a.m.], until my eyes literally hurt,’ said David, 33, from Albany Park.” (Heather Schroering, “The Porn Problem,” Chicago Tribune, July 14, 2015, www.chicagotribune.com/news/redeye-porn-addiction-20150714-story.html#page=1)

“If it was a weekend, he’d spend it entirely at home watching porn. ‘I had no life. It was as if the whole world didn’t exist. That’s how I lived for many years,’ said David, who didn’t want his real name used for this article. (While RedEye's typical standard is to include a source's first and last name, we are allowing some anonymity in stories dealing with addiction Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

39

because of the sensitive nature of the topic.)” (Heather Schroering, “The Porn Problem,” Chicago Tribune, July 14, 2015, www.chicagotribune.com/news/redeye-porn-addiction20150714-story.html#page=1)

“There’s an ongoing debate over whether Internet pornography is addictive, but David's days depended on it. Not only are the statistics hard to track, but also a clinical definition of pornography addiction has yet to be agreed on by experts. Although a proposed hypersexual disorder category was considered for inclusion in the American Psychiatric Association’s 2013 fifth edition of the ‘Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,’ the standard for the mental health industry, reviewers decided in 2012 that there was not enough research and evidence to include the category.” (Heather Schroering, “The Porn Problem,” Chicago Tribune, July 14, 2015, www.chicagotribune.com/news/redeye-porn-addiction-20150714-story.html#page=1)

“Pornography degrades marriages. Pornography users generally view material that shows attractive women performing almost any type of act with any number of men (or animals, for that matter). The users begin to expect that their wives should also perform acts that are at least a little more 'adventurous’ or 'experimental' that those they are used to, and will become dissatisfied when their non-using partners will not live up to their porn-induced fantasies. They may even become dissatisfied with their wive's physical imperfections.” (“Pornography: one of the greatest enemies of the family today,” These Last Days Ministries, April 2, 2012, http://www.tldm.org/News6/purity2.htm)

“In other words, men may have evolved a desire to have sex with multiple women who are uninterested in commitment. Online pornography provides men with a multitude of physically attractive “virtual” partners, which help provide physical gratification without commitment.” (Malamuth, N. (1996). Sexually explicit media, gender differences and evolutionary theory. Journal of Communication, 46, 8-31) (Patrick M. Markey, Charlotte N. Markey, “Online Pornography Seeking Behaviors,” accessed March 17, 2016, http://interpersonalresearch.weebly.com/uploads/1/0/4/0/10405979/online_pornography_seeking _behaviors_-_markey__markey_4-11-11.pdf)

“While some believe soft porn has a disinhibiting effect and could be helpful in relationships, I have never seen a case where pornography has been helpful to a marriage,” he says.” (“Fighting the New Drug: Pornography”, First Things, Accessed September 26, 2017, http://firstthings.org/fighting-the-new-drug-pornography/)

“As A Recovering Addict, What Can I Do To Heal And Strengthen My Marriage?” Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

40

“Both the person addicted to pornography and the spouse must find their own recovery before any significant progress can be made toward healing the relationship. Pornography addicts frequently discourage their spouses from talking about the problem, getting counseling, or attending a 12-step program. There is an instinct to keep the problem private in an attempt to protect the marriage.” (“Safety Net – Resources to Protect Your Family from Pornography,” Healthy Sandy Partnership, www.healthysandy.org/fileadmin/downloads/healthy_sandy/Ecclesiastical_Packet.pdf)

“In reality, keeping the problem quiet is more safe and comfortable (i.e., less volatile) but is often very damaging to both the addict and the spouse. As difficult as it is, a recovering addict who truly wants to heal and strengthen the marriage should do everything he can to encourage his spouse to reach out and get help for herself.” (“Safety Net – Resources to Protect Your Family from Pornography,” Healthy Sandy Partnership, www.healthysandy.org/fileadmin/downloads/healthy_sandy/Ecclesiastical_Packet.pdf)

“Once both partners are committed to and consistently working their own recoveries, trust generally will slowly return to the relationship. Hope and optimism will grow. This does not mean, however, that the rest of the journey will be easy. During this time, marital counseling in addition to individual recovery programs is usually necessary. Understand that pornography addiction often causes a substantial amount of emotional and relational trauma for the spouse. It is important that an addict allows his spouse time and space to heal at her own pace. An addict should be sympathetic to his spouse’s feelings of anger, frustration, ambivalence, and hurt. As an addict makes an effort to strengthen the relationship and work on his individual recovery, the three recoveries (his, hers, and ours) begin to support and complement one another. SpeciYic actions that can be taken by the addict to help strengthen the marriage include the following:” (“Safety Net – Resources to Protect Your Family from Pornography,” Healthy Sandy Partnership, www.healthysandy.org/fileadmin/downloads/healthy_sandy/Ecclesiastical_Packet.pdf)

“Fully commit to completing all necessary elements of recovery.” “Disclose past behavior. By postponing disclosure or confessing a little bit at a time out of the fear that the spouse ‘can’t handle everything,’ the healing process is often impeded and the resulting

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

41

hurt prolonged. It may be wise to consult with a therapist and/or sponsor before making the full initial disclosure.” “Continue to promptly disclose any slips promptly. Honesty and openness (transparency) are essential. Most spouses report that although relapses are difficult to deal with, secrecy and lies are intolerable. Graphic details are not necessary, but the spouse should know the type of slip, the duration, severity, and frequency of acting out. Set realistic expectations about the recovery process. Change takes time and there will almost always be slips or relapses. Recognize that the marriage also takes time to heal.” “Recognize the trauma a spouse may be experiencing. Reach out to the other person, try to alleviate her workload and spend time together doing activities that can help rebuild the relationship (walking, gardening, cooking, etc).” “Encourage the spouse to get counseling and support. Attending counseling as a couple is also helpful.” (“Safety Net – Resources to Protect Your Family from Pornography,” Healthy Sandy Partnership, www.healthysandy.org/fileadmin/downloads/healthy_sandy/Ecclesiastical_Packet.pdf)

“Even Shere Hite, renowned feminist, sex-educator and author of the ’The Hite Report’ (and hardly a family-friendly source) while attempting to advance the lack of causality argument, could not help but concede that a correlation exists in ’The Hite Report on Men and Male Sexuality’:” (Christopher Carmouche, “The Scope and Detrimental Effects of worldwide Pornography”, The World Congress of Families, June 2, 2010, http://worldcongress.org/wcfreg.spkrs/wcf.reg.uk.carmouche.htm)

Corruption Is Abounding In Three Directions 1. Toward Christ 2. Toward the spouse 3. Toward the people in the pornography (Kevin Porter, “John Piper Answers: Is It a Sin to Watch Porn With My Spouse?”, Christian Post, October 27, 2016, http://www.christianpost.com/news/john-piper-answers-is-it-sin-to-watchporn-my-spouse-171141/)

“Family Values And Desire For Progeny” Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

42

“Prolonged exposure to pornography spawns doubts about the value of marriage as an essential social institution and about its future viability.” (James B. Weaver III, “Effects of Pornography Addiction on Families and Communities”, Dr. Judith Reisman, November 18, 2014, http://www.drjudithreisman.com/archives/Senate-Testimony20041118_Weaver.pdf)

“… cheaper pornography makes it easier to stay single, but it also makes it easier to get divorced.” (Michael Malcolm, George Naufal, “Are Pornography and Marriage Substitutes for Young Men?” The Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), November, 2014, http://www.iza.org/en/webcontent/publications/papers/viewAbstract?dp_id=8679)

“Friedman argues that stable marriages create substantial welfare improvements for society, especially to the degree that marital stability produces high-quality children. As policymakers seek to understand and respond to these rapid changes in marital behavior, an awareness of the causal factors that lie behind them is crucial. … we have explored the possibility that the rapidly-proliferating Internet is in some way substitutable for marriage, especially to the extent that use of pornography can provide low-cost sexual gratification. If one of the important reasons to get married has a low-cost alternative, then it is natural to wonder about the extent to which one can replace the other.” (Friedman, David D. (2000). Law’s Order: What Economics Has to Do with Law and Why It Matters. Princeton: Princeton University Press.) (Michael Malcolm, George Naufal, “Are Pornography and Marriage Substitutes for Young Men?” The Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), November, 2014, http://www.iza.org/en/webcontent/publications/papers/viewAbstract?dp_id=8679)

“The results in this paper suggest that such an association exists, and that it is potentially quite large.” (Michael Malcolm, George Naufal, “Are Pornography and Marriage Substitutes for Young Men?” The Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), November, 2014, http://www.iza.org/en/webcontent/publications/papers/viewAbstract?dp_id=8679)

“His point is not unfounded in the least. A study by The Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in Germany found that not only does the consumption of porn correlate with a pronounced decline in percentage of young adult males who are married, but it might actually be contributing to the trend. And, according to Psychology Today, while studies are showing that pornfree relationships are stronger, with a lower rate of infidelity, the rate of people who believe porn doesn't negatively affect the watcher is alarming. Nearly 90 percent of men believed consumption of porn is acceptable—and just over 50 percent of women agree. But, as Crews experienced, the reality of porn in relationships is that it diminishes your view of people and deteriorates your ability to connect with them.” (“Terry Crews on His Former Porn

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

43

Addiction: It Changes the Way You Think About People”, Relevant Magazine, February 23, 2016, http://www.relevantmagazine.com/slices/terry-crews-his-former-porn-addiction-it-changes-way-you-thinkabout-people)

Up to 70 percent of wives who uncover pornography use in their marriage have symptoms of PTSD…” (Ray Nothstine, “7 Notable Figures in the Fight Against Porn and Sexual Exploitation”, The Christian Post, December 8, 2015, http://www.christianpost.com/news/7notable-figures-in-the-fight-against-porn-and-sexual-exploitation-145671/)

“If you decide to marry this man, don't expect his addiction to go away on its own once you've said your wedding vows. To be more specific, don't assume that normal marital sexual relations will take the place of porn in his life.” (“Woman Dating or Engaged to Man Addicted to Pornography”, Focus on the Family, July 22, 2015, http://family.custhelp.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/26042/~/woman-dating-or-engaged-to-manaddicted-to-pornography)

“ARE PORNOGRAPHY AND MARRIAGE SUBSTITUTES FOR YOUNG MEN? “The United States has seen considerable demographic changes with respect to family arrangements over the last few decades. Between 1950 and 2010, the rate of marital formation dropped by 39%, with a 17% drop between 2000 and 2010 alone.” (All aggregate statistics are from NCHS tables) (Michael Malcolm, George Naufal, “Are Pornography and Marriage Substitutes for Young Men? IZA Discussion Paper No. 8679, November 2014, http://ftp.iza.org/dp8679.pdf)

“Fight the New Drug, Olsen said, “Studies have shown us that individuals that regularly consume pornography can end up preferring the computer screen to a human being to get their sexual fix.” Billy Hallowell, “Shocking Porn Epidemic Stats Reveal Details About Christian Consumption: A Very Real Addiction That Can Spiral Out of Control,” TheBlaze.com, August 28, 2014, http://www.theblaze.com/stories/2014/08/28/shocking-statistics-about-porn-epidemic-and-christianconsumption-a-very-real-addiction-that-can-spiral-out-of-control)

“Today, the proportion of men between 25 and 34 years old who have never been married is more than six times higher than it was in 1970. For men between 35 and 44 years old, the increase has been more than fourfold. Marriages that do form are about twice as likely to end in divorce today as in 1950.” (Michael Malcolm, George Naufal, “Are Pornography and Marriage Substitutes for Young Men? IZA Discussion Paper No. 8679, November 2014, http://ftp.iza.org/dp8679.pdf)

“Traditionally, one of the reasons to enter into a marriage was sexual gratification. But as options for sexual gratification outside of marriage have grown, the need for a marriage to serve this function is Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

44

diminishing. The NIH reports that the fraction of 20 year-olds who have engaged in premarital sex grew by about 50% between the late 1950s and the late 1990s. Besides premarital sex, another option is consumption of pornography, which has become widely more accessible since the proliferation of the Internet.” (Michael Malcolm, George Naufal, “Are Pornography and Marriage Substitutes for Young Men? IZA Discussion Paper No. 8679, November 2014, http://ftp.iza.org/dp8679.pdf)

“Pornography users continually escalate to ‘harder’ material in order to maintain their baseline level of happiness. This is relevant to our work since it suggests that the effects of easier access to pornography are cumulative over time: the long-run effect on marriage is likely to be stronger than what we find in this paper.” (Michael Malcolm, George Naufal, “Are Pornography and Marriage Substitutes for Young Men? IZA Discussion Paper No. 8679, November 2014, http://ftp.iza.org/dp8679.pdf)

“Those who frequently consume Internet pornography are less likely to marry because they see pornography as a marital sexual gratification substitute. (Malcolm, M. & Naufal, G. (2014) “Are Pornography and Marriage Substitutes for Young Men?” Institute for the Study of Labor.”) (“Pornography”, Enough is Enough, Accessed 3.20.2017, http://www.enough.org/stats_porn_industry

“…married men who watch pornography tend to be less satisfied with their sexual relationship and lack an emotional attachment to their partners. When couples in this situation were questioned, both reported feeling that viewing pornography was tantamount to infidelity and often a precursor to divorce. 56 percent of those addicted to watching porn end up losing their spouse, according to the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers.” (http://www.roadtograce.net/current-porn-statistics/)(“Is it bad to watch porn? – The Impact of Pornography Addiction”, The Social Costs of Pornography, Accessed 4.24.2017, http://www.socialcostsofpornography.org/)

“In addition to devastating marriages, porn addiction can dramatically impact children. They often live in homes that are less affectionate and loving with undertones of anger, betrayal, and mistrust. In a study involving adolescents who stumbled across their parent’s pornographic material, most reported that this incident significantly increased their uncertainties about sexuality. Many also reported feeling depressed, lonely, and unsure of who to turn to in order to discuss their feelings.” (http://www.frc.org/onepagers/the-effects-of-pornography-on-individuals-marriage-family-and-

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

45

community) (“Is it bad to watch porn? – The Impact of Pornography Addiction”, The Social Costs of Pornography, Accessed 4.24.2017, http://www.socialcostsofpornography.org/)

“In his essay “Pornography’s Effects on Adults and Children” psychologist Dr. Victor Cline argues that adults who regularly masturbate to pornography risk disturbing the bonded relationship with their spouse. This practice, he writes,” “Dramatically reduces their capacity to love (e.g., it results in a marked dissociation of sex from friendship, affection, caring, and other normal healthy emotions and traits which help marital relationships). In time, the “high” obtained from masturbating to pornography becomes more important than real life relationships.” (Victor Cline, “Pornography’s Effects on Adults and Children,” September 27, 2009. http://www.scribd.com/doc/20282510/Dr-Victor-ClinePornography-s-Effects-on-Adults-and-Children#scribd (accessed January 2016).)

“Research suggests that porn use undermines marital exclusivity and fidelity. “Partners feel betrayed when they discover that their partner has been viewing pornography, which is perceived as infidelity.”” (Joan Atwood, The Effects of the Internet on Social Relationships: Therapeutic Considerations (Bloomington, IN: iUniverse, 2011), 165-166.)

“Women reported a decrease in sexual intimacy and closeness due to their spouse’s porn use and “described their partner’s sexual advances as conveying a message of objectification as opposed to meaningful interaction.”” (Ibid.) “…she often feels she doesn’t measure up to the virtual women with whom her husband is having an “affair.” … not good enough to satisfy her husband. … self-esteem takes a nosedive. The spouse tens to feel worthless and inadequate.” (Josh McDowell, “How to Choose”, Accessed 4.11.2017) “Research suggests that porn use undermines marital exclusivity and fidelity. “Partners feel betrayed when they discover that their partner has been viewing pornography, which is perceived as infidelity.”” (Joan Atwood, Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

46

The Effects of the Internet on Social Relationships: Therapeutic Considerations (Bloomington, IN: iUniverse, 2011), 165-166.) “When pornography use enters a marriage, the most sacred element of the marital relationship – trust – is shattered. The wife can no longer trust the man who vowed “to love and to cherish” her no matter what.” (Josh McDowell, “How to Choose”, Accessed 4.11.2017)

“Dr. Jill C. Manning, a Marriage and Family Therapist, outlined the following six trends in marriages where one partner consumes pornographic material:” 1. “Increased marital distress, and risk of separation and divorce,” (Christopher Carmouche, “The Scope and Detrimental Effects of worldwide Pornography”, The World Congress of Families, June 2, 2010, http://worldcongress.org/wcfreg.spkrs/wcf.reg.uk.carmouche.htm)

2. “Decreased marital intimacy and sexual satisfaction,” (Christopher Carmouche, “The Scope and Detrimental Effects of worldwide Pornography”, The World Congress of Families, June 2, 2010, http://worldcongress.org/wcfreg.spkrs/wcf.reg.uk.carmouche.htm)

3. “Infidelity” (Christopher Carmouche, “The Scope and Detrimental Effects of worldwide Pornography”, The World Congress of Families, June 2, 2010, http://worldcongress.org/wcfreg.spkrs/wcf.reg.uk.carmouche.htm)

4. “Increased appetite for more graphic types of pornography and sexual activity associated with abusive, illegal or unsafe practices,” (Christopher Carmouche, “The Scope and Detrimental Effects of worldwide Pornography”, The World Congress of Families, June 2, 2010, http://worldcongress.org/wcfreg.spkrs/wcf.reg.uk.carmouche.htm)

5. “Devaluation of monogamy, marriage and child rearing,” (Christopher Carmouche, “The Scope and Detrimental Effects of worldwide Pornography”, The World Congress of Families, June 2, 2010, http://worldcongress.org/wcfreg.spkrs/wcf.reg.uk.carmouche.htm)

6. “An increasing number of people struggling with compulsive and addictive sexual behavior.” (Christopher Carmouche, “The Scope and Detrimental Effects of worldwide Pornography”, The World Congress of Families, June 2, 2010, http://worldcongress.org/wcfreg.spkrs/wcf.reg.uk.carmouche.htm)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

47

“Porn increased marital infidelity by 300%.” (http://www.webroot.com/us/en/home/resources/tips/digital-family-life/internet-pornography-by-thenumbers) (“10 Porn Stats That Will Blow Your Mind,” Fight the New Drug, March 3, 2015, http://www.fightthenewdrug.org/10-porn-stats-that-will-blow-your-mind/)

“Within a couple’s intimate relationship, pornography can have negative impacts in the following ways:” “User faces difficulty becoming sexually aroused without pornography.” “User loses interest and engages in fewer sexual experiences with partner.” “Partner may view pornography use as infidelity and a betrayal to the relationship.” “Partner feels sexually inadequate and threatened by pornography use.” “Partner may feel that certain sexual activities desired by user are objectionable.” “Both user and partner experience a decrease in relationship sexual satisfaction and emotional closeness.” “Relationship trust decreases due to dishonesty and deception about pornography use.” “One or both partners may be concerned about children’s exposure to pornographic materials.” (“Top Pornography FAQ’s – What About Pornography”, Moral Revolution, Accessed November 13, 2015, http://moralrevolution.com/pornography-faqs/)

“A researcher who has perhaps published the greatest number of studies about pornography during the last few years is Dr. Paul Wright, an Assistant Professor in the Media School at Indiana University. In a study he conducted with Dr. Ashley Randall, they looked at men’s potential health outcomes from their pornography use. In particular, Dr. Wright was concerned with the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), given Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

48

that many behaviors demonstrated in pornography are high-risk behaviors. Dr. Wright found, using a nationwide sample of adults, that the more men viewed Internet pornography, the more they had sex with multiple partners and had sex with a prostituted woman. Furthermore, married men who used Internet pornography were more likely to cheat on their spouses.” (Wright, P. J., & Randall, A. K. (2012). Internet pornography exposure and risky sexual behavior among adult males in the United States. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(4), 1410-1416. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2012.03.003)

• “Men and women who view more porn consistently report less sexual satisfaction with their partners because they compare their partners to the images of porn performers.” (Luke Gilkerson, “When Your Child is Looking at Porn”, Covenant Eyes, 2013, http://www.covenanteyes.com/when-your-childis-looking-at-porn/) •

“Those who view more porn show a greater attraction to the idea of casual sex, premarital sex, and adultery.” (Luke Gilkerson, “When Your Child is Looking at Porn”, Covenant Eyes, 2013, http://www.covenanteyes.com/when-yourchild-is-looking-at-porn/)

“Between 2000 and 2004, the General Social Survey (GSS) asked a series of detailed questions about Internet usage; it also records comprehensive demographic information, including marital status. Using these microdata we find that for young men there is a large degree of substitutability between Internet and pornography usage and marriage – heavy Internet usage generally, and use of pornography specifically, are associated with lower participation in marriages.” (Michael Malcolm, George Naufal, “Are Pornography and Marriage Substitutes for Young Men? IZA Discussion Paper No. 8679, November 2014, http://ftp.iza.org/dp8679.pdf)

“We assert that increasing ease of accessing pornography is an important factor underlying the decline in marriage formation and stability.” (Michael Malcolm, George Naufal, “Are Pornography and Marriage Substitutes for Young Men? IZA Discussion Paper No. 8679, November 2014, http://ftp.iza.org/dp8679.pdf)

1. “Pornography use has a detrimental effect on the family as it is linked to:” a. “Lessening desire in young men to marry” (Michael Malcolm & George Naufal, Are Pornography and Marriage Substitutes for Young Men? INSTITUTE OF THE STUDY OF LABOR (November 2014). (“S.C.R. 009 Resolution on the Public Health Crisis, Sponsored by Senator Todd Weiler, written by the National Center on Sexual Exploitation,

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

49

February 2016, http://utahcoalition.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Utah-ResolutionUpdated-and-Revised-1-5-2016.pdf)

b. “Dissatisfaction in marriage”( PAMELA PAUL, PORNIFIED: HOW PORNOGRAPHY IS DAMAGING OUR LIVES, OUR RELATIONSHIPS, AND OUR FAMILIES (New York Times Books, 2005); Steven Stack, Ira Wasserman & Roger Kern, Adult Social Bonds and Use of Internet Pornography 85 SOCIAL SCIENCE QUARTERLY 75 (2004) (“S.C.R. 009 Resolution on the Public Health Crisis, Sponsored by Senator Todd Weiler, written by the National Center on Sexual Exploitation, February 2016, http://utahcoalition.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Utah-Resolution-Updated-and-Revised1-5-2016.pdf)

c. “Infidelity” (Amanda Maddox, Galena Rhoades & Howard Markman, Viewing SexuallyExplicit Materials Alone or Together: Associations with Relationship Quality 40 ARCHHIVES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR 441 (2009); Paul Wright, Robert Tokunaga & Soyoung Bae, More than a Dalliance? Pornography Consumption and Extramarital Sex Attitudes among Married U.S. Adults 3 PSYCHOLOGY OF POPULAR MEDIA & CULTURE 97 (2014) (“S.C.R. 009 Resolution on the Public Health Crisis, Sponsored by Senator Todd Weiler, written by the National Center on Sexual Exploitation, February 2016, http://utahcoalition.org/wpcontent/uploads/2016/02/Utah-Resolution-Updated-and-Revised-1-5-2016.pdf)

“Based on the on-going researches, the following topics seem to be the most prominent in regards to the internet pornography consumption and marital relationship:” (Vivan Chan, MC, RCC, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Wells, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/theimpact-of-pornography-on-marital-relationships/)

1. “Online sexual pursuits as a predictor of marital distress, separation, and divorce” (Vivan Chan, MC, RCC, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Wells, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impactof-pornography-on-marital-relationships/)

2. “Decreased sexual satisfaction” (Vivan Chan, MC, RCC, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Wells, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impact-of-pornography-on-maritalrelationships/)

3. “decreased sexual intimacy” (Vivan Chan, MC, RCC, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Wells, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impact-of-pornography-on-maritalrelationships/)

4. “Infidelity” (Vivan Chan, MC, RCC, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Wells, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impactof-pornography-on-marital-relationships/) 5.

“other issues such as overspending and debt, and decreased job security” (Vivan Chan, MC, RCC, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Wells, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impact-ofpornography-on-marital-relationships/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

50

“This was a conversation I had with a friend a few years ago. Not long afterward he remarried, but the years of porn usage poisoned his marriage, and it failed. The messages and attitudes of porn distorted his view of sex and relationships. But Michael’s porn usage didn’t just impact himself and his marriage. He failed to realize that his porn usage hurt far more people than he was willing to see or admit.” (Nicholas Black, “Pornography and Injustice: The Social Impact of Sexual Sin”, Harvest USA, June 4, 2014, https://truthandmercy.wordpress.com/2014/06/04/pornography-and-injustice-the-social-impact-of-sexualsin/)

“Michael kept insisting that his viewing pornography wasn’t hurting anybody. ‘I’m divorced, and what else am I going to do with my sex drive? This isn’t hurting me; it’s actually helping me.’” (Nicholas Black, “Pornography and Injustice: The Social Impact of Sexual Sin”, Harvest USA, June 4, 2014, https://truthandmercy.wordpress.com/2014/06/04/pornography-and-injustice-the-social-impact-ofsexual-sin/) (Nicholas Black, “Pornography and Injustice: The Social Impact of Sexual Sin”, Harvest USA, June 4, 2014, https://truthandmercy.wordpress.com/2014/06/04/pornography-andinjustice-the-social-impact-of-sexual-sin/)

“This was a conversation I had with a friend a few years ago. Not long afterward he remarried, but the years of porn usage poisoned his marriage, and it failed. The messages and attitudes of porn distorted his view of sex and relationships. But Michael’s porn usage didn’t just impact himself and his marriage. He failed to realize that his porn usage hurt far more people than he was willing to see or admit.” (Nicholas Black, “Pornography and Injustice: The Social Impact of Sexual Sin”, Havest USA, June 4, 2014, https://truthandmercy.wordpress.com/2014/06/04/pornography-and-injusticethe-social-impact-of-sexual-sin/) (Nicholas Black, “Pornography and Injustice: The Social Impact of Sexual Sin”, Harvest USA, June 4, 2014, https://truthandmercy.wordpress.com/2014/06/04/pornography-and-injustice-the-social-impact-ofsexual-sin/)

“Because pornography involves emotional, chemical, and physical stimulation, it can reset the brain in such a way that normal, healthy sexual experiences become unsatisfying and unfulfilling. Increasingly extreme or deviant sexual acts are often required to bring about sexual satisfaction. As a result, pornography addiction frequently destroys healthy marital relationships and can lead to sexual acting out with self and others or other immoral behavior. Some statistics indicate that the likelihood of infidelity is increased by 300% percent where pornography is involved and 55% of divorces in the United States occur at least in part as a result of pornography use.” (“Safety Net – Resources to Protect Your Family from Pornography,” Healthy Sandy Partnership, www.healthysandy.org/fileadmin/downloads/healthy_sandy/Ecclesiastical_Packet.pdf)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

51

More than 50% of porn internet users report losing interest in sex with their partner. 40% of those who are sexually addicted lose their spouse.” (Christian Post, December 30, 2013)

“Key Thoughts” “Pornography is sexually explicit material that is viewed. It dehumanizes, objectifies, and degrades the men and women involved for the purpose of sexual arousal. Often it is photos or videos or it takes the form of stories or sexual and erotic conversations in electronic chat rooms-increasingly the major delivery system of porn is the internet.” (“Life, Love and Family Daily Fact Sheet,” Life, Love and Family, September 23, 2015, www.lifeloveandfamily.org/listen-when-your-husband-isaddicted-to-pornography/)

“Pornography promotes ‘sex without consequences’ and serves as an aid to self-gratification. Porn is usually paired with sexual arousal and masturbation while the person fantasizes having sex with the people portrayed in the pornography. Such fantasized sex quickly begins to piggyback on or even substitute for real sex with one's spouse.” (“Life, Love and Family Daily Fact Sheet,” Life, Love and Family, September 23, 2015, www.lifeloveandfamily.org/listen-when-your-husband-is-addicted-to-pornography/)

“Eventually use of pornography can lose its power to stimulate as the tolerance effect of addiction sets in. The user is enticed to ‘ramp up’ their sexual behavior into more bizarre forms of pleasure and to involve others (usually prostitutes or minors).” (“Life, Love and Family Daily Fact Sheet,” Life, Love and Family, September 23, 2015, www.lifeloveandfamily.org/listen-whenyour-husband-is-addicted-to-pornography/)

“The sexual addictions model indicates that pornography is used by many as a stress reliever that gives escape from life's real and perceived hardships.” (“Life, Love and Family Daily Fact Sheet,” Life, Love and Family, September 23, 2015, www.lifeloveandfamily.org/listen-when-your-husband-is-addicted-topornography/)

“Pornography use may be a symptom of a deeper issue (for example, low self-esteem, loneliness, past sexual abuse). Many people use pornography to avoid emotional or sexual intimacy with their spouse, or because they find such fantasized sex to be more emotionally

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

52

satisfying.” (“Life, Love and Family Daily Fact Sheet,” Life, Love and Family, September 23, 2015, www.lifeloveandfamily.org/listen-when-your-husband-is-addicted-to-pornography/)

“Viewing pornography increases the likelihood of sexual addiction and sexual pathology. Use of pornography can also create unrealistic and often degrading sexual expectations from one's spouse. The user of pornography will struggle consistently with anger, guilt, shame, increasing anxiety, and oppressive memories.” (“Life, Love and Family Daily Fact Sheet,” Life, Love and Family, September 23, 2015, www.lifeloveandfamily.org/listen-when-your-husband-is-addicted-to-pornography/)

“It is not uncommon for many people to have their first exposure to pornographic material during junior high or high school years as teenagers. Many adolescents begin viewing pornography because of curiosity and as a release for hormonal tension.” (“Life, Love and Family Daily Fact Sheet,” Life, Love and Family, September 23, 2015, www.lifeloveandfamily.org/listen-whenyour-husband-is-addicted-to-pornography/)

“Previous studies have found that porn has an accelerating effect on a deteriorating marriage: husbands in poor relationships tend to consume more sexually explicit material and consuming more sexually explicit material also leads to poorer relationships. Some sociologists have speculated that men turn to porn as a way of lifting their mood about their difficult home life and that the porn then becomes an easier route to sexual satisfaction than being with their partner, so they disinvest in the marriage.” (Belinda Luscombe, “People More Likely to Divorce After They Start Watching Porn, Says Study”, Time Magazine, August 23, 2016, http://time.com/4461451/people-more-likely-todivorce-after-they-start-watching-porn-says-study/)

“Married men who are involved in pornography feel less satisfied with their conjugal relations and less emotionally attached to their wives. Wives notice and are upset by the difference.” (Pat Fagan, “The Effects of Pornography on Individuals, Marriage, Family and Community,” Family Research Council, March 2011, IF11C04, http://www.frc.org/issuebrief/the-effects-of-pornography-on-individuals-marriage-family-and-community)

“Among couples affected by one spouse's addiction, two-thirds experience a loss of interest in sexual intercourse.” (Pat Fagan, “The Effects of Pornography on Individuals, Marriage, Family and Community,” Family Research Council, March 2011, IF11C04, http://www.frc.org/issuebrief/the-effects-of-pornography-on-individualsmarriage-family-and-community)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

53

“Both spouses perceive pornography viewing as tantamount to infidelity.” (Pat Fagan, “The Effects of Pornography on Individuals, Marriage, Family and Community,” Family Research Council, March 2011, IF11C04, http://www.frc.org/issuebrief/theeffects-of-pornography-on-individuals-marriage-family-and-community)

Pornography robs us of some of the delight we might have had with our spouse. It keeps us from experiencing and enjoying them and their bodies without a fog of images from our past. (Marshall Segal, “Never Harmless, Never Private, Never Safe”, Desiring God.Org, October 26, 2016, http://www.desiringgod.org/articles/never-harmless-never-private-never-safe)

“Schneider outlined the following recurrent themes in the survey data:” “The user makes excuses to avoid sexual intimacy with the partner (e.g., not in the mood or too tired).” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“The partner feels hurt, angry, sexually rejected, inadequate, and unable to compete with computer images and sexy online women (or men) who are willing to do “anything.”” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“During relational sex, the cybersex user appears distant, emotionally detached, and interested only in his/her own pleasure.” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“The partner ends up doing most or all of the initiating, either to get her/his own needs met or as an attempt to get the user to decrease the online activities.” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“The user blames the partner for their sexual problems.” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“The user wants the partner to participate in sexual activities that she or he finds objectionable.” (Schneider, J. P. (1998). The new “elephant in the living room”: Effects of compulsive cybersex behaviors on the spouse. In A. Cooper (1998), Sexuality and the Internet: Surfing into the new millennium. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 1(2), p. 178.) (Jill

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

54

C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“For those who may argue decreased sexual intimacy is an effect linked solely with cybersex addicts, Bergner and Bridges’ 2002 study supports the fact that women in relationships (married, engaged, or dating) with men perceived as heavy pornography consumers report decreased and altered sexual intimacy as a common symptom.” (Bergner, R. M., & Bridges, A. J. (2002). The significance of heavy pornography involvement for romantic partners: Research and clinical implications. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 28, 193–206.) (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“The use of pornography increases the marital infidelity rate by more than 300 percent.” (Steven Stack, et al., Adult Social Bonds and Use of Internet Pornography, 85 Soc. Sci. Quarterly 75, 83 (2004) (“Marriage & Family: Harms of Pornography,” The Policy Pages from Center for Arizona, January 2014, http://azpolicypages.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/MarriageFamily_HarmsofPornography.pdf)

“A 2004 study published in Social Science Quarterly found that Internet users who had had an extramarital affair were 3.18 times more likely to have used online porn than Internet users who had not had an affair.” (“National Review: Getting Serious on Pornography”, NPR, March 31, 2010, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=125382361)

“The couple has realistic expectations. Change takes time and there will usually be relapses. With good counseling and support, however, these slips become less severe and less frequent” (“Safety Net – Resources to Protect Your Family from Pornography,” Healthy Sandy Partnership, www.healthysandy.org/fileadmin/downloads/healthy_sandy/Ecclesiastical_Packet.pdf)

“Both the addict and the spouse get the counseling and support they need” (“Safety Net – Resources to Protect Your Family from Pornography,” Healthy Sandy Partnership, www.healthysandy.org/fileadmin/downloads/healthy_sandy/Ecclesiastical_Packet.pdf)

“Spouses of Addicts” “Typically, how does a spouse respond when they find out about a pornography problem?”

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

55

“Feeling intense hurt, sadness, low self-worth, betrayal, anger, or even hatred is common. It is important for spouses to recognize how they are responding emotionally, and to find a trusted friend or family member or ecclesiastical leader with whom they can share these feelings and seek support. It is also important to honestly share those feelings with the addicted spouse.” (“Safety Net – Resources to Protect Your Family from Pornography,” Healthy Sandy Partnership, www.healthysandy.org/fileadmin/downloads/healthy_sandy/Ecclesiastical_Packet.pdf)

“Keeping things in perspective is important. Having a pornography problem does not negate everything good in the addicted spouse. Still, it is a significant, serious problem and should not be minimized. Remembering positive experiences can help provide motivation to work through the difficult times ahead and apply the necessary effort to save the marriage. It is helpful to try to be calm and compassionate. On the other hand, feeling responsible to change the addict’s behavior or lashing out in anger is not helpful. The addict’s spouse needs help and support as she works through her emotions and sets appropriate boundaries. Getting help will ensure the emotional well-being of the spouse and will aid in repairing the marriage relationship.” (“Safety Net – Resources to Protect Your Family from Pornography,” Healthy Sandy Partnership, www.healthysandy.org/fileadmin/downloads/healthy_sandy/Ecclesiastical_Packet.pdf)

“Why can’t my spouse just stop viewing pornography?” “Pornography is addictive. Once the addiction is established it is extremely difficult to quit and it is almost impossible to stop without outside help.” (“Safety Net – Resources to Protect Your Family from Pornography,” Healthy Sandy Partnership, www.healthysandy.org/fileadmin/downloads/healthy_sandy/Ecclesiastical_Packet.pdf)

“How is the addiction of a spouse/loved one likely to affect me personally?” “Many spouses of addicts feel a sense of isolation and abandonment after discovering the addiction. It is common for the addict’s spouse to avoid telling others about the addiction, hide her feelings, or pretend that nothing is wrong. She often feels a great deal of pressure to protect the addicted spouse and preserve the image of normalcy. As the addict’s spouse withdraws, it is common for her to Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

56

feel increasingly lonely and hopeless. Depression and even thoughts of suicide may result.” (“Safety Net – Resources to Protect Your Family from Pornography,” Healthy Sandy Partnership, www.healthysandy.org/fileadmin/downloads/healthy_sandy/Ecclesiastical_Packet.pdf)

“Discovering an addiction can start a chain of devastating emotional responses. Many spouses of addicts experience intense anger, while others respond by feeling numb and listless. Thoughts such as, ‘How could this happen to me?’ or ‘What did I do to deserve this?’ are common. Many spouses have feelings of guilt or a false misplaced sense of personal responsibility for the addiction. Spouses often experience feelings of low self-worth and fall into thinking, ‘This wouldn’t have happened if I had just been a better wife,’ or ‘If I was were just more attractive or sexy, this wouldn’t be a problem.’ This type of thinking is often followed by feeling the need to fix the problem and the belief that some action on their part, such as working harder to be pleasant or losing weight, will make the problem go away. When such efforts to fix the problem do not work, feelings of fear, anxiety, hopelessness, and despair increase. Fear and uncertainty about the future—‘What is going to happen? If I were to leave the marriage, what would I do? What about the children? What about our marriage?’—can become overwhelming.” (“Safety Net – Resources to Protect Your Family from Pornography,” Healthy Sandy Partnership, www.healthysandy.org/fileadmin/downloads/healthy_sandy/Ecclesiastical_Packet.pdf)

“As emotional wellbeing deteriorates, spouses often fall into counterproductive behaviors or dangerous coping mechanisms. Spouses commonly try to be the policeman by constantly monitoring the addict or trying to manage his recovery. They frequently become obsessed with looking for ‘evidence’ by checking their spouse’s email, reading their journal, looking for unusual charges on credit card statements, or checking the calls on their spouse’s cell phone. Many develop eating disorders such as anorexia, bulimia, overeating, or undereating. Serious depression is very common. Hopeful feelings like ‘We have finally gotten to the bottom of this and will put this behind us forever,’ alternate with feelings such as, ‘There is no hope for ever getting out of this endless cycle.’ The addict’s spouse may wonder what is wrong and why they she feels so out of control.” (“Safety Net – Resources to Protect Your Family from Pornography,” Healthy Sandy Partnership, www.healthysandy.org/fileadmin/downloads/healthy_sandy/Ecclesiastical_Packet.pdf)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

57

“How is the addiction of a spouse likely to affect our relationship?” “Discovering that your spouse is addicted to pornography can turn your world upside down. Many spouses of addicts feel deeply hurt, betrayed, angry, ashamed, numb, sad, depressed, or helpless. Many initially worry that they will never be able to trust their spouses again. Spouses often feel uncertainty and fear for the future.” (“Safety Net – Resources to Protect Your Family from Pornography,” Healthy Sandy Partnership, www.healthysandy.org/fileadmin/downloads/healthy_sandy/Ecclesiastical_Packet.pdf)

“The cycle of feelings experienced is very similar to grieving for the death of a loved one and may include the following symptoms: “Shock” .”(“Safety Net – Resources to Protect Your Family from Pornography,” Healthy Sandy Partnership, www.healthysandy.org/fileadmin/downloads/healthy_sandy/Ecclesiastical_Packet.pdf)

“Disbelief or denial” .”(“Safety Net – Resources to Protect Your Family from Pornography,” Healthy Sandy Partnership, www.healthysandy.org/fileadmin/downloads/healthy_sandy/Ecclesiastical_Packet.pdf)

“Anger” .”(“Safety Net – Resources to Protect Your Family from Pornography,” Healthy Sandy Partnership, www.healthysandy.org/fileadmin/downloads/healthy_sandy/Ecclesiastical_Packet.pdf)

“Bargaining” .”(“Safety Net – Resources to Protect Your Family from Pornography,” Healthy Sandy Partnership, www.healthysandy.org/fileadmin/downloads/healthy_sandy/Ecclesiastical_Packet.pdf)

“Depression” .”(“Safety Net – Resources to Protect Your Family from Pornography,” Healthy Sandy Partnership, www.healthysandy.org/fileadmin/downloads/healthy_sandy/Ecclesiastical_Packet.pdf)

“Acceptance.”(“Safety Net – Resources to Protect Your Family from Pornography,” Healthy Sandy Partnership, www.healthysandy.org/fileadmin/downloads/healthy_sandy/Ecclesiastical_Packet.pdf)

“Acknowledging, accepting, and allowing those feelings to take their course are important steps. Addicts frequently withdraw and disconnect from relationships. The addict may exert pressure on the spouse to protect his secrecy or to not pursue help. It is crucial for spouses of addicts to get help, regardless of whether the addicted Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

58

approves.” (“Safety Net – Resources to Protect Your Family from Pornography,” Healthy Sandy Partnership, www.healthysandy.org/fileadmin/downloads/healthy_sandy/Ecclesiastical_Packet.pdf)

“Stack, Wasserman, and Kern (2004) found individuals who have had an extramarital affair were 3.18 times more likely to have used internet pornography than individuals who had not had an affair. The same study also revealed that people who have engaged in paid sex (i.e. prostitution) were 3.7 times more apt to use internet pornography than those who had not used internet pornography. Unfortunately, the study failed to indicate a causal relationship between internet pornography consumption and unfaithful behaviour; the statistics indicate that internet pornography is associated with activities that undermine marital exclusivity and fidelity.” (Vivan Chan, MC, RCC, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Wells, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impact-of-pornography-on-maritalrelationships/)

“If your boyfriend really cares about you and sincerely wants to spend his life with you, he has a powerful motivation to make the necessary changes at this stage of the game. Once you've tied the knot, that motivation will no longer exist in quite the same way.” (“Woman Dating or Engaged to Man Addicted to Pornography”, Focus on the Family, July 22, 2015, http://family.custhelp.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/26042/~/woman-dating-or-engaged-to-man-addictedto-pornography)

“Although not addressed in the Capitol symposium, I’d like to point out the role pornography has played in another recent social crisis: the acceptance of same-sex marriage. In his "Relationships in America" survey released last year, Mark Regnerus found that among church-going Christians who did not support same-sex marriage, only 4.6 percent felt that using pornography was okay. Among church-going Christians who supported same-sex marriage, however, 33 percent also agreed that viewing pornography was fine.” (John Stonestreet, Life Site News, August 7, 2015, “We need to treat porn like what it is: a public health hazard”, https://www.lifesitenews.com/opinion/we-need-to-treat-porn-like-what-itis-a-public-health-hazard)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

59

#2 THE FAMILY AND PORN “…feel less satisfied with their conjugal relations and less emotionally attached to their wives. Source: Dolf Zillman and Jennings Bryant, "Pornography's Impact on Sexual Satisfaction," Journal of Applied Social Psychology 18 (1988): 438-53 (439-440). (Cathy Cleaver Ruse, “Pornography and its consequences,” LifeSite, July 31, 2014, https://www.lifesitenews.com/opinion/pornography-and-its-consequences)

“…a pathway to infidelity and divorce, and is frequently a major factor in these family disasters. Couples affected by one spouse’s addiction usually experience a loss of interest in sexual intercourse and good family relations.” (Source: Steven Stack, Ira Wasserman, and Roger Kern, "Adult Social Bonds and Use of Internet Pornography," Social Science Quarterly 85 (2004); 75-88; Jill Manning, Senate Testimony, November 10, 2005, referencing: J. Dedmon, "Is the Internet bad for your marriage? Online affairs, pornographic sites playing greater role in divorces." 2002, press release from American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers, 14.; J.P. Schneider, "Effects of Cybersex Addiction on the Family," Sex and the Internet: A Guidebook for Clinicians, ed. A. Cooper (New York: Brunner-Routledge, 2002): 39-40.) (Cathy Cleaver Ruse, “Pornography and its consequences,” Life Site News, July 31, 2014, https://www.lifesitenews.com/opinion/pornography-and-its-consequences)

“Pornography use and "cybersex" can often be just as damaging to family relationships as real-life infidelity…a troubling percentage of ‘sex addicts’ lose their spouses, 58 percent suffer considerable financial losses, and about a third lose their jobs.” Source: Zillman and Bryant, "Pornography's Impact on Sexual Satisfaction," 438-53; Schneider, "Effects of Cybersex Addiction on the Family," 31-58; Barbara A. Steffens and Robyn L. Rennie, "The Traumatic Nature of Disclosure for Wives of Sexual Addicts," Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity 13 (2006): 247-67. Mary Anne Layden, Ph.D. (Center for Cognitive Therapy, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania). Testimony for U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation, November 18, 2004, 2.) (Cathy Cleaver Ruse, “Pornography and its consequences,” Life Site News, July 31, 2014, https://www.lifesitenews.com/opinion/pornographyand-its-consequences)

“…the wives of these users have deep psychological wounds, with feelings of betrayal, mistrust, and anger towards their partner, sometimes requiring clinical treatment for trauma.” Source: Peter Jochen and Patti M. Valkenburg, "Adolescents' Exposure to Sexually Explicit Internet Material, Sexual Uncertainty, and Attitudes Toward Uncommitted Sexual Exploration: Is There a Lin?" Communication Research 35 (2008): 596; Todd G. Morrison, Shannon R. Ellis, Melanie A. Morrison, Anomi Bearden, and Rebecca L. Harriman, "Exposure to Sexually Explicit Material and Variations in Body Esteem, Genital Attitudes, and Sexual Esteem Among a Sample of Canadian Men," The Journal of Men's Studies 14 (2006): 209-22 (216-7); Michele L. Ybarra and Kimberly J. Mitchell, "Exposure to Internet Pornography among Children and Adolescents: A National Survey," CyberPsychology & Behavior 8 (2005): 473-86 (479). (Cathy Cleaver Ruse, “Pornography and its consequences,” Life Site News, July 31, 2014, https://www.lifesitenews.com/opinion/pornography-andits-consequences)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

60

“The solitary and secretive natures of internet pornography consumption do not isolate the impact from others; rather, the impact of viewing the sexually explicit material is often being felt by the entire family system, not to mention other systems (i.e. work) of the user.” (Vivan Chan, MC, RCC, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Wells, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impact-of-pornography-on-marital-relationships/)

“These are some of the devastating effects of Internet pornography upon marriage, the family and the individual:” “It destroys the trust and intimacy within the husband-wife relationship and often leads to the end of the marriage itself.” (Gerald Korson, “Overcoming Obstacles, Pornography”, For Your Marriage, Accessed December 22, 2015, http://www.foryourmarriage.org/everymarriage/overcoming-obstacles/pornography/)

“It creates obstacles to real communication and personal interaction with one’s spouse and with others.” (Gerald Korson, “Overcoming Obstacles, Pornography”, For Your Marriage, Accessed December 22, 2015, http://www.foryourmarriage.org/everymarriage/overcoming-obstacles/pornography/)

“Pornography: One Of The Greatest Enemies Of The Family Today” “Dr. Victor Cline, a clinical psychologist, who has treated over 300 sex addicts documents the slippery slope to addiction. He says the four steps are: addiction, escalation, desensitization, and acting out.” (“Pornography: one of the greatest enemies of the family today”, April 2, 2012, http://www.tldm.org/News6/purity2.htm)

“The main defenses against pornography are close family life, a good marriage and good relations between parents and children, coupled with deliberate parental monitoring of Internet use. Traditionally, government has kept a tight lid on sexual traffic and businesses, but in matters of pornography that has waned almost completely, except where child pornography is concerned. Given the massive, deleterious individual, marital, family, and social effects of pornography, it is time for citizens, communities, and government to reconsider their laissez-faire approach.” (Pat Fagan, “The Effects of Pornography on Individuals, Marriage, Family and Community,” Family Research Council, March 2011, IF11C04, http://www.frc.org/issuebrief/the-effects-of-pornography-onindividuals-marriage-family-and-community)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

61

“The Family And Pornography” “Pornography use is a pathway to infidelity and divorce, and is frequently a major factor in these family disasters.” (Pat Fagan, “The Effects of Pornography on Individuals, Marriage, Family and Community,” Family Research Council, March 2011, IF11C04, http://www.frc.org/issuebrief/the-effects-of-pornography-on-individuals-marriage-family-and-community)

“Pornography viewing leads to a loss of interest in good family relations.” (Pat Fagan, “The Effects of Pornography on Individuals, Marriage, Family and Community,” Family Research Council, March 2011, IF11C04, http://www.frc.org/issuebrief/theeffects-of-pornography-on-individuals-marriage-family-and-community)

“The primary effects of pornography according to the ‘Prolife Encyclopedia,’” “Even ‘soft’ porn is harmful--to everyone.” (“Pornography: one of the greatest enemies of the family today,” These Last Days Ministries, April 2, 2012, http://www.tldm.org/News6/purity2.htm)

“All pornography desensitizes the viewer.” (“Pornography: one of the greatest enemies of the family today,” These Last Days Ministries, April 2, 2012, http://www.tldm.org/News6/purity2.htm)

“Pornography is addictive.” (“Pornography: one of the greatest enemies of the family today,” These Last Days Ministries, April 2, 2012, http://www.tldm.org/News6/purity2.htm)

“Pornography degrades marriages.” (“Pornography: one of the greatest enemies of the family today,” These Last Days Ministries, April 2, 2012, http://www.tldm.org/News6/purity2.htm)

“Pornography increases crime in dangerous offenders.” (“Pornography: one of the greatest enemies of the family today,” These Last Days Ministries, April 2, 2012, http://www.tldm.org/News6/purity2.htm)

“Pornography encourages and facilitates other crimes.” (“Pornography: one of the greatest enemies of the family today,” These Last Days Ministries, April 2, 2012, http://www.tldm.org/News6/purity2.htm)

Consequences Of Porn Use: “Pornography blinds us to God (Matthew 5:8). It blurs our eyes to his goodness, truth, and beauty.” (Marshall Segal, “Never Harmless, Never Private, Never Safe”, Desiring God.Org, October 26, 2016, http://www.desiringgod.org/articles/never-harmlessnever-private-never-safe)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

62

“Pornography trains us to treat women as objects, as less than human. It portrays them as possessions to be used and enjoyed, and then thrown away.” (Marshall Segal, “Never Harmless, Never Private, Never Safe”, Desiring God.Org, October 26, 2016, http://www.desiringgod.org/articles/neverharmless-never-private-never-safe)

“Pornography quickly bankrupts trust in a relationship. It encourages us to lie and hide from others, to walk in darkness and then build walls around ourselves in the darkness.” (Marshall Segal, “Never Harmless, Never Private, Never Safe”, Desiring God.Org, October 26, 2016, http://www.desiringgod.org/articles/never-harmless-never-private-never-safe)

“Pornography grossly stunts our maturity, the development of our mind and our gifts — our abilities to understand God and love others.” (Marshall Segal, “Never Harmless, Never Private, Never Safe”, Desiring God.Org, October 26, 2016, http://www.desiringgod.org/articles/never-harmless-never-privatenever-safe)

“Pornography pursues an undergraduate degree in selfishness, training us over and over to focus on ourselves, prefer ourselves, and serve ourselves.” (Marshall Segal, “Never Harmless, Never Private, Never Safe”, Desiring God.Org, October 26, 2016, http://www.desiringgod.org/articles/neverharmless-never-private-never-safe)

“Pornography is teaching many children an awful, evil distortion of love and sex even before their parents explain the truth to them.” (Marshall Segal, “Never Harmless, Never Private, Never Safe”, Desiring God.Org, October 26, 2016, http://www.desiringgod.org/articles/never-harmless-never-privatenever-safe)

“‘In an IPPR poll last year, 61% of young people said adults are out of touch with young people's relationships and friendships, and 56% said adults find it hard to understand or help with online issues.’” (“One in ten children aged 12 and 13 ‘involved in sexually explicit videos’”, The Telegraph, March 30, 2015, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/health/children/11505252/One-in-ten-children-aged-12-and-13-involvedin-sexually-explicit-videos.html)

“The solitary and secretive natures of internet pornography consumption do not isolate the impact from others; rather, the impact of viewing the sexually explicit material is often being felt by the entire family system, not to mention other systems (i.e. work) of the user.” (Vivan Chan, MC, RCC, “The Impact of Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

63

Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Wells, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impact-of-pornography-on-marital-relationships/)

“It draws focus away from one’s family life and relationship with God and sets a destructive example for one’s children.” (Gerald Korson, “Overcoming Obstacles, Pornography”, For Your Marriage, Accessed December 22, 2015, http://www.foryourmarriage.org/everymarriage/overcoming-obstacles/pornography/)

“The solitary and secretive natures of internet pornography consumption do not isolate the impact from others; rather, the impact of viewing the sexually explicit material is often being felt by the entire family system, not to mention other systems (i.e. work) of the user.” (Vivan Chan, MC, RCC, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Wells, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impact-of-pornography-on-marital-relationships/)

“Family Values and Desire for Progeny” “Prolonged exposure to pornography spawns doubts about the value of marriage as an essential social institution and about its future viability.” (James B. Weaver III, “Effects of Pornography Addiction on Families and Communities”, Dr. Judith Reisman, November 18, 2014, http://www.drjudithreisman.com/archives/Senate-Testimony20041118_Weaver.pdf)

“It also diminishes the desire for offspring in such settings. The strongest effect of this kind concerns the aspiration of female viewers for female children.” (James B. Weaver III, “Effects of Pornography Addiction on Families and Communities”, Dr. Judith Reisman, November 18, 2014, http://www.drjudithreisman.com/archives/SenateTestimony-20041118_Weaver.pdf)

“The social implications of these data are significant, but we need to know more. The American Psychiatric Association is likely to add pornography addiction to their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual this year. Congress should fund a long-term, multidisciplinary analysis of the effects of porn addiction on marriage and family life. The National Institutes of Health are granted billions of taxpayer dollars for research on a wide variety of publichealth problems, and yet pornography addiction is not among them. Most health-insurance companies provide little to no coverage for treatment of this problem, and the health-care legislation signed into law last week promises more of the same. The fact is that the moral and financial needs of couples struggling with this form of addiction will remain unaddressed in a country that views pornography use as a constitutional right.” (Anonymous, “National Review: Getting Serious on Pornography,” NPR, March 31, 2010, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=125382361)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

64

“I will never know with full certainty that pornography caused my husband to abandon me and our children. Although I loved him deeply, I was far from a perfect wife. In retrospect, I wish I had understood what he was experiencing and had acted to help him. If anything is clear to me, it is this: We must learn more about this scourge and its effects on families. The Witherspoon report makes it clear that countless women — and increasingly many men — have experienced the devastating effects of their spouse's pornography use. Countless more will experience it in the future. It is our obligation as a nation to pursue the truth for their sake, no matter how inconvenient for some the verdict may be.” (Anonymous, “National Review: Getting Serious on Pornography,” NPR, March 31, 2010, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=125382361)

“There’s so many ways you will improve by just dropping one thing out of your life, it’s incredible. It seems so obvious and crazy that not everybody does it. But porn is so addicting and drawing which is why most men will never quit. But you can.” (Sean Russell, “The Top 10 Reason to Stop Watching Porn”, Men Provement, August 29, 2013, http://www.menprovement.com/the-top-10-reasons-to-stop-watching-porn/)

“Some warning signs of addiction might be:” • “Preoccupation with Internet gaming/porn” “Withdrawal symptoms when Internet is taken away” • “Development of tolerance. This means the need to spend increasing amounts of time engaged in gaming/porn to get the same effect/pleasure” • “Unable to control gaming/porn habits” • “Continued use despite knowledge of negative impact” • “Loss of previous interest in hobbies, entertainment, sports” • “Use of gaming/sports to escape unpleasant moods” • “Deception toward family, therapists and others regarding amount of time spent gaming/on porn sites” • “Loss of job, relationship, career opportunity because of gaming/porn use” (Anne Engelland, “Adolescent Online Porn Addiction”, Your Brain on Porn, August 8, 2012, http://yourbrainonporn.com/adolescent-online-porn-addiction)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

65

#3 THE INDIVIDUAL AND PORN Community “Social scientists, clinical psychologists, and biologists have begun to clarify some of the social and psychological effects, and neurologists are beginning to delineate the biological mechanisms through which pornography produces its powerful negative effects.” Key Findings on the Effects of Pornography 1. “The Family and Pornography” 2. “Married men who are involved in pornography feel less satisfied with their conjugal relations and less emotionally attached to their wives. Wives notice and are upset by the difference.” 3. “Pornography use is a pathway to infidelity and divorce, and is frequently a major factor in these family disasters.” 4. “Among couples affected by one spouse’s addiction, two-thirds experience a loss of interest in sexual intercourse.” 5. “Both spouses perceive pornography viewing as tantamount to infidelity.” 6. “Pornography viewing leads to a loss of interest in good family relations.” 7. “Pornography is addictive, and neuroscientists are beginning to map the biological substrate of this addiction.” 8. “Users tend to become desensitized to the type of pornography they use, become bored with it, and then seek more perverse forms of pornography.” 9. “Men who view pornography regularly have a higher tolerance for abnormal sexuality, including rape, sexual aggression, and sexual promiscuity.” 10. “Prolonged consumption of pornography by men produces stronger notions of women as commodities or as ‘sex objects.”

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

66

11. “Pornography engenders greater sexual permissiveness, which in turn leads to a greater risk of out-of-wedlock births and STDs. These, in turn, lead to still more weaknesses and debilities.” 12. “Child-sex offenders are more likely to view pornography regularly or to be involved in its distribution.” 13. “Many adolescents who view pornography initially feel shame, diminished self-confidence, and sexual uncertainty, but these feelings quickly shift to unadulterated enjoyment with regular viewing.” “The main defenses against pornography are • close family life • a good marriage • good relations between parents and children • coupled with deliberate parental monitoring of Internet use.” “Pornography’s power to undermine individual and social functioning is powerful and deep.” 1. “Effect on the Mind: Pornography significantly distorts attitudes and perceptions about the nature of sexual intercourse. Men who habitually look at pornography have a higher tolerance for abnormal sexual behaviors, sexual aggression, promiscuity, and even rape. In addition, men begin to view women and even children as ‘sex objects,’ or commodities or instruments for their pleasure, not as persons with their own inherent dignity.” 2. “Effect on the Body: Pornography is very addictive. The addictive aspect of pornography has a biological substrate, with dopamine hormone release acting as one of the mechanisms for forming the transmission pathway to pleasure centers of the brains. Also, the increased sexual permissiveness engendered by pornography increases the risk of contracting a sexually transmitted disease or of being an unwitting parent in an out-of-wedlock pregnancy.”

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

67

3. “Effect on the Heart: Pornography affects people’s emotional lives. Married men who are involved in pornography feel less satisfied with their marital sexual relations and less emotionally attached to their wives. Women married to men with a pornography addiction report feelings of betrayal, mistrust, and anger. Pornographic use may lead to infidelity and even divorce. Adolescents who view pornography feel shame, diminished self-confidence, and sexual uncertainty.” 4. “Impact on Children: The impact of a parent’s use of pornography on young children is varied and disturbing. Pornography eliminates the warmth of affectionate family life, which is the natural social nutrient for a growing child. Other losses and traumas related to the use of pornography when a child is young include:” • “Encountering pornographic material a parent has acquired;” • “Encountering a parent masturbating;” • “Overhearing a parent engaged in ‘phone-sex’;” • “Witnessing and experiencing stress in the home caused by online sexual activities;” • “Increased risk of the children becoming consumers of pornography themselves;” • “Witnessing and being involved in parental conflict;” • “Exposure to eh commodification of human beings, especially women, as ‘sex objects’;” • “Increased risk of parental job loss and financial strain;” • “Increased risk of parental separation and divorce;” • “Decreased parental time and attention – both from the pornography – addicted parent and from the parent preoccupied with the addicted spouse.” Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

68

“Also, parents may disclose their struggle with the addiction to pornography to their children, intentionally or unintentionally, thereby distorting their children’s sexual development.” “Repeated exposure to pornography eventually wipes out any feeling of shame and disgust and gives way, instead, to unadulterated enjoyment.” (Patrick F. Fagan, Ph.D. “The Effects of Pornography on Individuals, Marriage, Family, and Community,https://www.movieguide.org/news-articles/the-effects-of-pornography-on-individualsmarriage-family-and-community.html )

“Effect on self-esteem. The reason some respondents gave for why cybersex is so destructive is the adverse effect on their self-esteem.” “True, you don’t have the risk of the diseases, but it is still an emotional thing. It’s hard to think that the sex addict wants to do it without the actual touch—how can it be better for them? Especially since they have to do all the work themselves!! Plus, when the sex addict is with you, they are not really there emotionally. They are thinking about and picturing the ‘others’ that they were with, what they were saying to them, etc. So: the sex addict is getting off on something that has nothing to do with you. It really hurts your selfesteem, and most of us don’t have a very good self-esteem as it is. [37-year old woman, married 17 years]” “I can’t compete with fantasy/can’t measure up/comparison with.” “Cybersex taps into partners’ deepest insecurities about their ability to measure up. The need to compete with interactive sex online pressures them into unwanted sexual activities. “Sex with the fantasy leaves practically nothing left to be desired when compared with the all too human and flawed spouse,’ explained one woman.” “Another wondered, ‘When he closes his eyes when we are together, what is he thinking of? The babe on the screen? Is he happy with my body? Is he grossed out?” “He does not have an actual human mistress from the internet, but the internet pornography is the ‘mistress’ that is coming between us. The idealized images of perfect women make me feel inadequate. Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

69

Conversely, the kinky and perverted behaviors shown all over the internet fuel his beliefs and give him ammunition to say that I am the ‘weird one’ for not wanting anal sex – ‘See all of the women out there on the internet who are just crazy about it!’ [31 year old woman married 3 years]” “On the internet it is possible to find groups of people who are interested in all kinds of unusual or even deviant sexual practices. Interacting with these people desensitizes the user to these activities and ‘normalizes’ them. Some cybersex users eventually come to blame their partners for being unwilling to engage in these behaviors.” “It has adversely affected our relationship. Some SOs focused not on the adultery aspect of cybersex, but rather on the overall effect on the couple relationship:” “What’s the fuss? I tell them that not everyone who looks at pornography is an addict, that some are merely curious. But when the addict never admits to viewing pornography, when he goes to great lengths to hide it, when he lies about his whereabouts and what he’s doing, when he lies about his use of pornography to the marriage counselor he’s agreed to go to because he wants to save his marriage, that’s when it becomes a problem. I tell them I knew something was wrong in our intimate relationship and I always wondered who he was making love to, because it never was me. [39year old woman, divorced after an 8-year marriage].” “Partners who have experienced both. Several partners who had dealt with both cyberaffairs and live affairs said they hurt the same:” “They should try it for themselves one time, and see how it feels to be less important to their partner than a picture on a computer screen! They should see what it feels like to lie in bed and know their partner is on the computer and what he is doing with it. It’s not going to do much for the self-esteem. My husband has actually cheated on me and it FEELS NO DIFFERENT. The online ‘safe’ cheating has just as

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

70

dirty, filthy, a feel to it as does the ‘real-life’ cheating. [38-year old woman, married 18 year]” (Jennifer P. Schneider, “Effects of cybersex addiction on the family: Results of a survey”, site accessed 9.21.17, http://www.jenniferschneider.com/articles/cybersex_family.html)

“Users tend to become desensitized to and bored with the type of pornography they use, seeking more perverse forms of sexual imagery.” (Source: Dolf Zillman, "Influence of Unrestrained Access to Erotica on Adolescents' and Young Adults' Dispositions toward Sexuality," Journal of Adolescent Health 27S (2000): 41.) (Cathy Cleaver Ruse, “Pornography and its consequences,” Life Site News, July 31, 2014, https://www.lifesitenews.com/opinion/pornography-and-its-consequences) (Cathy Cleaver Ruse, “Pornography and its consequences,” Life Site News, July 31, 2014, https://www.lifesitenews.com/opinion/pornography-and-its-consequences)

“Dr. Mary Anne Layden concludes, ‘Having spent so much time in unnatural sexual experiences with paper, celluloid and cyberspace, they seem to find it difficult to have sex with a real human being.’” (Luke Gilkerson, “Your Brain on Porn”, Covenant Eyes, Accessed July 29, 2016, http://www.covenanteyes.com/brain-ebook/)

“Men who view pornography regularly have a higher tolerance for abnormal sexuality, including rape, sexual aggression, and sexual promiscuity.” (Source: Vanessa Vega and Neil M. Malamuth, "Predicting Sexual Aggression: The Role of Pornography in the Context of General and Specific Risk Factors," Aggressive Behavior 33 (2007): 104-17 (109); Zillman, "Influence of Unrestrained Access to Erotica," 42.) (Cathy Cleaver Ruse, “Pornography and its consequences,” Life Site News, July 31, 2014, https://www.lifesitenews.com/opinion/pornography-and-its-consequences)

“Prolonged consumption of pornography by men produces notions of women as commodities or as ‘sex objects.’” (Source: Peter Jochen and Patti M. Valkenburg, "Adolescents' Exposure to a Sexualized Media Environment and Their Notions of Women as Sex Objects," Sex Roles 56 (2007): 381-395 (390) (Cathy Cleaver Ruse, “Pornography and its consequences,” Life Site News, July 31, 2014, https://www.lifesitenews.com/opinion/pornography-and-its-consequences)

“Pornography engenders greater sexual permissiveness, leading to a greater risk of out-of-wedlock births and STDs.” (Source: Nicole Daluga, "A Content Analysis of Sexual Risk and Protective Behaviors and Messages in Sexually Explicit Web Pages Viewed by a National Probability Sample of U.S. Adolescents" (Atlanta, Georgia: Rollins School of Public Health of Emory University, 2002), 255-279; Gina M. Wingood, Ralph J. DiClemente, Kathy Harrington, Suzy Davies, Edward W. Hook, and M. Kim Oh, "Exposure to Xrated Movies and Adolescents' Sexual and Contraceptive-related Attitudes and Behaviors," Pediatrics 107 (2001): 1116-19.) (Cathy Cleaver Ruse, “Pornography and its consequences,” Life Site News, July 31, 2014, https://www.lifesitenews.com/opinion/pornography-and-itsconsequences)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

71

“Child-sex offenders are more likely to view pornography regularly or to be involved in its distribution.” (Source: W.L. Marshall, "The Use of Sexually Explicit Stimuli by Rapists, Child Molesters, and Nonoffenders," The Journal of Sex Research 25 (1988): 267-288 (279) (Cathy Cleaver Ruse, “Pornography and its consequences,” Life Site News, July 31, 2014, https://www.lifesitenews.com/opinion/pornography-and-its-consequences)

“A greater amount of sexual stimuli becomes necessary to arouse habitual users, leading them to pursue more deviant forms of pornography to fulfill their sexual desires, e.g., watching ‘depictions of group sex, sadomasochistic practices, and sexual contact with animals.’” (Source: Zillman, "Influence of Unrestrained Access to Erotica," 41; James B. Weaver III, "The Effects of Pornography Addiction on Families and Communities," (Testimony presented before the Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space of the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, Washington, D.C., November 18, 2004), 3.) (Cathy Cleaver Ruse, “Pornography and its consequences,” Life Site News, July 31, 2014, https://www.lifesitenews.com/opinion/pornography-and-its-consequences)

“One of the most comprehensive meta-analyses regarding pornography’s effects on individuals is a relatively recent study conducted by OddonePaolucci, Genuis, and Violato (2000). (Oddone-Paolucci, E., Genius, M., & Violato, C. (January 2000). A meta-analysis of the published research on the effects of pornography. The Changing Family and Child Development, 48–59.) For this meta-analysis, 46 studies

published in various academic journals were analyzed to determine the effect of pornography on: “Sexual deviancy (e.g., excessive or ritualistic masturbation)” “Sexual perpetration (e.g., rape)” “Attitudes regarding intimate relationships (e.g., viewing people as sexual objects)” “Attitudes regarding the rape myth (e.g., believing women cause rape or rapists deserve lenient sentences). In order to be selected for the metaanalysis, each study had to include a sample size of 12 or greater and include a comparison group. The studies ranged in date from 1962 to 1995 and comprised a total sample of 12,323 people. Eighty-five percent of the studies (39) were conducted in the United States, 11 percent (5) were conducted in Canada, and two studies were conducted in Europe. Table 1 shows the number of studies and sample size for each outcome examined in the meta-analysis.” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf) Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

72

“…found that exposure to pornographic material puts one at increased risk for developing sexually deviant tendencies, committing sexual offenses, experiencing difficulties in one’s intimate relationships, and accepting rape myths. In terms of the degree of risk, the analysis revealed a 31 percent increase in the risk of sexual deviancy, a 22 percent increase in the risk of sexual perpetration, a 20 percent increase in the risk of experiencing negative intimate relationships, and a 31 percent increase in the risk of believing rape myths.” (These percentages were based on the average weighted Cohen d scores, which is a measure of effect size. Uncorrected average weighted d scores were also available for all of the outcomes. Correcting for demographics (i.e., age, gender, socioeconomic status, etc.), the effect sizes were higher for deviancy and intimate relations; corrected d scores were not available for the sex perpetration or rape myth outcomes.) (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Relationships aren't the only area where compulsive porn use can be damaging. Psychologists describe anecdotal reports of people losing their jobs because they couldn't control the urge to visit adult websites at work, for instance. "When porn use becomes so intense in frequency or duration, it starts to interfere with the other aspects of a person's life," Bridges says.” (Kirsten Weir, “Is Pornography Addictive?”, American Psychological Association, April 2014, http://www.apa.org/monitor/2014/04/pornography.aspx)

“How Porn Affects Sexual Tastes” “In a survey of 1,500 young adult men, 56% said their tastes in porn had become ‘increasingly extreme or deviant. [11] Just like the rats, many porn consumers eventually find themselves getting aroused by things that used to disgust them or things that they might have previously considered to be inappropriate or unethical. [12] In many cases, porn consumers find their tastes so changed that they can no longer respond sexually to their actual partners, though they can still respond to porn. [13]” 11] NoFap Survey (2012) Http://Www.Reddit.Com/R/NoFap/Comments/Updy4/Rnofap_survey_data_complete_datasets/ [12] Wery, A. & Billieux, J. (2016). Online Sexual Activities: An Exploratory Study Of Problematic And Non-Problematic Usage Patterns In A Sample Of Men. Computers In Human Behavior 56, 257-266. Doi:10.1016/J.Chb.2015.11.046; Park, B. Y., Et Al. (2016). Is Internet Pornography Causing Sexual Dysfunctions? A Review With Clinical Reports. Behavioral Sciences, 6, 17. Doi:10.3390/Bs6030017; Paul, P. (2010). From Pornography To Porno To Porn: How Porn Became The Norm. In J. Stoner And D. Hughes (Eds.) The Social Costs Of Pornography: A Collection Of

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

73

Papers (Pp. 3–20). Princeton, N.J.: Witherspoon Institute. [13] Park, B. Y., Et Al. (2016). Is Internet Pornography Causing Sexual Dysfunctions? A Review With Clinical Reports. Behavioral Sciences, 6, 17. Doi:10.3390/Bs6030017; Voon, V., Et Al. (2014). Neural Correlates Of Sexual Cue Reactivity In Individuals With And Without Compulsive Sexual Behaviors, PLoS ONE, 9(7), E102419. Doi:10.1371/Journal.Pone.0102419; Hall, P. (2013). Sex Addiction—An Extraordinarily Contentious Problem. Sexual And Relationship Therapy, 29(1) 68-75. Doi:10.1080/14681994.2013.861898; Sun, C., Bridges, A., Johnason, J., & Ezzell, M. (2014) Pornography And The Male Sexua Script: An Analysis Of Consumption And Sexual Relations. Archives Of Sexual Behavior. 45, 1-12. Doi:10.1007/S10508-014-0391-2. Doidge, N. (2007). The Brain That Changes Itself. New York: Penguin Books. (130). (Fight the New Drug, August 23, 2017, “How Porn Affects Sexual Tastes”, site accessed 11.1.17, http://fightthenewdrug.org/why-consuming-porn-is-an-escalating-behavior/)

“Pornography is addictive, and neuroscientists are beginning to map the biological substrate of this addiction.” (Pat Fagan, “The Effects of Pornography on Individuals, Marriage, Family and Community,” Family Research Council, March 2011, IF11C04, http://www.frc.org/issuebrief/the-effects-of-pornography-on-individuals-marriage-family-and-community)

“Users tend to become desensitized to the type of pornography they use, become bored with it, and then seek more perverse forms of pornography.” (Pat Fagan, “The Effects of Pornography on Individuals, Marriage, Family and Community,” Family Research Council, March 2011, IF11C04, http://www.frc.org/issuebrief/the-effects-of-pornography-on-individuals-marriage-family-andcommunity)

“Pornography” “Consider if and how your own pornography use has affected your expectations of bodies, both yours and your partners’:” (“Pornography”, Brown University, Accessed September 17, 2015, http://brown.edu/Student_Services/Health_Services/Health_Education/sexual_health/sexuality/pornograp hy.php)

“Does your pornography use create unrealistic expectations regarding female breasts, vulva, pubic hair, or body type?” (“Pornography”, Brown University, Accessed September 17, 2015, http://brown.edu/Student_Services/Health_Services/Health_Education/sexual_health/sexuality/po rnography.php)

“Does your pornography use create unrealistic expectations regarding male penis size, capacity for multiple orgasm, stamina or body type?” (“Pornography”, Brown University, Accessed September 17, 2015, http://brown.edu/Student_Services/Health_Services/Health_Education/sexual_health/sexuality/po rnography.php)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

74

“Pornography may also change your expectations of sex to normalize degrading, violent or cruel sexual practices.” (“Pornography”, Brown University, Accessed September 17, 2015, http://brown.edu/Student_Services/Health_Services/Health_Education/sexual_health/sexuality/po rnography.php)

“Does the pornography you consume glorify violence against sexual partners, depict rape, physically painful sex, cruelty, non-consensual sex, sex with children or sex with animals?” (“Pornography”, Brown University, Accessed September 17, 2015, http://brown.edu/Student_Services/Health_Services/Health_Education/sexual_health/sexuality/po rnography.php)

“Does the pornography you consume depict the degradation of those in the film or photographs by showing acts like ejaculation on one partner’s face or breasts?”(“Pornography”, Brown University, Accessed September 17, 2015, http://brown.edu/Student_Services/Health_Services/Health_Education/sexual_health/sexuality/po rnography.php)

“Short-term mentality. Watching porn may also make people value immediate payoffs over delayed gratification, a study published in September in the Journal of Sex Research found.” (Tia Ghose, “5 Ways Porn Affects the Brain”, Live Science, October 13, 2015, http://www.livescience.com/52469-how-porn-affectsbrains.html)

“Compared with people who abstained from eating their favorite food, people who were asked to abstain from porn for three weeks showed a lower rate of ‘delay discounting,’ meaning they were willing to wait longer for a reward. (Delay discounting refers to the phenomenon in which a reward becomes less valuable the longer one has to wait to receive it.)” (Tia Ghose, “5 Ways Porn Affects the Brain”, Live Science, October 13, 2015, http://www.livescience.com/52469-how-porn-affects-brains.html)

“So simply avoiding porn can put people into a more long-term mindset, the researchers found.” (Tia Ghose, “5 Ways Porn Affects the Brain”, Live Science, October 13, 2015, http://www.livescience.com/52469-how-porn-affects-brains.html)

“‘Lads see what happens in porn and expect to be able to act out those things with girls,’ he says. ‘Girls often believe that this is also how they should behave, even though these behaviours are often deeply misogynistic and even dehumanising for them.’” (Martin Saunders, “Grey Matter: 50 Shades, pornography and the shaping of our brains”, Premier Christianity, 2014,

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

75

https://www.premierchristianity.com/Past-Issues/2015/February-2015/Grey-Matter-50-Shadespornography-and-the-shaping-of-our-brains)

“Men’s exposure to sexually explicit material is correlated with social anxiety, depression, low motivation, erectile dysfunction, concentration problems, and negative self-perceptions in terms of physical appearance . and sexual functioning.” (Joe Carter, “9 Things You Should Know about Pornography and the Brain”, The Gospel Coalition, May 8, 2013, http://www.thegospelcoalition.org/article/9-things-you-shouldknow-about-pornography-and-the-brain)

“In partnerships, a decrease in sexual satisfaction and a tendency to adopt pornographic scripts have been associated with frequent Internet pornography consumption.” (Knudsen SV, Mårtenson LL, Månsson S-A. Generation P? Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus Universitetsforlag; 2007) (Simone Kühn, Ph.D., Jürgen Gallinat, PhD, “Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity Associated with Pornography Consumption,” JAMA Psychiatry, July 2014, Vol.71, No.7, http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1874574)

“A longitudinal study following Internet users has found that accessing pornography online was predictive of compulsive computer use after 1 year.” (Meerkerk G-J, Van Den Eijnden RJ, Garretsen HFL. Predicting compulsive Internet use: it’s all about sex! Cyberpsychol Behav. 2006;9(1):95-103) (Simone Kühn, Ph.D., Jürgen Gallinat, PhD, “Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity Associated with Pornography Consumption,” JAMA Psychiatry, July 2014, Vol.71, No.7, http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1874574)

“Their frequency of viewing pornography (3-5 times a week or more) is related to elevated depression, anxiety, and loneliness…less overall happiness and life satisfaction. These are the results of research on more than 3,000 married and single men and women.” (Kevin B. Skinner, Ph.D., “How Porn Really Affects Relationships,” Psychology Today, August 5, 2014, https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/inside-porn-addiction/201408/how-porn-really-affectsrelationships)

“Viewing pornography can distort realistic views of healthy sexuality, lead to the objectification of women, and promote sexual gratification as a top emotional priority. Insensitivity to a partner’s personal needs and feelings are often a hallmark of relationships where pornography is involved. Even though pornography may be viewed in secret, the inability to connect with a partner and loved ones is often felt by all.” (“Safety Net – Resources to Protect Your Family from Pornography,” Healthy Sandy Partnership, www.healthysandy.org/fileadmin/downloads/healthy_sandy/Ecclesiastical_Packet.pdf)

“Severe clinical depression was reported twice as frequently among porn users as compared to non-porn users.” (Christian Post, December 30, 2013)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

76

“New Research Shows Pornography Use Decreases Satisfaction” “A new meta-analysis–a reliable method for combining relevant data from various studies for greater statistical power—examined the impact of pornography consumption on individuals’ interpersonal satisfaction.” “The paper, entitled Pornography Consumption and Satisfaction: A MetaAnalysis, concluded that ‘Pornography consumption was associated with lower interpersonal satisfaction outcomes in cross-sectional surveys, longitudinal surveys, and experiments.’” “Pornography rewires an individual’s sexuality to pixels on a screen rather than to a real person, which is inherently inconsistent with healthy, organic relationships.” “In partnerships, a decrease in sexual satisfaction and a tendency to adopt pornographic scripts have been associated with frequent Internet pornography consumption.” (Knudsen SV, Mårtenson LL, Månsson S-A. Generation P? Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus Universitetsforlag; 2007) (Simone Kühn, PhD; Jürgen Gallinat, PhD, “Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity Associated with Pornography Consumption,” JAMA Psychiatry. 2014;71(7):827-834, http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1874574)

“The numbers were dramatic: 47 per cent of the male subjects watched between 30 minutes to three hours of porn per day, one in three said it harmed their work efforts, and one in five would rather watch porn than have sex with their partners.” (Naomi Wolf, “How Porn is Destroying Modern Sex Lives, Feminist Writer Naomi Wolf has an Unsettling Explanation for why Britons are Having Less Sex,” Your Brain on Porn.com, December 12, 2013, http://www.yourbrainonporn.com/how-porn-destroying-modernsex-lives-feminist-writer-naomi-wolf-has-unsettling-explanation-why)

Implications of Porn 1) “People who watch porn have lower levels of sexual satisfaction with their partner” “Drs. Dolf Zillman and Jennings Bryant, in their now-famous porn experiments back in the 1980s, found the more video porn one watches, the more dissatisfied someone is with their partner’s physical appearance and sexual performance.” (Matt Fradd, “5 Ways Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

77

Watching Porn is Terrible for your Romantic Relationships”, Life Site News, April 23, 2015, https://www.lifesitenews.com/blogs/5-ways-watching-porn-is-terrible-for-your-romanticrelationships)

“A study published in the Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy reports similar findings. After being exposed to centerfold models from Playboy or Penthouse, subjects had significantly lower judgments about the attractiveness of ‘average’ people.” (Matt Fradd, “5 Ways Watching Porn is Terrible for your Romantic Relationships”, Life Site News, April 23, 2015, https://www.lifesitenews.com/blogs/5-ways-watching-porn-is-terrible-for-your-romanticrelationships)

2. “People who watch porn have lower levels of relational commitment” “The Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology released the result of several studies about the impact of porn on relationships. In one experiment, half of a group gave up porn for three weeks, and the other half gave up their favorite food, but were allowed to watch porn. Interestingly, those who quit porn showed increased commitment to their romantic relationship at the end of the three weeks.” (Matt Fradd, “5 Ways Watching Porn is Terrible for your Romantic Relationships”, Life Site News, April 23, 2015, https://www.lifesitenews.com/blogs/5-ways-watching-porn-is-terrible-for-your-romanticrelationships)

3. “People who watch porn have higher levels of negative communication with their partner” “According to a study published in the Archives of Sexual Behavior, compared to those who watch porn alone or watch porn with their partner, those who don’t view any porn have lower levels of negative communication with their romantic partner.” (Matt Fradd, “5 Ways Watching Porn is Terrible for your Romantic Relationships”, Life Site News, April 23, 2015, https://www.lifesitenews.com/blogs/5-ways-watching-porn-is-terrible-for-your-romanticrelationships)

4. “People who watch porn are more likely to cheat” “Some men have thought—or even said out loud to their partner—’At least I go to porn to get my needs met. I don’t sleep around.’ This hardly serves as a vote of confidence, does it? He’s essentially saying, ‘If I didn’t have the ability to get off to virtual women, who

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

78

knows what I would do to real women?’ Hmmm, right. #StayClassyExBoyfriend” (Matt Fradd, “5 Ways Watching Porn is Terrible for your Romantic Relationships”, Life Site News, April 23, 2015, https://www.lifesitenews.com/blogs/5ways-watching-porn-is-terrible-for-your-romantic-relationships)

5. “In one study, for those who don’t watch any porn, their rate of infidelity is at least half of those who had watched porn either alone or with their partners.” (Matt Fradd, “5 Ways Watching Porn is Terrible for your Romantic Relationships”, Life Site News, April 23, 2015, https://www.lifesitenews.com/blogs/5-wayswatching-porn-is-terrible-for-your-romantic-relationships)

6. “Another study found, regardless of how satisfied one feels in their own relationship, watching porn heightens a person’s perceptions that ‘the grass is greener’ somewhere else, and they are more likely to flirt with others and cheat on their partner.” (Matt Fradd, “5 Ways Watching Porn is Terrible for your Romantic Relationships”, Life Site News, April 23, 2015, https://www.lifesitenews.com/blogs/5-ways-watching-porn-is-terrible-for-your-romanticrelationships)

“Other researchers have confirmed that 64 percent of all homosexual child molesters and 86 percent of all rapists used pornography at or immediately before the time of their crimes.” (“Pornography: one of the greatest enemies of the family today”, April 2, 2012, http://www.tldm.org/News6/purity2.htm)

“Pornography also encourages physically risky behavior. In pornography no one is shown contracting and dying from AIDS, and no negative consequences are ever shown for having deviant kinds of sex.” (Mary Anne Layden, PhD, “Pornography and Violence: A New Look at Research,” Social Costs of Pornography, Accessed November 19, 2015, http://www.socialcostsofpornography.com/Layden_Pornography_and_Violence.pdf)

RESULT “Continually watching pornography has been shown to produce an escalation effect. Fifteen years after this experiment, Dr. Zillmann continued research in this area, finding that the habitual use of pornography led to greater tolerance of sexually explicit material over time, requiring the viewer to consume more novel and bizarre material to achieve the same level of arousal or interest.” (Dolf Zillmann, “Influence of unrestrained access to erotic on adolescents’ and young adults’ disposition toward sexuality,” Journal of Adolescent Health vol.27, issue 2, Supplement 1, 2000.) (Luke Gilkerson, “Your Brain on Porn”, Covenant Eyes, Accessed July 29, 2016, http://www.covenanteyes.com/brain-ebook/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

79

“Winning the battle against pornography within our community and nation will require cooperation with all who oppose it. As good citizens, we should oppose pornography because it has a deteriorating effect on society...” (“Pornography: Biblical Insights, ERLC, August 4, 2009, https://erlc.com/article/pornography-biblicalinsights)

“Porn use creates the impression that aberrant sexual practices are more common than they really are, and that promiscuous behavior is normal. For example, in a 2000 meta-analysis of 46 published studies put out by the National Foundation for Family Research and Education at the University of Calgary, regular exposure to pornography increased risk of sexual deviancy (including lower age of first intercourse and excessive masturbation), increased belief in the ‘rape myth’ (that women cause rape and rapists are normal), and was associated with negative attitudes regarding intimate relationships (e.g., rejecting the need for courtship and viewing persons as sexual objects).” (Elizabeth Paolucci, Mark Genuis and Claudio Violato, “A Meta-Analysis of the Published Research on the Effects of Pornography, The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, Volume 135, Issue 1, 2001, http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00223980109603677) (“National Review: Getting Serious on Pornography”, NPR, March 31, 2010, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=125382361)

“If you don’t beat the lust and porn addiction: You lose true manhood, the abundant life, freedom, fulfillment, your reputations, confidence, purity and satisfying sex that God intended for you, your wife looses the husand God intended for her. (Note: DO NOT DATE IF YOU STRUGGLE WITH PORN!), your kids loose the example and role model they so desperately need, your church, community and country loose the man God intended for them and ultimately God and eternity lose because your life calling, prupose and fruitfulness are limited and hindered. The Ripple effect of Porn. You can’t control it! Who knows how far it will take you? Ted Bundy killed as many as 75 women.” (Nate Herbst, “Beating Pronography”, Sermon Central, February 4, 2009, http://www.sermoncentral.com/sermons/beating-pornography-nate-herbst-sermon-on-pornography131769?page=1)

“The research indicates pornography consumption is associated with the following six trends, among others:” 1. “Increased marital distress, and risk of separation and divorce,” 2. “Decreased marital intimacy and sexual satisfaction,”

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

80

3. “Infidelity” 4. “Increased appetite for more graphic types of pornography and sexual activity associated with abusive, illegal or unsafe practices,” 5. “Devaluation of monogamy, marriage and child rearing,” 6. “An increasing number of people struggling with compulsive and addictive sexual behavior.” (Chuck Derry, “The Sexualization of Harm in Contemporary Pornography”, Men as Peacemakers, July 17, 2009, http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:cgpdxrzlfMJ:www.menaspeacemakers.org/s/The-Sexualization-of-Harm-in-Contemporary-Pornography-7-1709.doc+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us)

“As part of the study, participants were exposed to either pornographic or innocuous, non-pornographic content in hourly sessions over six consecutive weeks. In the seventh week, participants were asked to rate their personal happiness regarding various domains of experience and the relative importance of gratifying experiences.” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Results showed that exposure to pornography negatively impacted self-assessment of sexual experience, while other aspects of life (e.g., professional satisfaction) remained constant. Participants reported less satisfaction with their intimate partner and specifically with their partner’s affection, physical appearance, sexual curiosity, and sexual performance.” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Additionally, participants who were repeatedly exposed to pornographic material assigned increased importance to sexual relations without emotional involvement. Furthermore, all of these effects were uniform across male and female participants. Although the authors point out that pornography is unlikely to be the only genre of entertainment to affect aesthetic dissatisfaction with self and/or one’s partner, it appears from the research that pornography is the only genre that impacts sexual dissatisfaction specifically.” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

81

“The addict willingly discloses the problem and Is completely open and honest before he is caught” (“Safety Net – Resources to Protect Your Family from Pornography,” Healthy Sandy Partnership, www.healthysandy.org/fileadmin/downloads/healthy_sandy/Ecclesiastical_Packet.pdf)

“The addict chooses to get appropriate help, including counseling and participation in a 12-Step program rather than assuming he can recover on his own” (“Safety Net – Resources to Protect Your Family from Pornography,” Healthy Sandy Partnership, www.healthysandy.org/fileadmin/downloads/healthy_sandy/Ecclesiastical_Packet.pdf)

“Concentration problems” (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/howpornography-addiction-affects-the-teenage-brain-infographic/)

“Low motivation” (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/how-pornographyaddiction-affects-the-teenage-brain-infographic/)

“Depression” (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/how-pornography-addictionaffects-the-teenage-brain-infographic/)

“Social Anxiety” (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/how-pornographyaddiction-affects-the-teenage-brain-infographic/)

“Negative self-perceptions in terms of physical appearance and sexual functioning.” (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/howpornography-addiction-affects-the-teenage-brain-infographic/)

“Erectile dysfunction” (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/howpornography-addiction-affects-the-teenage-brain-infographic/)

“Research demonstrates that repeated exposure to pornography results in…” • “Increased callousness toward women” • “Trivialization of rape as a criminal offense” • “Distorted perceptions about sexuality”

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

82

• “Increased appetite for more deviant and bizarre types of pornography” • “Devaluation of monogamy” • “Decreased satisfaction with a partner’s sexual performance, affection and physical appearance” • “Doubts about the value of marriage” • “Decreased desire to have children” • “Viewing non-monogamous relations as normal and natural behavior.” (“Safety Net – Resources to Protect Your Family from Pornography,” Healthy Sandy Partnership, www.healthysandy.org/fileadmin/downloads/healthy_sandy/Ecclesiastical_Packet.pdf)

“What are the effects of pornography on adults?” “Research has associated the following outcomes with the use of pornography by adults:” • “Desensitization to depicted behaviors and normalization of what is seen.” • “Increased appetite for more graphic types of pornography and abusive, unsafe, or illegal sexual practices.” • “Decreased marital intimacy and sexual satisfaction.” • “Infidelity.” • “Increased marital distress, separation, and divorce.” • “Devaluation of monogamy, marriage, and child-rearing.” • “Struggles with compulsive or addictive sexual behaviors.” • “Decreased ability to perform sexually.” (Walt Mueller, “A Parent’s Primer on Internet Pornography”, Info. for families, July 30, 2012, http://www.infoforfamilies.com/blog/2012/07/30/aparents-primer-on-internet-pornography)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

83

#4 THE COMMUNITY AND PORN “Pornography viewing and sexual offense are inextricably linked. There is a connection between the consumption of violent pornography with behavioral aggression and the incidence of rape.” Source: Richard McCleary, "Crime Risk in the Vicinity of a Sexually Oriented Business: A Report to the Centralia City Attorney's Office" (Revised Report, February 28, 2004) (Cathy Cleaver Ruse, “Pornography and its consequences,” Life Site News, July 31, 2014, https://www.lifesitenews.com/opinion/pornography-and-its-consequences)

“Studies have shown that individuals who were convicted of the collection and distribution of internet child pornography had also committed an average of over thirteen different child sex abuses.” Source: Michael L. Bourke and Andres E. Hernandez, "The 'Butner Study' Redux: A Report of Incidence of Hands-on Child Victimization by Child Pornography Offenders," Journal of Family Violence 24 (2009): 183-91 (187) (Cathy Cleaver Ruse, “Pornography and its consequences,” Life Site News, July 31, 2014, https://www.lifesitenews.com/opinion/pornography-and-its-consequences)

“Job security is also jeopardized when online sexual activity is occurring in the workplace. According to the statistics collected by Family Safe Media (2006), 20% of men admitted to accessing internet pornography at work. It is obvious that work productivity is drastically affected by one’s excessive computer usage, whether it occurs at home or at work. Approximately 70% of all adult content traffic on the internet occurs during the 9am to 5pm workday, it is apparent that cybersex user’s financial and employment status are at stake.” (Vivan Chan, MC, RCC, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Wells, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/theimpact-of-pornography-on-marital-relationships/)

“The Effects Of Pornography On Individuals, Marriage, Family And Community” “Pornography is a visual representation of sexuality which distorts an individual's concept of the nature of conjugal relations. This, in turn, alters both sexual attitudes and behavior. It is a major threat to marriage, to family, to children and to individual happiness. In undermining marriage it is one of the factors in undermining social stability.” (Pat Fagan, “The Effects of Pornography on Individuals, Marriage, Family and Community,” Family Research Council, March 2011, IF11C04, http://www.frc.org/issuebrief/the-effects-of-pornography-on-individuals-marriage-family-andcommunity)

“This is not ot suggest government can regulate every vice, but laws ought to promote the common good, which is to perfect the community. In many respects, pornography doesn’t benefit the common good by: objectifying women, even those who ‘choose’ to participate; dehumanizing participants Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

84

and viewers; promoting violence and rape in some scenes; causing violence towards actdors on many production sets; degrading sexual relationships; fostering sex addiction; and, in many cases, leadingto drug and alcohol addiction for those who act in it. States have an interest in prohibiting obscene material, and arguably, most porn today s obscene or hard-core. More disturbing is the human trafficking involved in pornography or associated with it. Ask those who escaped the industry, like Jessica Neely.” (Dustin is a lawyer for the federal government. He has an LL.M speciality in international and operational law. Copyright © 2017 The Federalist, a wholly independent division of FDRLST Media, All Rights Reserved.)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

85

#5 PARENTING AND PORN “Pornography And Its Impact On Parenting” “As this study has shown, there are additional consequences for the partner and family which result specifically from the sexual content of the user’s internet addiction. These are: • “Many users lie repeatedly about the sexual activities; in response, their partners feel distrust and betrayal.” • “The devastating emotional impact of a cybersex affair is described by many partners as similar if not the same as that of a real affair. The partner’s self-esteem may be damaged; strong feelings of hurt, betrayal, abandonment, devastation, loneliness, shame, isolation, humiliation, and jealousy are evoked.” • “The couple’s sexual relationship suffers, not only generally because the user stays up much of the night, but specifically because the spouse (and often the user) compares her body and her sexual performance to that of the on-line women, and believes she can’t measure up.” • “Online sexual activities may be followed by physical contact with others; the partner may retaliate or seek solace in extramarital affairs.” • “Children may be exposed to pornography and may develop unhealthy attitudes towards sex and women.” (Jennifer P. Schneider, “Effects of cybersex addiction on the family: Results of a survey”, site accessed 9.21.17, http://www.jenniferschneider.com/articles/cybersex_family.html)

“Children rarely disclose to their parents their initial exposure to pornography. This is harmful because shame and secrecy are known to increase the risk of addiction. Bentley’s survey found that only 9% of girls and 7% of boys disclosed their exposure to pornography on the same day as the initial exposure occurred.” (Kristen Jenson, October 6, 2016, Protect Young Minds.org, “5 Proven Ways Porn Harms Kids that No One Talks About”, https://protectyoungminds.org/2016/10/06/5-proven-ways-porn-harms-kids/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

86

“If children did not disclose on the same day, the chance of ever talking to anyone before adulthood went down substantially.” (Kristen Jenson, October 6, 2016, Protect Young Minds.org, “5 Proven Ways Porn Harms Kids that No One Talks About”, https://protectyoungminds.org/2016/10/06/5-proven-ways-porn-harms-kids/)

“Overall, 31% of participants have NEVER talked about their childhood exposure to pornography.” (Kristen Jenson, October 6, 2016, Protect Young Minds.org, “5 Proven Ways Porn Harms Kids that No One Talks About”, https://protectyoungminds.org/2016/10/06/5proven-ways-porn-harms-kids/)

“National Public Radio implored society to ‘imagine a drug so powerful it can destroy a family simply by distorting a man’s perception of his wife.’ Picture an addiction so lethal it has the potential to render an entire generation incapable of forming lasting marriages (Getting Serious, 2010).” (Allison Cook, “Pornography and its impact on parenting”, The United Families International, October 13, 2014, https://unitedfamiliesinternational.wordpress.com/2014/10/13/pornography-and-its-impact-onparenting/)

“The first was the development of stress in the relationship that stemmed from attachment infidelity. (Allison Cook, “Pornography and its impact on parenting”, The United Families International, October 13, 2014, https://unitedfamiliesinternational.wordpress.com/2014/10/13/pornography-and-its-impact-on-parenting/)

The second factor was the widening rift between husband and wife because of the distance and disconnect perceived by the women or wives. (Allison Cook, “Pornography and its impact on parenting”, The United Families International, October 13, 2014, https://unitedfamiliesinternational.wordpress.com/2014/10/13/pornography-and-its-impact-onparenting/)

And lastly, there was a large and culminating ‘estrangement’ in the relationship because of the sense of being emotionally and psychologically unsafe in the relationship. (Allison Cook, “Pornography and its impact on parenting”, The United Families International, October 13, 2014, https://unitedfamiliesinternational.wordpress.com/2014/10/13/pornography-and-its-impact-on-parenting/)

They concluded that mistrust is what breaks down attachment among couples and a strong correlation between the effects on pornography use and ‘deception in the pair-bond relationship’ (Butler, Zitzman, 2009).” (Allison Cook, “Pornography and its impact on parenting”, The United Families International, October 13, 2014, https://unitedfamiliesinternational.wordpress.com/2014/10/13/pornography-and-its-impact-onparenting/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

87

“…I constantly hear parents—good parents—saying a very silly thing: ‘I trust my children, I don’t need to talk to them about this stuff. My kids are good kids, they’re not looking for porn.’” (Matt Fradd, “Trust Your Kids. Just Don’t Trust the Internet…Ever,” Lifesite, February 24, 2015, https://www.lifesitenews.com/blogs/your-kids-might-notbe-looking-for-porn.-but-porn-is-definitely-looking-for#_ftn1)

“…maybe you’re right, maybe your kids aren’t looking for porn, but believe me, the porn industry is looking for your children: to them our kids look like dollar signs.” (Matt Fradd, “Trust Your Kids. Just Don’t Trust the Internet…Ever,” Lifesite, February 24, 2015, https://www.lifesitenews.com/blogs/your-kids-might-not-be-looking-for-porn.-but-porn-isdefinitely-looking-for#_ftn1)

“Columnist Allison Pearson was describing a recent conversation between herself and a number of other parents. ‘Porn has changed the landscape of adolescence beyond all recognition,’ she noted. ‘Like other parents of our generation, we were on a journey without maps or lights, although the instinct to protect our children from the darkness was overwhelming.’” (Jonathon Van Maren, “Porn is fuelling a new, violent sexual ideology in our teens. It has to stop.”, Life Site News, April 28, 2015, https://www.lifesitenews.com/blogs/porn-is-fuelling-a-new-violent-sexualideology-in-our-teens.-it-has-to-stop)

“…parents must stand in the gap and be the ‘first line of defense’ against child Internet victimization. The challenge is that children are the ’digital natives,’ and parents are the ’digital immigrants.’” (“The Perfect Storm,” Enough is Enough, Accessed November 13, 2015, www.internetsafety101.org/dangers.htm)

“Parents are often left feeling overwhelmed, uninformed, or ill-equipped to adequately protect their kids online…” (“The Perfect Storm,” Enough is Enough, Accessed November 13, 2015, www.internetsafety101.org/dangers.htm)

“…in the digital age…violating the safe walls of our homes, without our knowledge…” (“The Perfect Storm,” Enough is Enough, Accessed November 13, 2015, www.internetsafety101.org/dangers.htm)

“Porn doesn’t have a demographic…it goes across all demographics.” -Paul Fishbein, founder of Adult Video News (Rich Frank, “Naked capitalists: There’s no business like porn business,” New York Times, May 20, 2001. http://www.nytimes.com/2001/05/20/magazine/20PORN.html)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

88

“Independent Parliamentary Inquiry Into Online Child Protection” “…‘the whole history of human sexual perversion is only a few clicks away.’ …our children, with their natural curiosity and superior technological skills, are finding and viewing these images.” (“Independent Parliamentary Inquiry into Online Child Protection”, Media March, May, 2012, http://www.mediamarch.org.uk/Images/final-report.pdf)

“Children spend increasing amounts of time online, are often more ‘tech savvy’ and knowledgeable than their parents and know how to circumvent or avoid device filters.” (“Independent Parliamentary Inquiry into Online Child Protection”, Media March, May, 2012, http://www.mediamarch.org.uk/Images/finalreport.pdf)

“A network-level ‘Opt-In’ system, maintained by ISPs, that delivered a clean internet feed to customers as standard but allowed them to choose to receive adult content, would preserve consumer choice but provide an additional content barrier that protected children from accessing age inappropriate material. This model would emulate the system already used by most major UK mobile phone companies, where access to adult content is blocked until an age verification check is conducted by the network operator, and could use the filtering technology already operating in all schools and on some public Wi-Fi hubs.” (“Independent Parliamentary Inquiry into Online Child Protection”, Media March, May, 2012, http://www.mediamarch.org.uk/Images/final-report.pdf)

“Many parents report feeling left behind by the evolution of technology and that they lack the knowledge and skills to educate their children about internet safety. Parents are also concerned about many other forms of disturbing internet content including cyber bullying, extreme violence, self-harm, suicide and pro-anorexia websites.” (“Independent Parliamentary Inquiry into Online Child Protection”, Media March, May, 2012, http://www.mediamarch.org.uk/Images/final-report.pdf)

“…six out of ten children can access the internet without filters in their homes.” (“Independent Parliamentary Inquiry into Online Child Protection”, Media March, May, 2012, http://www.mediamarch.org.uk/Images/final-report.pdf)

“No filtering system will ever deliver total protection and parents will still need to remain engaged and active in helping their families stay

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

89

safe online.” (“Independent Parliamentary Inquiry into Online Child Protection”, Media March, May, 2012, http://www.mediamarch.org.uk/Images/final-report.pdf)

“A striking theme throughout the Inquiry was the sense of powerlessness reported by parents who feel that they are being left behind by the evolution of technology and that they lack the knowledge and skills to have conversations with their children around this topic.” (“Independent Parliamentary Inquiry into Online Child Protection”, Media March, May, 2012, http://www.mediamarch.org.uk/Images/final-report.pdf)

“In 2011, consumers used a variety of devices to access the internet in the home, including the home PC or individual laptops, mobile phones, games consoles, portable media players and e-readers (Ofcom children’s and parents’ media use and attitudes report 2011). The Panel heard that one home had been found to contain 17 web-enabled devices. Each of these would require separate downloads of content filters under the current system.” (“Independent Parliamentary Inquiry into Online Child Protection”, Media March, May, 2012, http://www.mediamarch.org.uk/Images/finalreport.pdf)

“The majority of parents who do not use controls say it is because they trust their child to be sensible and responsible, or because they are supervising family internet use. However, less than half of parents report monitoring their children online (Ofcom children’s and parents’ media use and attitudes report 2011) and almost half of parents also say that their child knows more about the internet than they do, making it difficult for parents to assume the role of educators in this area.” (Ofcom children’s and parents’ media use and attitudes report 2011) (“Independent Parliamentary Inquiry into Online Child Protection”, Media March, May, 2012, http://www.mediamarch.org.uk/Images/finalreport.pdf)

“…what is critical is that we’re never going to 100 per cent stop young people from seeing this material and what we’ve got to do is help them understand it and actually issues around consent and coercion are really big for young people to understand because increasingly young people are quite confused about those issues.” (“Independent Parliamentary Inquiry into Online Child Protection”, Media March, May, 2012, http://www.mediamarch.org.uk/Images/final-report.pdf)

“In terms of the wholesale blocking idea, I think it’s horrendous for a number of reasons. One is for the simple free speech reason, it could never happen in the US because of the First Amendment, the idea that the Government could decide what content to block. But more Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

90

importantly, every household with children in it also has adults in it, and those adults have every right to look at adult material and to enjoy it.” (“Independent Parliamentary Inquiry into Online Child Protection”, Media March, May, 2012, http://www.mediamarch.org.uk/Images/final-report.pdf)

“Parents also rely on others to educate their children about internet safety with more than three-quarters saying that their child has been taught how to use the internet safely at school.” (Ofcom children’s and parents’ media use and attitudes report 2011) (“Independent Parliamentary Inquiry into Online Child Protection”, Media March, May, 2012, http://www.mediamarch.org.uk/Images/final-report.pdf)

“As director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, Alan Leshner observes the power of an addiction over rational thought, saying, ‘it isn't the case that the crack-addicted mother does not love her children. She just loves drugs more.’ One may say similarly, it isn’t the case that the pornographically addicted father does not love his children. He just loves pornography more.” (Judith A. Reisman, PhD, “The Psychopharmacology of Pornography: A Clear & Present Danger”, The Institute for Media Education, January 2000)

The Single Most Important Parenting Action We Can Take Today “Some people consider parents with three or more children to be crazy, and children are generally viewed as a burden. Anyone with a large family has probably experienced negative comments in grocery stores or coffee shops.” (Dustin is a lawyer for the federal government. He has an LL.M speciality in international and operational law. Copyright © 2017 The Federalist, a wholly independent division of FDRLST Media, All Rights Reserved.)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

91

#6 GOOGLE = SEX ED “Early Exposure … Most boys have a curiosity about the opposite sex and, unfortunately think they can learn more about them on Internet Porn sites.” (Susan Knight, The Five Stages of Pornography Addiction”, News OK, April 6, 2016, http://newsok.com/article/5407775)

“Clinical psychologist Rebecca Daly-Peoples says “It’s [Porn] completely influencing the entire way the’re [Adolescence] seeing sex and intimacy.” (Alastair Lynn, “Online pornography warping adolescent brains,” July 27, 2016, Stuff, http://www.stuff.co.nz/national/education/82520188/Online-pornography-warping-adolescent-brains)

“Adult Internet pornography is the most common form of teen sex education in the US …” (Mary Anne Layden, PhD, Director, Sexual Trauma and Psychopathology Program, Center for Cognitive Therapy, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania) (“Pornography: A Public Health Crisis”, National Center on Sexual Exploitation, July 14, 2015, http://shop.endsexualexploitation.org/collections/frontpage/products/pornography-a-public-healthcrisis-how-porn-fuels-sex-trafficking-child-exploitation-sexual-violence-booklet-and-freedownload?variant=8300519939)

“An entire generation is growing up that believes that what you see in hardcore pornography is the way that you have sex,” Cindy Gallop, an advertising executive” (Guy Kelly, “The Scary Effects of Pornography: How the 21st Century’s Acute Addiction is Rewiring our Brains”, The Telegraph, September 11, 2017, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/men/thinking-man/scary-effects-pornography-21st-centurys-accute-addictionrewiring/)

“What Parents Can Do” “The Internet is a key part of adolescents’ lives, and therefore parents, educators and practitioners must make it a topic in their discussions about sexual health. Comprehensive sex education programs that contain accurate, evidence-based information can help youth delay the onset of sexual activity, reduce the frequency of sexual activity, reduce the number of sexual partners and increase condom and contraceptive use. One helpful resource is Advocates for Youth, which promotes policies and champions programs that recognize young people’s rights to honest sexual health information.” (Shimi Kang, M.D., Contributor, January 16, 2017, U.S. News, “Why Parents Need to Talk to Their Kids About Porn”, http://www.drshimikang.com/2017/01/16/why-parents-need-totalk-to-their-kids-about-porn-2/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

92

#7 DIVORCE AND PORN “56% of divorces report a spouse’s porn use as a primary factor.” (https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/porn-use-can-lead-to-divorce-study)

“Looking to more extreme situations, a 2000 study by Schneider found that cybersex addiction was a major contributing factor to separation and divorce for affected couples.78 This study analyzed survey responses from 94 individuals (91 women, 3 men) who…” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf

“Ranged in age from 24 to 57” (The sample was recruited through 20 therapists who were treating sex addicts and who were aware of individuals who would be interested in participating in this research. Although a range of online sexual activities were listed, viewing and/or downloading pornography accompanied by masturbation was present in 100 percent of the cases.” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Had been in a relationship for an average of 12.6 years (range of 0.5 to 39 years)” (The sample was recruited through 20 therapists who were treating sex addicts and who were aware of individuals who would be interested in participating in this research. Although a range of online sexual activities were listed, viewing and/or downloading pornography accompanied by masturbation was present in 100 percent of the cases.” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Were seeking therapy to cope with a partner’s Internet involvement.” (The sample was recruited through 20 therapists who were treating sex addicts and who were aware of individuals who would be interested in participating in this research. Although a range of online sexual activities were listed, viewing and/or downloading pornography accompanied by masturbation was present in 100 percent of the cases.” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Although not a formal study, important survey data was collected at the November 2002 meeting of the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers in Chicago, Illinois, regarding the impact of Internet usage on marriages.” (Dedmon, J. (November 2002). Is the Internet bad for your marriage? Online affairs, pornographic sites playing greater role in divorces. Press Release from The Dilenschneider Group, Inc.) (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

93

“Secondly, it was common for pornography users to continue sexual relations with their female partner, but the sexual advances conveyed a message of objectification as opposed to meaningful interaction. For example, one woman stated, “I am no longer a sexual person or partner to him, but a sexual object. He is not really with me, not really making love to me…. He seems to be thinking about something or someone else—likely those porn women.… He is just using me as a warm body.” (Bergner, R. M., & Bridges, A. J. (2002). The significance of heavy pornography involvement for romantic partners: Research and clinical implications. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 28, 193–206.) (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Schneider’s 2000 study involving the spouses of cybersex addicts is another study that supports Zillman and Bryant’s 1988 findings regarding decreased sexual satisfaction. (Schneider, J. P. (2000). Effects of cybersex addiction on the family: Results of a survey. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 7, 31–

Schneider’s work revealed that compulsive cybersex has several adverse effects on the conjugal sexual relationship, including decreased sexual intimacy. (Schneider, J. P. (1998). The new “elephant in the living 58.)

room”: Effects of compulsive cybersex behaviors on the spouse. In A. Cooper (1998). Sexuality and the Internet: Surfing into the new millennium. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 1(2), 169–186.)

Schneider collected data from 94 respondents who were in different types of committed relationships to individuals struggling with cybersex addictions. (Schneider, J. P. (2000). Effect of cybersex addiction on the family. Sexual Addiction and Compulsivity, 7, 31–58.) Two-thirds (68 percent) of the respondents experienced decreased sexual intimacy with their partner. Moreover, the participants reported that these difficulties coincided with the beginning of the cybersex activities—a point that is important to highlight for those who wish to limit the findings to those who have dealt with chronic sexually addictive or compulsive behavior.” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Therapist Dr. Jill Manning found that 56% of divorces involved a spouse with a pornography obsession.” “’Every year for the past decade there have been roughly 1 million divorces in the United States,’ he wrote. ‘If half of the people divorcing claim pornography as the culprit, that means there are 500,000 marriages annually that are failing dur to pornography.’” (Catherine Briggs, Life Site News, June 9, Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

94

2014, “Porn use can lead to divorce: study”, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/porn-use-can-lead-todivorce-study)

“More than half (52.1 percent) of the cybersex users had lost interest in relational sex, as had one-third of the partners. Furthermore, in 18.1 percent of the relationships surveyed, both partners had decreased interest in sex. Schneider also points out that spouses of pornography users often report being repulsed by the user’s sexual pursuits. For the cybersex users who have already substituted online sexual activity for relational sexual intimacy, their partner’s repulsion and loss of interest is not as problematic or distressing.” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Women commonly report feelings of betrayal, loss, mistrust, devastation, and anger as responses to the discovery or disclosure of a partner’s pornography use and/or online sexual activity.” (Bridges, A. J., Bergner, R. M., & Hesson-McInnis, M. (2003). Romantic partner’s use of pornography: Its significance for women. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 29, 1–14; Bergner, R. M., & Bridges, A. J. (2002). The significance of heavy pornography involvement for romantic partners: Research and clinical implications. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 28, 193–206; Schneider, J. P. (2000). Effects of cybersex addiction on the family: Results of a survey. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 7, 31–58) (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Schneider’s 2000 study concluded that women “overwhelmingly” felt cyber affairs were as emotionally painful to them as live or offline affairs, and many viewed the online sexual activity to be just as much adultery or cheating as live affairs. (Schneider, J. P. (2000). Effects of cybersex addiction on the family: Results of a survey. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 7, 31–58.) (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Prior to Internet pornography becoming readily available, Dolf Zillman and Jennings Bryant (1988) conducted a study that looked at the impact of consuming common, nonviolent pornographic material on male and female participants. The participants represented college and non-student populations from a Midwestern city (N = 160).” (Zillman, D., & Bryant, J. (1988). Pornography’s impact on sexual satisfaction. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 18, 438–453.) (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

95

“In a survey of women (and some men) who experienced serious adverse consequences from their partner’s cybersex involvement:50 ➢ “In 68% of the couples, one or both lost interest in relational sex: 52% of showed a decreased interest, as did 34% of partners.” ➢ “Partners commonly reported feeling hurt, betrayed, rejected, abandoned, lonely, isolated, humiliated, jealous, and angry. Partners often compared themselves unfavorably to online images, Partners overwhelmingly felt that cyber affairs were as emotionally painful as offline affairs.” 50. Jennifer P. Schneider, “Effects of cybersex addiction on the family: Results of a survey,” Sexual Addiction and Compulsivity 7 (2000): 31-58

(CovenantEyes, Pornography Statistics, 2014 Edition)

“Dr. Hitchcock also noted that in Paul’s New Testament letters, the topic of pornography comes up.” (John D. Foubert, “How Pornography Harms”, John Foubert.com, April 2016, http://www.johnfoubert.com/how-porn-harms)

“It’s ‘pornea’ – it is just a broad term for sexual sins, sexual behavior, obviously prostitution; pornography comes from that, the word ‘prostitute.’ That is why I think Jesus says don’t divorce your wife except for pornea; he doesn’t say adultery! I think there are valid reasons to get divorced [besides] adultery. I think if a woman is married to a man who is addicted to pornography and he won’t quit, I mean, he won’t repent of it; that destroys a person, it eats away the fiber of their heart and their soul. So I think that God uses that broad term.” (John D. Foubert, “How Pornography Harms”, John Foubert.com, April 2016, http://www.johnfoubert.com/how-porn-harms)

“That’s staggering. That means across the country, with about one million divorces each year, we have 500,000 divorces annually where pornography is a major player.” (“Pornography: Destroying Marriages & Families,” Wisconsin Family Connection Transcript, February 10, 2015, http://wifamilycouncil.org/pornography-destroyingmarriages-families-2/)

“The probability of divorce roughly doubled for married Americans who began pornography use between survey waves (n=2,120), and that this relationship held for both women and men.”

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

96

“Conversely, discontinuing pornography use between survey waves was associated with a lower probability of divorce, but only for women.” “The association between beginning pornography use and the probability of divorce was particularly strong among younger Americans, those who were less religious, and those who reported greater initial marital happiness.” (Perry SL, Schleifer C. Till porn do us part? A longitudinal examination of pornography use and divorce. [Published online ahead of print May 12, 2017]. J Sex Res. Doi: 10.1080/00224499.2017.1317709, http://www.mdedge.com/clinicalpsychiatrynews/clinical-edge/summary/addiction-medicine/doespornography-use-affect-marital)

“Porn use can lead to divorce: study” “Analyzing data from the General Social Survey, the researchers found that porn users are more open to marital infidelity, the leading cause of divorce in the United States. They published their finding in the April issue of Psychology of Popular Media Culture.” “The General Social Survey asked 551 married couples whether or not they had viewed a pornographic video in the last year. The couples were then asked about their views on extra-marital relations. The results showed a connection between the pornography viewers and those with sympathetic attitudes towards marital infidelity.” “If pornography consumption leads to more positive extramarital sex attitudes as the results of the panels suggest, pornography consumption may be a contributing factor in some divorces via extramarital sex behavior, the study states.” “Therapist Dr. Jill Manning found that 56 percent of divorces involved a spouse with a pornography obsession.” “Every year for the past decade there have been roughly 1 million divorces in the United States, he wrote. If half of the people divorcing claim pornography as the culprit, that means there are 500,000 marriages annually that are failing due to pornography.” (Catherine Briggs, June 9, 2014, Lifesite News, “Porn use can lead to divorce: study”, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/porn-use-can-lead-todivorce-study)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

97

“At the November 2002 meeting of the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers in Chicago, Illinois regarding the impact of Internet usage on marriages (Dedmon, 2002). This professional organization comprises the nation’s top 1600 divorce and matrimonial law attorneys who specialize in matrimonial law, including divorce and legal separation. At this meeting, 62 percent of the 350 attendees said the Internet had played a role in divorces they had handled during the last year, and 56 percent of the divorce cases involved one party having an obsessive interest in pornographic websites (Dedmon, 2002).” (Jill C. Manning, Ph.D., July 2008, “The Impact of Pornography on Women: Social Science Findings and Clinical Observation”, http://afaofpa.org/wp-content/uploads/The-Impact-ofPornography-on-Women.pdf)

“In a study published in Sexual Addiction and Compulsivity, Schneider found that among the 68 percent of couples in which one person was addicted to Internet porn, one or both had lost interest in sex. Results of the same study, published in 2000, indicated that porn use was a major contributing factor to increased risk of separation and divorce. This finding is substantiated by results of a 2002 meeting of the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers, during which surveyed lawyers claimed that ‘an obsessive interest in Internet pornography’ was a significant factor in 56 percent of their divorce cases the prior year.” (Jennifer P. Schneider, Effects of cybersex addiction on the family: Results of a survey”, Sexual Addiction and Compulsivity, Vol. 7, Issue 1-2, 2000, http://www.jenniferschneider.com/articles/cybersex_family.html) (“National Review: Getting Serious on Pornography”, NPR, March 31, 2010, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=125382361)

“Does Discovering Or Disclosing A Pornography Addiction Generally Result In Divorce?” •

“In some cases, discovering or disclosing a pornography addiction may eventually lead to divorce. Some statistics indicate that 55% percent of divorces are related in some way to pornography” (“Safety Net – Resources to Protect Your Family from Pornography,” Healthy Sandy Partnership, www.healthysandy.org/fileadmin/downloads/healthy_sandy/Ecclesiastical_Packet.pdf)



“Married people who start watching porn are twice as likely to be divorced in the the following years as those who don't. And women who start watching porn are three times as likely to split,” (Belinda Luscombe, “People More Likely to Divorce After They Start Watching Porn, Says Study”,

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

98

Time Magazine, August 23, 2016, http://time.com/4461451/people-more-likely-todivorce-after-they-start-watching-porn-says-study/) •

“Extramarital sex is one of the most commonly cited reasons for divorce, and Pornography consumption is correlated with positive attitudes towards extramarital affairs. (Wright, P., Tokunaga, R. & Bae, S. (2014) “More Than a Dalliance? Pornography Consumption and Extramarital Sex Attitudes Amoung Married U.S. Adults.” Psychology of Popular Media Culture.)” (“Pornography”, Enough is Enough, Accessed 3.20.2017, http://www.enough.org/stats_porn_industry)

“…married men who watch pornography tend to be less satisfied with their sexual relationship and lack an emotional attachment to their partners. When couples in this situation were questioned, both reported feeling that viewing pornography was tantamount to infidelity and often a precursor to divorce. 56 percent of those addicted to watching porn end up losing their spouse, according to the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers.” (1) (“Is It Bad To Watch Porn? – The Impact of Pornography Addiction”, http://www.socialcostsofpornography.org, Accessed 4.27.17) (1) http://www.roadtograce.net/current-porn-statistics/ •

“About 40 percent of sex-addicted males will lose their spouse.”



“56 percent of divorce cases involved one spouse having an obsessive interest in pornographic websites, according to surveys conducted by a group divorce lawyers.” (Hearing on Pornography’s Impact on

(Mary Anne Layden, If Pornography Made Us Healthy, We’d Be Healthy By Now, Catholic News Agency, www.catholicnewsagency.com/resource.php?n=1078 (last visited Sept. 27, 2013) (“Marriage & Family: Harms of Pornography,” The Policy Pages from Center for Arizona, January 2014, http://azpolicypages.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/MarriageFamily_HarmsofPornography.pdf)

Marriage & the Family Before the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights and Property Rights of the S. Comm. On Judiciary, 109th Cong. (2005) (statement of Jill Manning, Sociologist, Brigham Young Univ.) (“Marriage & Family: Harms of Pornography,” The Policy Pages from Center for Arizona, January 2014, http://azpolicypages.com/wpcontent/uploads/2013/12/Marriage-Family_HarmsofPornography.pdf) •

“… 62% of the 350 attendees said that internet had been a significant factor in divorces they had handled during the year of 2000.” (Vivan Chan, MC, RCC, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Wells, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impact-of-pornography-onmarital-relationships/)



“56% of the divorce cases … one party having an obsessive interest in pornographic websites...” (Vivan Chan, MC, RCC, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Wells, January 11, 2009,

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

99

http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impact-of-pornography-on-maritalrelationships/) •

“That’s staggering. That means across the country, with about one million divorces each year, we have 500,000 divorces annually where pornography is a major player.” (“Pornography: Destroying Marriages & Families,” Wisconsin Family Connection Transcript, February 10, 2015, http://wifamilycouncil.org/pornography-destroying-marriages-families-2/)

“Because pornography involves emotional, chemical, and physical stimulation, it can reset the brain in such a way that normal, healthy sexual experiences become unsatisfying and unfulfilling. Increasingly extreme or deviant sexual acts are often required to bring about sexual satisfaction. As a result, pornography addiction frequently destroys healthy marital relationships and can lead to sexual acting out with self and others or other immoral behavior. Some statistics indicate that the likelihood of infidelity is increased by 300% percent where pornography is involved and 55% of divorces in the United States occur at least in part as a result of pornography use.” (“Safety Net – Resources to Protect Your Family from Pornography,” Healthy Sandy Partnership, www.healthysandy.org/fileadmin/downloads/healthy_sandy/Ecclesiastical_Packet.pdf)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

100

#8 CHILDREN AND PORN “In America, the average kid is only 11 years old when they’re first exposed to pornography. That’s a troubling figure, according to researchers at the American Psychological Association’s 125th annual convention in early August, who recently found that men who started watching porn at an earlier age were more likely to seek power over women. But, unexpectedly, their study showed adult males who think men should emulate the promiscuous lifestyle of a playboy were those who discovered porn later in life.” (Dan Robitzki, August 14, 2017, Inverse, “Porn Study Reveals Surprising Data About Early Lives of Playboys”, https://www.inverse.com/article/35438-pornplayboys-views-attitudes-women)

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------“Hidden Porn Exposure Leads Young Boy to Sibling Abuse”

(Claudine Gallacher, September 22, 2016, Protect Young Minds, “Hidden Porn Exposure Leads Young Boy to Sibling Abuse”, https://protectyoungminds.org/2016/09/22/hidden-porn-exposure-sibling-abuse/)

“Jason (not his real name) was seven years old when he saw his first pornographic picture. While watching a YouTube video on his mom’s computer, he noticed an explicit advertisement.” “What’s this?” “Click.” “Instantly, he was pulled into the world of hardcore pornography.” “It was an accidental exposure. Jason never intended to start watching porn. But he couldn’t stop. And he kept secretly finding more to look at.” “Unfortunately, his habit went undiscovered for two more years until he was nine. This is when Jason started ‘acting out’ scenes from pornographic videos while ‘playing’ with his younger siblings. He was doing what normal kids do: imitating behavior. Jason’s siblings followed his lead.” “Eventually, his parents caught several of their young kids doing in appropriate things with each other. When the two-year old started exhibiting sexual behavior, his parents needed an answer. But they were

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

101

not prepared for what came next: Jason confessed to molesting his younger siblings.” “Sibling sexual abuse not rare” “According to Tamara Hill, Licensed Child & Adolescent Therapist, situations like this are not as rare as people think. Sibling sexual abuse, although not often discussed, has become widespread and hits every type of family. As a specialist who works with kids who have experienced trauma, Hill has worked with ‘multiple incidents of children offending their siblings.” “From the outside, ‘Jason’s family looks like a regular middle class family, Hill said. ‘Jason has active and caring parents. All the kids play sports and get good grades.’ Jason had never been abused. Yet he has turned into a sexual perpetrator.” “Many people think that only sexual abuse could condition a child for sexually deviant behavior. Not true. Exposure to pornography can also lead a child to act out sexually, including with other children.” “Related: The Secret Life of a Young Girl Abused by Pornography” “Hill told me that this boy was considered ‘so ill’ he had to be sent to residential treatment. When I asked her what she meant by ‘ill,’ she told me that children like Jason have learned to see sexual behavior between kids as normal. Hill explained that it typically takes a year or two of round-theclock treatment for a child like Jason to learn and internalize that sexual touch is not appropriate for young kids.” “Residential treatment centers are designed to give their young patients individual, family, and group therapy. When patients are not in therapy, they are continually monitored as they socialize with other patients. Cameras and staff are everywhere. Only 24/7 surveillance keeps these kids from offending with each other.” “Residential treatment info”

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

102

“Is it easy for a child to be admitted to residential treatment? It depends on where you live. Hill explains: “Some kids are on a waiting list because there just aren’t enough beds in certain facilities. The waiting list can be long as between 3-12 months. Most facilities are 24 beds; some are more or less.” “Admission to a residential treatment facility depends on the severity of the problem, the duration and intensity of the problem, the family’s income and assets, the distance of the facility to the family’s home, treatment history, and a recommendation from a mental health professional, primarily a doctor. Each state is different but in [some places] a child or adolescent cannot be admitted to a residential treatment facility without a doctor’s recommendation.” “In addition to being an emotional burden on families, having a child admitted to residential treatment can be a financial burden as well. Hills’ experience is that residential treatment facilities are not typically covered by private insurance and require medical assistance, which is considered secondary insurance. Most families can apply for medical assistance if their child is in need of services but many families won’t qualify if their income is above a set limit.” “How can parents cope?” “It’s clear this is a nightmare for any parent to deal with! When I asked Hill how Jason’s parents and other like them can get through such a challenge, she recommended this strategy: • “Accept the situation as real. This is a hard first step for many.” • “Participate in support groups and therapy.” • “Find tools that help you monitor your kids. [We recommend our affiliate Covenant Eyes. When you sign up through our link, you are also supporting Protect Young Minds. Hill recommends teensafe as a helpful tool for parents.]” “Pornography shatters families” Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

103

“What a tragedy-how my heart aches for Jason and his family!” “This young boy has been torn from his home because pornography has so severely disrupted his normal development that his siblings are no longer safe around him.” “Related: Why Even Good Kids Get Pulled Into Porn” “Pornography’s abusive impact on one child can quickly victimize many.” “Child-on-child sexual abuse is happening in homes, in neighborhoods and also on school grounds and buses. Pornography exposure combined with child-on-child abuse can rapidly harm an entire community.” “A growing epidemic” “Paula Hall, therapist and expert in pornography addiction, revealed this truth during an eye-opening TEDx talk” ‘When you combine easy access [to pornography] with no education of risks then you are paving the way for an epidemic.’” “We have a growing epidemic and we need to sound the warning! We need to help children understand that images CAN hurt them. Children that learn to look away from pornographic images are not only protecting their mental health, they are potentially protecting other kids as well.” “What can parents do to protect their kids?” “We know your time is precious. That’s why we’ve done the research for you! We’ve compiled expert advice in one convenient place: Our FREE Quick Start Guide for Proactive Parents.” “Learn the Basics” • “Find out why good kids get pulled into porn.” • “See what pediatricians are saying about the impacts of pornography.”

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

104

• “Discover why pornography exposure is being called a public health crisis.” “Prepare Yourself” • “Plan a good time to talk about internet safety.” • “Learn why you should be the first one to warn your child about pornography.” • “Find out 5 ways to get more comfortable speaking about pornography with your kids.” “Teach Your Kids” • “Define the word pornography.” • “Keep your kids safe from sexual abuse (which is highly correlated with porn use) by teaching them correct names for body parts.” • “Teach kids the power of their thinking brain.” “You have the power to prepare your kids to reject pornography!” “Claudine Gallacher, MA, is the Social Media Guru at Protect Young Minds and was the writing coach for Good Pictures Bad Pictures: Porn-Proofing Today’s Young Kids. Claudine is enthusiastic about teaching parents how to empower kids with the skills they need to reject pornography. To reach parents, she writes, researches, edits, speaks, and markets. Claudine is married and has three great kids who support her work. Contact Claudine on Twitter @ProtectYM or email [email protected]” (Claudine Gallacher, September 22, 2016, Protect Young Minds, “Hidden Porn Exposure Leads Young Boy to Sibling Abuse”, https://protectyoungminds.org/2016/09/22/hidden-porn-exposure-sibling-abuse/)

Clinical Analyses of Pornography: 1. “Two recent reports, one by the American Psychological Association on hyper-sexualized girls, and the other by the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy on the pornographic content of phone texting among teenagers, make clear that the digital revolution is being used by younger and younger children to dismantle the barriers that channel sexuality into family life.”

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

105

2. “Impact on Children: The impact of a parent’s use of pornography on young children is varied and disturbing. Pornography eliminates the warmth of affectionate family life, which is the natural social nutrient for a growing child. Other losses and traumas related to the use of pornography when a child is young include:” • “Encountering pornographic material a parent has acquired;” • “Encountering a parent masturbating;” • “Overhearing a parent engaged in ‘phone-sex’;” • “Witnessing and experiencing stress in the home caused by online sexual activities;” • “Increased risk of the children becoming consumers of pornography themselves;” • “Witnessing and being involved in parental conflict;” • “Exposure to eh commodification of human beings, especially women, as ‘sex objects’;” • “Increased risk of parental job loss and financial strain;” • “Increased risk of parental separation and divorce;” • “Decreased parental time and attention – both from the pornography – addicted parent and from the parent preoccupied with the addicted spouse.” “Also, parents may disclose their struggle with the addiction to pornography to their children, intentionally or unintentionally, thereby distorting their children’s sexual development.” 3. “The study also showed that increased exposure to sexually explicit Internet material increased favorable attitudes toward sexual exploration with others outside of marriage and decreased marital commitment to the other spouse. 4. “Study by Todd G. Morison, professor of psychology at the University of Saskatchewan, and colleagues found that adolescents exposed to high levels of pornography had lower levels of sexual self-esteem.” 5. “A significant relationship also exists between frequent pornography use and feelings of loneliness, including major depression.”

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

106

6. “High Adolescent consumption of pornography also affects behavior. Male pornography use is linked to significantly increased sexual intercourse with non-romantic friends, and is likely a correlate of the so-called ‘hook-up’ culture.” 7. “Exposure to pornographic sexual content can be a significant factor in teenage pregnancy. A three-year longitudinal study of teenagers found that frequent exposure to televised sexual content was related to a substantially greater likelihood of teenage pregnancy within the succeeding three years. This same study also found that the likelihood of teenage pregnancy was two times greater when the quantity of that sexual content exposure, within the viewing episodes, was high rather than low.” 8. “Pornography use undermines marital relations and distresses wives. Husbands report loving their spouses less after long periods of looking at (and desiring) women depicted in pornography.” 9. “The wives of pornography users also develop deep psychological wounds, commonly reporting feelings of betrayal, loss, mistrust, devastation, and anger in responses to the discovery or disclosure of a partner’s pornographic online sexual activity.” 10. “Wives can begin to feel unattractive or sexually inadequate and may become severely depressed when they realize their husbands view pornography. The distress level in wives may be so high as to require clinical treatment for trauma, not mere discomfort.” 11. “In a study on the effects of ‘cybersex’ – a form of sexually explicit interaction between two people on the Internet – researchers found that more than half of those engaged in ‘cybersex’ had lost interest in sexual intercourse, while on-third of their partners had lost interest as well, while in one-fifth of the couples both husband and wife or both partners had a significantly decreased interest in sexual intercourse. Stated differently, this study showed that only one-third f couples maintained an interest in sexual relations with one another when one partner was engaged in ‘cybersex.’” 12. “Prolongs exposure to pornography also fosters dissatisfaction with, and even distaste for, a spouse’s affection.”

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

107

13. “Finally, pornography users increasingly see the institution of marriage as sexually confining. 14. “Have diminished belief in the importance of marital faithfulness.” 15. “Have increasing doubts about the value of marriage as an essential social institution and further doubts about its future viability.” 16. “One study of adolescents, shows that the steady use of pornography frequently leads to abandonment of fidelity to their girlfriends. 17. “Steven Stack of Wayne State University and colleagues later showed that pornography use increased the marital infidelity rate by more than 300 percent.” 18. “Another study found a strong correlation between viewing Internet pornography and sexually permissive behavior.” 19. “Stack’s study found that Internet pornography use is 3.7 times greater among those who procure sexual relations with a prostitute than among those who do not.” 20. “‘Cybersex’ pornography also leads to much higher levels of infidelity among women. Women who engaged in ‘cybersex’ had about 40 percent more offline sexual partners than women who did not engage in cybersex.” 21. “It is not surprising that addiction to pornography is a contributor to separation and divorce. In the best study to dated (a very rudimentary opportunity study of reports by divorce lawyers on the most salient factors present in the divorce cases they handled), 68 percent of divorce cases involved one party meeting a new paramour over the Internet, 56 percent involved ‘one party having an obsessive interest in pornographic websites,’ 47 percent involved ‘spending excessive time on the computer,’ and 33 percent involved spending excessive time in chat rooms (a commonly sexualized forum). Cybersex, which often takes place in these chat rooms, was major factor in separation and divorce: In over 22 percent of the couples observed the spouse was no longer living with the ‘cybersex’ addict, and in many of the other cases spouses were seriously considering leaving the marriage or relationship.”

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

108

(Patrick F. Fagan, Ph.D. “The Effects of Pornography on Individuals, Marriage, Family, and Community,https://www.movieguide.org/news-articles/the-effects-of-pornography-on-individualsmarriage-family-and-community.html )

“5 Proven Ways Porn Harms Kids that No One Talks About” – (Kristen Jenson, October 6, 2016, Protect Young Minds.org, “5 Proven Ways Porn Harms Kids that No One Talks About”, https://protectyoungminds.org/2016/10/06/5-proven-ways-porn-harms-kids/)

“The story of a young girl in my town is typical. When she turned 8 years old, her caring and conscientious mom explained sex to her. Then, as a birthday gift, gave her an internet enabled iPod Touch.” (Kristen Jenson, October 6, 2016, Protect Young Minds.org, “5 Proven Ways Porn Harms Kids that No One Talks About”, https://protectyoungminds.org/2016/10/06/5-proven-ways-porn-harms-kids/)

“This inquisitive girl imitated what she had seen the adults in her life do – she searched for answers online! After entering the word ‘SEX’ into a search engine, she began watching the most horrific pornography imaginable. And it changed her. Once a happy social girl, she became withdrawn and depressed. After several months, her mom was devastated to discover what her young daughter had been consuming for months.” (Kristen Jenson, October 6, 2016, Protect Young Minds.org, “5 Proven Ways Porn Harms Kids that No One Talks About”, https://protectyoungminds.org/2016/10/06/5-proven-ways-porn-harms-kids/)

“But it’s easy to see how this scenario has become a common occurrence.” (Kristen Jenson, October 6, 2016, Protect Young Minds.org, “5 Proven Ways Porn Harms Kids that No One Talks About”, https://protectyoungminds.org/2016/10/06/5-proven-ways-porn-harms-kids/)

“Kids are bombarded with opportunities to view porn. It can be found on cable TV, computers, smartphones, tablets, iPads, or Kindles. Porn can come through apps, social media like Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat and many others. Kids also encounter porn trough xBox gaming consoles and online cartoon games.” (Kristen Jenson, October 6, 2016, Protect Young Minds.org, “5 Proven Ways Porn Harms Kids that No One Talks About”, https://protectyoungminds.org/2016/10/06/5-proven-ways-porn-harms-kids/)

-------------“Parents need to start talking to their tweens about the risks of porn” – (Gail Dines, The Conversation, February 24, 2018, “Parents need to start talking to their tweens about the risks of porn”, https://theconversation.com/parents-need-to-start-talking-to-their-tweens-about-therisks-of-porn-91888)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

109

“Cited a 2016 survey that suggested most parents are totally unaware of their kids’ porn experiences. Jones called this the ‘parental naivete gap.’” “This matches our own experiences. In the presentations we do at high schools, we ask parents to describe what they think of when they hear the word ‘porn.’ They invariably describe a naked young woman with a coy smile, the kind of image many remember from Playboy centerfolds.” “They are shocked when they learn that the images from today’s busiest free porn sites, like Pornhub, depict acts such as women being gagged with a penis or multiple men penetrating every orifice of a woman and then ejaculating on her face. When we tell parents this, the change in the atmosphere of the room is palpable. There is often a collective gasp.” “Ana Bridges, a psychologist at the University of Arkansas, and her team found that 88 percent of scenes from 50 of the top-rented porn movies contained physical aggression against the female performers – such as spanking, slapping and gagging – while 48 percent included verbal abuse – like calling women names such as ‘bitch’ or ‘slut.’” “40 years of research and studies show that the younger the age of exposure, the more significant the impact in terms of shaping boys’ sexual templates, behaviors and attitudes.” “A 2011 study of U.S. college men found that 83 percent reported seeing mainstream pornography in the past 12 months and that those who did were more likely to say the would commit rape or sexual assault (if they knew they wouldn’t be caught) than men who said they had not seen porn.” “Another study of young teens found that early porn exposure was correlated with perpetration of sexual harassment two years later.” “One of the most cited analyses of 22 studies concluded that pornography consumption is associated with an increased likelihood of committing acts of verbal or physical sexual aggression. And a study of college-aged women found that young women whose male partners used porn

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

110

experienced lower self-esteem, diminished relationship quality and lower sexual satisfaction.” “But in reality, they often have no idea what to say, how to say it, or how to deal with a kid who would rather be anywhere else in the world than sitting across from their parents talking about porn. At the same time, public health research shows that parents are the first line of prevention in dealing with any major social problem that affects their kids.” “What took shape was a 12-module program that introduces parents sequentially to the developmental changes – emotional, cognitive and physical – that tweens undergo and the hypersexualized pop culture that shapes those changes and is the wallpaper of tween lives.” (Gail Dines, The Conversation, February 24, 2018, “Parents need to start talking to their tweens about the risks of porn”, https://theconversation.com/parents-need-to-start-talking-to-their-tweens-about-the-risks-ofporn-91888) (Gail Dine, Professor of Sociology and Women’s Studies, Wheelock College. Co-founder and president of Culture Reframed, which seeks to recognize and address pornography as a public health crisis of the digital age.)

--------------------------“Learn the Basics” – (Found in “The Quick Start Guide for Proactive Parents”, site accessed March 6, 2018, https://protectyoungminds.org/resources/)

“Sex Addiction Expert Explains Why Good Kids Get Pulled Into Porn” “Mark Bell, LMFT, CSAT and Claudine Gallacher, MA, originally posted September 10, 2015 on PornProofKids.org.” “Most parents understand that pornography is prevalent and easily accessible, but they convince themselves that their own good children would never be ensnared by it.” “Sadly, this is an all too common mistake.” “Many good, healthy, and normal children get pulled into porn. Here are three reasons shy tis is a natural result of biological programming.”

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

111

“Why Good Kids Are Pulled Into Porn” 1. “Children are naturally curious” “Curiosity has an especially powerful role in childhood. Curiosity drives learning. Parents discover that curious children want to see, smell, touch, taste, and listen to new things. Humans crave and are hard-wired for novelty of all kinds, but most especially physical novelty (including sexual) experiences. It’s normal for kids to be curious about looking at both male and female naked bodies.” 2. “All people, including children, are biologically designed to be drawn to sexualized images.” “When children are exposed to sexual images or media they are naturally intrigued and can become excited, even aroused. This does not mean there is something wrong with them. In fact, it indicates that their bodies and brains are responding in a manner consistent with their human design.” “Pornography elicits within children a premature stimulation of sexual feelings. In other words, though sexual feelings typically awaken during puberty, pornography exposure often causes this aspect of human development to activate too early. Young kids, lacking sufficient life experience and brain maturity, don’t understand these newly awakened and intense sexual feelings and have difficulty coping with them.” “The end result is that a child will feel drawn to pornography and not know why. The child may or may not like seeing porn initially; nevertheless, the child will often feel an inner pull towards it.” “It’s important to understand that this pull is as biologically driven as the human preference for sweet foods. Virtually all of us like something sweet. Similarly, there is an aspect in all of us (yes, even children!) that innately responds to sexual images of some kinds.”

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

112

3. “Pornography produces powerful chemicals that reinforce a child’s innate attraction to it.” “Besides activating the sexual template too early, porn can activate it too much. This is because pornography is a supernormal stimulus. What does this mean? “Humans are hard-wired to be interested in male and female bodies, but under normal circumstances we aren’t exposed to endless numbers of people willing to undress and perform sex acts in front of us the moment we first meet!” “This ‘unnatural’ sexual stimulus causes the brain to release an ‘unnatural’ (unusually high) dose of a chemical called dopamine, often called the molecule of motivation. Author and behavioral scientist, Dr. Susan Weinschenk explains:” “‘The latest research shows that dopamine causes seeking behavior. Dopamine causes us to want, desire, seek out, and search. It increases our general level of arousal and our goal-directed behavior.’” “When a child sees porn, that child’s brain will begin to release large amounts of dopamine, creating a drive for more, even in a child who did not like seeing pornography in the first place.” “Unfortunately, with repeated exposure, porn can become strongly woven into the tapestry of a young person’s developing sexual template. Eventually, porn might convince the brain that masturbation in front of a screen is more rewarding and even more normal than sexual experiences within a real, committed relationship.” “It’s Normal to Be Enticed by Porn” “Hopefully, you can see why good, healthy, and normal children are vulnerable to porn. When children become victims of pornography, they are merely responding naturally to an unnatural or supernormal

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

113

stimulus. In fact, asking children to reject porn is asking them to have biologically unnatural response to this supernormal stimulus.” “Don’t worry! By warning kids of porn’s dangers and teaching them how to react, parents CAN help kids prepare their brains to say ‘no’ to pornography. When kids make a conscious choice to look away, the supernormal stimulus loses power.” (Found in “The Quick Start Guide for Proactive Parents”, site accessed March 6, 2018, https://protectyoungminds.org/resources/)

“Is it any wonder that when a child or adolescent is directly exposed to pornography, the following effects have been documented?” (Jill Manning, “Hearing on pornography’s impact on marriage & the family,” U.S. Senate Hearing: Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights and Property Rights, Committee on Judiciary, Nov. 10, 2005. http://www.judiciary.senate.gov/ hearings/testimony.cfm?id=e655f9e2809e5476862f735da10c87dc&wit_id=e655f9e2809e54768 62f735da10c87dc-1-3 (accessed Dec. 27, 2012).) (Luke Gilkerson, “When Your Child is Looking at Porn”, Covenant Eyes, 2013, http://www.covenanteyes.com/when-your-child-is-looking-atporn/)

“Having sexual intercourse earlier.” (Luke Gilkerson, “When Your Child is Looking at Porn”, Covenant Eyes, 2013, http://www.covenanteyes.com/when-your-child-islooking-at-porn/)

“Lasting negative and traumatic emotional responses to

seeing porn.” (Luke Gilkerson, “When Your Child is Looking at Porn”, Covenant Eyes, 2013, http://www.covenanteyes.com/when-your-child-is-looking-at-porn/)

“The belief that the best sexual satisfaction is attainable

without having affection for one’s partner.” (Luke Gilkerson, “When Your Child is Looking at Porn”, Covenant Eyes, 2013, http://www.covenanteyes.com/when-your-child-is-looking-at-porn/)

“The belief that being married or having a family are

unattractive prospects.” (Luke Gilkerson, “When Your Child is Looking at

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

114

Porn”, Covenant Eyes, 2013, http://www.covenanteyes.com/when-your-child-is-lookingat-porn/)

“An increased risk for developing sexual compulsions and

addictive behavior.” (Luke Gilkerson, “When Your Child is Looking at Porn”, Covenant Eyes, 2013, http://www.covenanteyes.com/when-your-child-is-looking-atporn/)

“Schneider found that the following negative effects could impact children in homes where a parent’s compulsive and/or addictive sexual behavior is occurring:” “Decreased parental time and attention (from the consumer and the parent preoccupied with the consumer);” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Effect of cybersex addiction on the children (N=70)” • “The kids have lost parental time and attention/lost their 2-parent home. (26, 37.1%)” • “The children have seen us argue, see the stress in the home. (21, 30.0%)” • “The kids are grown up and/or outside the home. (13, 18.6%)” • “The children have seen pornography and/or masturbation and I’m worried for them. (10, 14.3%)” • “The kids are too young to be affected/were unaffected. (9, 12.6%)” • “The children have seen the pornography and have been adversely affected. (8, 11.4%)” (Jennifer P. Schneider, “Effects of cybersex addiction on the family: Results of a survey”, site accessed 9.21.17, http://www.jenniferschneider.com/articles/cybersex_family.html)

“In Scars That Won’t Heal: The Neurobiology of Child Abuse; neuroscientist Martin H. Teicher, explains how the developing child’s brain is restructured by the disturbing and traumatic experiences. Teicher says, ‘child abuse can cause permanent damage to the neural structure and function of the developing brain itself.’ He warns that abuse prevention is critical ‘before it does irrevocable harm to millions of young victims.’” (Judith A Reisman, PhD, The Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

115

Institute for Media Education & California Protective Parents, Assoc., “Restructuring the Immature Brain 1 http://www.drjudithreisman.com/archives/Restructuring_the_Immature_Brain.pdf)

“Stages of Porn Involvement” “If your child has been exposed to porn, your response should be based, in part, on how deeply your child is into porn and how long it has been going on. Keep these stages in mind as you read the rest of this guide.” (Luke Gilkerson, “When Your Child is Looking at Porn”, Covenant Eyes, 2013, http://www.covenanteyes.com/when-your-child-is-looking-at-porn/)

“Stage 1: Experimentation and Curiosity” “Most initial porn viewing that happens in childhood, or even the teen years, is born out of curiosity. Boys want to know what the girls look like with no clothes on, and vice versa. Before puberty, it is natural for boys and girls to be curious about gender and sexual differences. During puberty, as sexual feelings grow, it is also common for boys and girls to be drawn by provocative images online, desiring to see more.” (Luke Gilkerson, “When Your Child is Looking at Porn”, Covenant Eyes, 2013, http://www.covenanteyes.com/when-your-child-is-looking-at-porn/)

“Stage 2: Regular Use for Masturbation” “In this stage, your child has gone from curiosity to “using” porn or online chatting for sexual gratification and orgasm. While this stage is more common among teens, younger children can also enter this stage. In this stage, while there may be feelings of shame, the porn use is seen as recreational.” (Luke Gilkerson, “When Your Child is Looking at Porn”, Covenant Eyes, 2013, http://www.covenanteyes.com/when-your-child-is-lookingat-porn/)

“Stage 3: Risky Use” “What constitutes “risky use” is not the same for all children. The almost undetectable shift into this stage happens when kids start to seek porn despite the negative consequences. They might stay up late into the night binging on porn, losing sleep and the ability to focus during the daytime, only to return to porn the next night. They might

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

116

start looking at porn in riskier settings (at school, with a parent’s smartphone, when someone could walk in at any moment, when they should be watching a younger sibling, etc.). Getting caught is less of a concern to them, and in fact, the fear of it becomes part of the “high” they get from the experience.” (Luke Gilkerson, “When Your Child is Looking at Porn”, Covenant Eyes, 2013, http://www.covenanteyes.com/when-your-childis-looking-at-porn/)

“Stage 4: Dependence and Addiction” “Masturbating to pornography taps into the neurocircuitry of our brains, signaling the release of dopamine, serotonin, opiates, oxytocin, and other hormones and neurotransmitters. This hormonal cocktail is part of our body’s natural response to sexual activity, but when combined with graphic porn, the brain experiences a sexual “high” at unnatural levels. Those who have developed an addictive relationship to pornography experience an overwhelming craving for porn, seemingly uncontrollable sexual fantasies, and even withdrawal symptoms. The types of porn that used to satisfy no longer do; harder and more graphic pornography is sought.” (Luke Gilkerson, “When Your Child is Looking at Porn”, Covenant Eyes, 2013, http://www.covenanteyes.com/whenyour-child-is-looking-at-porn/)

“There are no hard lines between these stages, but they exist on a continuum.” (Luke Gilkerson, “When Your Child is Looking at Porn”, Covenant Eyes, 2013, http://www.covenanteyes.com/when-your-child-is-looking-at-porn/)

“Encountering pornographic material a parent has acquired;” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Encountering a parent masturbating;” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Overhearing a parent engaged in phone sex;” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Increased risk of parental separation and divorce;” (Jill C. Manning, “The

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

117

Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Increased risk of parental job loss and financial strain;”

(Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Increased risk for consuming pornography themselves;” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Exposure to the objectification of human beings, especially women;” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Witnessing and/or being involved in parental conflict; and” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Witnessing and/or experiencing stress in the home related to online sexual activities.” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“In recent years, an Australian Child at Risk Assessment Unit in Canberra, New South Wales, noticed a disturbing increase in the number of sexually abusive or aggressive children under the age of 10 who were being referred to their services. In the early 1990s, approximately 3 children per year were being referred for sexually aggressive behavior. However, by 2003, approximately 70 children per year were being referred, many of whom had preyed on other children by forcing them to take part in sexual acts.” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005,http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“To determine why this increase was occurring, the National Child Protection Clearinghouse and the Canberra Hospital conducted a retroactive study on case files. The review revealed, among other commonalities, a pattern between such sexually abusive children and their access to sexually explicit material on the Internet.” (Limb, J. November 26, 2003, Alarming rise in children’s sexually-abuse behavior. The World Today.

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

118

Retrieved June 10, 2005, from http://www.abc.net.au/worldtoday/content/2003/s997751.htm.) (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005,http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Social worker, Cassandra Tinning, stated,” “We noticed a number of really interesting issues. Of course, this primary issue is around the use of the Internet. Almost all of the children who accessed our services in the last three years in relation to sexually harmful behaviors, almost all those children had accessed the Internet and specifically had accessed the Internet for pornographic material.” (Limb, J. November 26, 2003, Alarming rise in children’s sexually-abuse behavior. The World Today. Retrieved June 10, 2005, from http://www.abc.net.au/worldtoday/content/2003/s997751.htm.) (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005,http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Victor B. Cline, a Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the University of Utah, has made clinical observations that support the Australian findings. For example, he stated:” “I have also interviewed some children, where as a result of hearing Dial-A-Porn messages, they engaged in sexual assaults on other children. One 12 year-old boy in Hayward, California listened to DialA-Porn for nearly two hours on the phone.… A few days later he sexually assaulted a four-year-old girl in his mother’s day care center. He had never been exposed to pornography before. He had never acted out sexually before and was not a behavior problem in the home. He had never heard or knew of oral sex before listening to Dial-A-Porn. And this was how he assaulted the girl, forcing oral sex on her in direct imitation of what he had heard on the phone.” (Cline, V. (2001). Pornography’s effects on adults & children. New York: NY: Morality in Media, p. 10.) (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005,http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Additionally, Malamuth, Addison, and Koss (2000) found that very frequent pornography use was associated with much higher rates of sexual aggression among older adolescent boys and young men already at high risk for aggressive behavior.” (Malamuth, N. M., Addison, T., & Koss, M. (2000). Pornography and sexual aggression: Are there reliable effects and can we understand them? Annual Review of Sex Research, 11, 26–91.) (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005,http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

119

“High risk factors that were taken into consideration for this study included impulsivity, hostility toward women, and promiscuity. Youth who had the same risk levels of aggressive behavior, but who consumed pornography ‘somewhat,’ ‘seldom,’ or ‘never’ did not show the same levels of sexual aggression.” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005,http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“‘It is estimated that 2 million children worldwide have been offered on the web or depicted in sexualized violence. According to the annual report of ECPAT (End Child Prostitution, Pornography and Trafficking of children for Sexual Purposes), in the European Union alone, several hundred thousand children are trafficked every year. Many thousands of children are abducted and never seen again. This traffic in children serves the Internet supply and demand.’” (Michael O’Brien, “The pornography plague is stripping our humanity”, Lifesite News, April 8, 2015, https://www.lifesitenews.com/opinion/the-pornography-plague-is-stripping-our-humanity)

“Most people understand intuitively or from looking at research or clinical experience that there is a connection between using child pornography and the behavior of child rape. The images in child pornography are Permission-Giving for sexual behavior between adults and children. Child rapists tell me they “know” that kids like to have sex with adults because they have seen their smiling faces in the child pornography they access on the Internet.” (Mary Anne Layden, “Pornography and Crime: Reporting the presence of pornography connected to crime”, AFA-KSMO, February 2013, http://afa-ksmo.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/MLLegislative-Testimony.Kansas.2.2013.pdf)

“How Pornography Harms Children” “The habitual consumption or pornography can result in a diminished satisfaction with mild forms of pornography and a correspondingly strong desire for more deviant and violent material.” (Take Action Manual (Washington, DC: Enough is Enough, 1995-96), 9.) (Donna Rice Hughes, “How Pornography Harms Children”, ProtectKids.com, September 1998, http://www.protectkids.com/effects/harms.htm#ii)

“While there are many ways that pornography harms children, I want to assure you that every child who views pornography will not necessarily be affected and, at worst, traumatized in the same way. The effects of pornography are progressive and addictive for many people. Just as every person who takes a drink does not automatically become an alcoholic, every child who is exposed to pornography does not automatically become a sexual deviant or sex addict. However, since pornography has a new Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

120

door to the home, school, and library through the Internet, it is important for us to look at the many ways that pornography can potentially harm our children.” (Donna Rice Hughes, “How Pornography Harms Children”, Protect Kids, 2001, http://www.protectkids.com/effects/harms.htm)

“Exposure to Pornography Threatens To Make Children Victims Of Sexual Violence” “The Internet has proven a useful tool for pedophiles and sexual predators as they distribute child pornography, engage in sexually explicit conversations with children, and seek victims in chat rooms. The more pornography these individuals access, the higher the risk of their acting out what they see, including sexual assault, rape, and child molestation.” (Donna Rice Hughes, “How Pornography Harms Children”, Protect Kids, 2001, http://www.protectkids.com/effects/harms.htm)

“Exposure to Pornography May Incite Children to Act Out Sexually Against Other Children” “Children often imitate what they've seen, read, or heard. Studies suggest that exposure to pornography can prompt kids to act out sexually against younger, smaller, and more vulnerable children. Experts in the field of childhood sexual abuse report that any premature sexual activity in children always suggests two possible stimulants: experience and exposure. This means that the sexually deviant child may have been molested or simply exposed to sexuality through pornography.” (Stephen J. Kavanagh, Protecting Children in Cyberspace (Springfield, VA: Behavioral Psychotherapy Center, 1997), 58-59.) (Donna Rice Hughes, “How Pornography Harms Children”, Protect Kids, 2001, http://www.protectkids.com/effects/harms.htm)

“In a study of six hundred American males and females of junior high school age and above, researcher Dr. Jennings Bryant found that 91 percent of the males and 82 percent of the females admitted having been exposed to X-rated, hard-core pornography. Over 66 percent of the males and 40 percent of the females reported wanting to try out some of the sexual behaviors they had witnessed. And among high schoolers, 31 percent of the males and 18 percent of the females admitted actually doing some of the things they had seen in the pornography within a few days after exposure.” (Victor B. Cline, Pornography's Effects on Adults and Children (New York: Morality in Media, 1990), 11.) (Donna Rice Hughes, “How Pornography Harms Children”, Protect Kids, 2001, http://www.protectkids.com/effects/harms.htm)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

121

“Exposure to Pornography Shapes Attitudes and Values” “Most of us caring, responsible parents want to instill in our children our own personal values about relationships, sex, intimacy, love, and marriage. Unfortunately, the powerful irresponsible messages of pornography may be educating our children on these very important life issues. Just as thirtysecond commercials can influence whether or not we choose one popular soft drink over another, exposure to pornography shapes our attitudes and values and, often, our behavior.” (Donna Rice Hughes, “How Pornography Harms Children”, Protect Kids, 2001, http://www.protectkids.com/effects/harms.htm)

“Photographs, videos, magazines, virtual games, and Internet pornography that depict rape and the dehumanization of females in sexual scenes constitute powerful but deforming tools of sex education. The danger to children stems at least partly from the disturbing changes in attitude that are facilitated by pornography. Replicated studies have demonstrated that exposure to significant amounts of increasingly graphic forms of pornography has a dramatic effect on how adult consumers view women, sexual abuse, sexual relationships, and sex in general. These studies are virtually unanimous in their conclusions:” “When male subjects were exposed to as little as six weeks' worth of standard hard-core pornography, they:” (Edward Donnerstein, "Ordinances to Add Pornography to Discrimination against Women," statement at Public Hearing of Minneapolis City Council Session (12 December 1983). See also Luis T. Garcia, "Exposure to Pornography and Attitudes about Women and Rape: A Correlative Study," AG 22 (1986), 382-83. This study found "subjects with a greater degree of exposure to violent sexual materials tended to believe that: (a) women are responsible for preventing their own rape, (b) rapists should not be severely punished, and (c) women should not resist a rape attack. In addition, researchers found that exposure to violent sexual material correlated significantly with the belief that rapists are normal. See also Zillman, "Effects of Prolonged Consumption," 129; and N. Malamuth and J. Ceniti, 129-37. "Study…results consistently showed a relationship between one's reported likelihood to rape and responses associated with convicted rapists such as sexual arousal to rape stimuli, callous attitudes toward rape, beliefs in the rape myths, and hostility towards women.") (Donna Rice Hughes, “How Pornography Harms Children”, Protect Kids, 2001, http://www.protectkids.com/effects/harms.htm)

“developed an increased sexual callousness toward women” (Donna Rice Hughes, “How Pornography Harms Children”, Protect Kids, 2001, http://www.protectkids.com/effects/harms.htm)

“Began to trivialize rape as a criminal offense or no longer considered it a crime at all” (Donna Rice Hughes, “How Pornography Harms Children”, Protect Kids, 2001, http://www.protectkids.com/effects/harms.htm)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

122

“Developed distorted perceptions about sexuality” (Donna Rice Hughes, “How Pornography Harms Children”, Protect Kids, 2001, http://www.protectkids.com/effects/harms.htm)

“Developed an appetite for more deviant, bizarre, or violent types of pornography (normal sex no longer seemed to do the job)” (Donna Rice Hughes, “How Pornography Harms Children”, Protect Kids, 2001, http://www.protectkids.com/effects/harms.htm)

“Devalued the importance of monogamy and lacked confidence in marriage as either a viable or lasting institution” (Donna Rice Hughes, “How Pornography Harms Children”, Protect Kids, 2001, http://www.protectkids.com/effects/harms.htm)

“Viewed nonmonogamous relationships as normal and natural behavior” (Cline, Pornography's Effects, 8.) (Donna Rice Hughes, “How Pornography Harms Children”, Protect Kids, 2001, http://www.protectkids.com/effects/harms.htm)

“Exposure to Pornography Interferes with A Child's Development And Identity” “During certain critical periods of childhood, a child's brain is being programmed for sexual orientation. During this period, the mind appears to be developing a ‘hardwire’ for what the person will be aroused by or attracted to. Exposure to healthy sexual norms and attitudes during this critical period can result in the child developing a healthy sexual orientation. In contrast, if there is exposure to pornography during this period, sexual deviance may become imprinted on the child's ‘hard drive’ and become a permanent part of his or her sexual orientation.” (Kavanagh, Protecting Children in Cyberspace, 58-59.) (Donna Rice Hughes, “How Pornography Harms Children”, Protect Kids, 2001, http://www.protectkids.com/effects/harms.htm)

“Psychologist Dr. Victor Cline's findings suggest that memories of experiences that occurred at times of emotional arousal (which could include sexual arousal) are imprinted on the brain by epinephrine, an adrenal gland hormone, and are difficult to erase. (This may partly explain pornography's addicting effect.) Viewing pornography can potentially condition some viewers to have recurring sexual fantasies during which they masturbate. Later they may be tempted to act out the fantasies as sexual advances.” (Donna Rice Hughes, “How Pornography Harms Children”, Protect Kids, 2001, http://www.protectkids.com/effects/harms.htm)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

123

“Sexual identity develops gradually through childhood and adolescence. In fact, children generally do not have a natural sexual capacity until between the ages of ten and twelve. As they grow up, children are especially susceptible to influences affecting their development. Information about sex in most homes and schools, comes, presumably, in age-appropriate incremental stages based on what parents, educators, physicians, and social scientists have learned about child development. But pornography short-circuits and/or distorts the normal personality development process and supplies misinformation about a child's sexuality, sense of self, and body that leaves the child confused, changed, and damaged.” (Interview with Ann Burgess, professor of nursing, University of Pennsylvania, 15 January 1997. "Pornography - Victims and Perpetrators," Symposium on Media Violence & Pornography, Proceedings Resource Book and Research Guide, ed. D. Scott (1984).) (Donna Rice Hughes, “How Pornography Harms Children”, Protect Kids, 2001, http://www.protectkids.com/effects/harms.htm)

“Pornography often introduces children prematurely to sexual sensations that they are developmentally unprepared to contend with. This awareness of sexual sensation can be confusing and overstimulating for children.” (Donna Rice Hughes, “How Pornography Harms Children”, Protect Kids, 2001, http://www.protectkids.com/effects/harms.htm)

“The sexual excitement and eventual release obtained through pornography are mood altering. For example, if a young boy's early stimulus was pornographic photographs, he can be conditioned to become aroused through photographs. Once this pairing is rewarded a number of times, it is likely to become permanent. (Jerry Bergman, Ph.D. , "The Influence of Pornography on Sexual Development: Three Case Histories,"Family Therapy IX, no. 3 (1982): 265.) The

result is that it becomes difficult for the individual to experience sexual satisfaction apart from pornographic images.” (Donna Rice Hughes, “How Pornography Harms Children”, Protect Kids, 2001, http://www.protectkids.com/effects/harms.htm)

“Most of us find it difficult to talk to our children about sex in general, let alone the harmful effects of pornography, as graphically described in this chapter. We want to protect the innocence and purity of childhood for as long as possible.” (Donna Rice Hughes, “How Pornography Harms Children”, Protect Kids, 2001, http://www.protectkids.com/effects/harms.htm)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

124

“The Nature and Dynamics of Internet Pornography Exposure For Youth” “We examined exposure to Internet pornography before the age of 18…Ninety-three percent of boys and 62% of girls were exposed to online pornography during adolescence.” (Chiara Sabina, Ph.D., Janis Wolak, J.D., and David Finkelhor, Ph.D., “The Nature and Dynamics of Internet Pornography Exposure for Youth,” CyberPsychology & Behavior, Volume 11, Number 6, 2008, http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/pdf/CV169.pdf)

“Substantial numbers of youth Internet users are exposed to online pornography.” (Penn State Harrisburg, Middletown, Pennsylvania; Crimes Against Children Research Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire) (Chiara Sabina, Ph.D., Janis Wolak, J.D., and David Finkelhor, Ph.D., “The Nature and Dynamics of Internet Pornography Exposure for Youth,” CyberPsychology & Behavior, Volume 11, Number 6, 2008, http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/pdf/CV169.pdf)

“72.8% of participants (93.2% of boys, 62.1% of girls) had seen online pornography before age 18. Most exposure began when youth were ages 14-17…” (Chiara Sabina, Ph.D., Janis Wolak, J.D., and David Finkelhor, Ph.D., “The Nature and Dynamics of Internet Pornography Exposure for Youth,” CyberPsychology & Behavior, Volume 11, Number 6, 2008, http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/pdf/CV169.pdf)

“Girls were significantly more likely than boys (42.3% of girls; 6.8% of boys) to report never looking for pornography on purpose, indicating they were involuntarily exposed.” (Chiara Sabina, Ph.D., Janis Wolak, J.D., and David Finkelhor, Ph.D., “The Nature and Dynamics of Internet Pornography Exposure for Youth,” CyberPsychology & Behavior, Volume 11, Number 6, 2008, http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/pdf/CV169.pdf)

“A small minority of participants, 12.0% of boys (n 20) and 18.7% of girls (n 37), said they had viewed online pornography before the age of 18 that had a strong effect on their attitudes or emotions (not shown in table). Asked about these strong reactions, boys were significantly more likely to report feeling sexual excitement (80% of boys, 27% of girls), while girls reported significantly more embarrassment (73% of girls, 25% of boys) and disgust (51% of girls, 20% of boys). Over two-thirds of both boys and girls with strong effect experiences described feeling shock or surprise (65% of boys, 78% of girls). Half of boys and about one-third of girls (32%) felt guilt or shame. About equal numbers of boys and girls said that as a result of the encounter they were less eager to seek sexual activity (20% of boys, 22% of girls with strong effect experiences), had unwanted thoughts about the experience (25% of girls, 24% of boys), or felt Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

125

unattractive or inadequate (15% of boys, 19% of girls).” (Chiara Sabina, Ph.D., Janis Wolak, J.D., and David Finkelhor, Ph.D., “The Nature and Dynamics of Internet Pornography Exposure for Youth,” CyberPsychology & Behavior, Volume 11, Number 6, 2008, http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/pdf/CV169.pdf)

“Number of times spent viewing for more than 30 minutes” • Never • Once • Up to 10 times

“Reasons for viewing Internet pornography • “Wanted the sexual excitement” • “Curious about different things people do sexually” • “Wanted information about sex” • “With friends who wanted to do it” • “Never looked for pornography on purpose”

Boys

Girls 76.8%

30.6% 6.9 27.8

76.8% 9.1 11.4

Boys

Girls

69.3% 53.1

16.8% 26.1

39.7 34.1 6.8

19.5 20.8 42.3

(Chiara Sabina, Ph.D., Janis Wolak, J.D., and David Finkelhor, Ph.D., “The Nature and Dynamics of Internet Pornography Exposure for Youth,” CyberPsychology & Behavior, Volume 11, Number 6, 2008, http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/pdf/CV169.pdf)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

126

C272 For

more information and to read complete article, please visit The Nofap Experiment: A Voyage Through Porn Addiction, Support and Recovery. “‘A Canberra (Australia)-based health unit working with abused and abusive children has recorded a significant rise in the number of children aged younger than 10 who are committing sexual offenses, including 'oral sex and forced intercourse,' against other children. ... 'We're not talking about kids playing mummies and daddies together,' [the unit manager

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

127

Annabel] Wyndham said in a phone interview. 'We're talking about things like one child holding another child up by the neck ... and pulling their pants down and doing things to them.' Most of the children seen in this category came from troubled backgrounds, and 40 percent had been abused themselves. ... Nonetheless, the unit also recorded startling data relating to Internet use. Of the ... sexually-abusive children seen ... 90 percent admitted having seen sexually explicit material online, the report said. A full one-quarter deliberately sought out pornography online as their main use of the Internet, while about 40 percent said they used the Internet for other purposes as well as accessing pornography. . . . Wyndham said her unit did not believe the rise in cases of children behaving in a sexually aggressive manner was merely a matter of increased recognition of a longstanding problem…The research paper was presented by the Canberra unit and a government-funded body called the National Child Protection Clearinghouse. One of its child protection experts, Dr. Janet Stanley, said…'We're suggesting there's an association between children's exposure to inappropriate material on the Internet . . . and their acting out in sexually aggressive behavior, experimenting and modeling what they are seeing.'” (‘Online Porn Driving Sexually Aggressive Children,’ CNSNews.com, 11/26/03) (Robert Peters, “The Link Between Pornography and Violent Sex Crimes”, Free Public, March, 20014, http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/1218097/posts)

“Pornography: Young Children and Teens Who Send Sex Images Risk Mental Problems” “A report by online safety group the Internet Watch Foundation and Microsoft, the technology giant, which worked together on the research, said they identified nearly 4,000 images and videos in a snapshot covering three months last autumn.” (David Barrett, “Pornography: Young children and teens who send sex images risk mental problems”, Telegraph, May 11, 2015, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/crime/child-protection/11595824/Pornography-Young-childrenand-teens-who-send-sex-images-risk-mental-problems.html)

“Of those, 667 (17.5 per cent) featured children who were 15 years old or younger and of those 286 were thought to be under 10.” (David Barrett, “Pornography: Young children and teens who send sex images risk mental problems”, Telegraph, May 11, 2015, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/crime/childprotection/11595824/Pornography-Young-children-and-teens-who-send-sex-images-risk-mentalproblems.html)

“The children are told if they do not co-operate their sexual images will be distributed to friends and to their parents – luring the frightened youngsters to produce highly sexual photographs and Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

128

videos.” (David Barrett, “Pornography: Young children and teens who send sex images risk mental problems”, Telegraph, May 11, 2015, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/crime/child-protection/11595824/Pornography-Youngchildren-and-teens-who-send-sex-images-risk-mental-problems.html)

“In Great Britain, The News Telegraph reported recent research by the Institute of Public Policy Research. A year-long study of 30 families and responses from pupils and teachers in 10 schools found ‘net porn seen by nine out of ten children’ in the UK, with roughly half solicited for by an adult for an apparent sexual meeting. As confirmed in similar research in the USA, the child who, using an innocent sounding word to search for information or pictures was instead guided to stealth ‘sex sites.’ Sonia Livingstone, a professor of social psychology at the LSE, who conducted the research, said that such experiences were common. ‘From my research, nearly all – 90 per cent - of the children had seen some kind of pornographic content. The numbers engaging in chat with people they had never met was about half.’” (The News Telegraph from the United Kingdom, November 25, 2001.) (Judith A. Reisman, PhD, “The Psychopharmacology of Pornography: A Clear & Present Danger”, The Institute for Media Education, January 2000, In Set Free Resources – Unavailable online)

“THE SCIENCE: WHAT HAPPENS TO THE TEENS BRAIN” “The circuitry in the brain undergoes an explosion of growth followed by a rapid pruning of neuron pathways between 10 and 13.” (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/howpornography-addiction-affects-the-teenage-braininfographic/)

“Brain scans have also found the teenage brain is dominated by areas associated with pleasure and reward, and emotional response, perhaps explaining the emotional roller-coaster years associated with puberty.” (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/how-pornography-addiction-affectsthe-teenage-brain-infographic/)

“Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is central in our drive for personal reward. When teens take part in stimulating or potentially addictive habits, such as pornography, there is a flood of dopamine in

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

129

the brain. With repetitive increases of dopamine released into the teen brain it is rewired to crave the same effect.” (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/how-pornography-addiction-affects-the-teenage-brain-infographic/)

“Teen brains are the most sensitive to dopamine at around age 15 and react up to four times more strongly to images perceived as exciting.” (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/how-pornography-addiction-affectsthe-teenage-brain-infographic/)

“A teen’s brain is at its peak of dopamine production and neuroplasticity, making it highly vulnerable to addiction and rewiring as their brain is not yet finished developing.” (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/how-pornography-addiction-affects-the-teenage-brain-infographic/)

“Sexuality specifically increases DeltaFosB a protein that serves a role as a mediator in natural reward memory. This study also found that overexpression of DeltaFosB induced a hypersexual syndrome.” (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/how-pornography-addiction-affects-theteenage-brain-infographic/)

“Additionally, Malamuth, Addison, and Koss (2000) found that very frequent pornography use was associated with much higher rates of sexual aggression among older adolescent boys and young men already at high risk for aggressive behavior.” (Malamuth, N. M., Addison, T., & Koss, M. (2000). Pornography and sexual aggression: Are there reliable effects and can we understand them? Annual Review of Sex Research, 11, 26–91.) (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005,http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“High risk factors that were taken into consideration for this study included impulsivity, hostility toward women, and promiscuity. Youth who had the same risk levels of aggressive behavior, but who consumed pornography ‘somewhat,’ ‘seldom,’ or ‘never’ did not show the same levels of sexual aggression.” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005,http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“‘It is estimated that 2 million children worldwide have been offered on the web or depicted in sexualized violence. According to the annual report of ECPAT (End Child Prostitution, Pornography and Trafficking of children for

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

130

Sexual Purposes), in the European Union alone, several hundred thousand children are trafficked every year. Many thousands of children are abducted and never seen again. This traffic in children serves the Internet supply and demand.’” (Michael O’Brien, “The pornography plague is stripping our humanity”, Lifesite News, April 8, 2015, https://www.lifesitenews.com/opinion/the-pornography-plague-is-stripping-our-humanity)

“Most people understand intuitively or from looking at research or clinical experience that there is a connection between using child pornography and the behavior of child rape. The images in child pornography are Permission-Giving for sexual behavior between adults and children. Child rapists tell me they “know” that kids like to have sex with adults because they have seen their smiling faces in the child pornography they access on the Internet.” (Mary Anne Layden, “Pornography and Crime: Reporting the presence of pornography connected to crime”, AFA-KSMO, February 2013, http://afa-ksmo.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/MLLegislative-Testimony.Kansas.2.2013.pdf)

“Only 11% of juvenile sex offenders said they did not use sexually explicit material.” (Becker, J. V. & Stein, R. M. (1991). Is sexual erotica associated with sexual deviance in adolescent males? International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 14, 85-95.) (Mary Anne Layden, PhD, “Pornography and Violence: A New Look at Research,” Social Costs of Pornography, Accessed November 19, 2015, http://www.socialcostsofpornography.com/Layden_Pornography_and_Violence.pdf)

“How Pornography Harms Children” “The habitual consumption or pornography can result in a diminished satisfaction with mild forms of pornography and a correspondingly strong desire for more deviant and violent material.” (Take Action Manual (Washington, DC: Enough is Enough, 1995-96), 9.) (Donna Rice Hughes, “How Pornography Harms Children”, ProtectKids.com, September 1998, http://www.protectkids.com/effects/harms.htm#ii)

“Independent Parliamentary Inquiry Into Online Child Protection” “Since the early days of the World Wide Web, pornography has been one of the most widely available forms of internet content.” (“Independent Parliamentary Inquiry into Online Child Protection”, Media March, May, 2012, http://www.mediamarch.org.uk/Images/final-report.pdf)

“…‘the whole history of human sexual perversion is only a few clicks away.’ …our children, with their natural curiosity and superior technological skills, are finding and viewing these images.” (“Independent Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

131

Parliamentary Inquiry into Online Child Protection”, Media March, May, 2012, http://www.mediamarch.org.uk/Images/final-report.pdf)

“…so called device-level filters – rather than blocking content at a network level. … in tackling child abuse imagery by collectively … with the IWF to block sites known to contain illegal abuse images.” (“Independent Parliamentary Inquiry into Online Child Protection”, Media March, May, 2012, http://www.mediamarch.org.uk/Images/final-report.pdf)

“Children spend increasing amounts of time online, are often more ‘tech savvy’ and knowledgeable than their parents and know how to circumvent or avoid device filters.” (“Independent Parliamentary Inquiry into Online Child Protection”, Media March, May, 2012, http://www.mediamarch.org.uk/Images/finalreport.pdf)

“A network-level ‘Opt-In’ system, maintained by ISPs, that delivered a clean internet feed to customers as standard but allowed them to choose to receive adult content, would preserve consumer choice but provide an additional content barrier that protected children from accessing age inappropriate material. This model would emulate the system already used by most major UK mobile phone companies, where access to adult content is blocked until an age verification check is conducted by the network operator, and could use the filtering technology already operating in all schools and on some public Wi-Fi hubs.” (“Independent Parliamentary Inquiry into Online Child Protection”, Media March, May, 2012, http://www.mediamarch.org.uk/Images/final-report.pdf)

“Many parents report feeling left behind by the evolution of technology and that they lack the knowledge and skills to educate their children about internet safety. Parents are also concerned about many other forms of disturbing internet content including cyber bullying, extreme violence, self-harm, suicide and pro-anorexia websites.” (“Independent Parliamentary Inquiry into Online Child Protection”, Media March, May, 2012, http://www.mediamarch.org.uk/Images/final-report.pdf)

“…six out of ten children can access the internet without filters in their homes.” (“Independent Parliamentary Inquiry into Online Child Protection”, Media March, May, 2012, http://www.mediamarch.org.uk/Images/final-report.pdf)

“No filtering system will ever deliver total protection and parents will still need to remain engaged and active in helping their families stay safe online.” (“Independent Parliamentary Inquiry into Online Child Protection”, Media March, May, 2012, http://www.mediamarch.org.uk/Images/final-report.pdf)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

132

“…nine out of ten children aged 5 to 15 have internet access at home.” (Ofcom children’s and parents’ media use and attitudes report 2011) (“Independent Parliamentary Inquiry into Online Child Protection”, Media March, May, 2012, http://www.mediamarch.org.uk/Images/final-report.pdf)

“The average age when a child first uses the internet in the UK is 8 years old, and the majority of children access the internet alone…” (Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., Gorzig, A., and Olafsson, K. (2011) EU Kids Online, Risks and Safety on the Internet: The Perspective of European Children 2011) (“Independent Parliamentary Inquiry into Online Child Protection”, Media March, May, 2012, http://www.mediamarch.org.uk/Images/final-report.pdf)

“A 2008 YouGov survey found that 27 per cent of boys were accessing pornography every week, with 5 per cent viewing it every day.” (Sex Education Survey, YouGov 2008) (“Independent Parliamentary Inquiry into Online Child Protection”, Media March, May, 2012, http://www.mediamarch.org.uk/Images/finalreport.pdf)

“…but one quarter of teenage boys in this study said that they view sexual images online.” (Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., Gorzig, A., and Olafsson, K. (2011) EU Kids Online, Risks and Safety on the Internet: The Perspective of European Children 2011) (“Independent Parliamentary Inquiry into Online Child Protection”, Media March, May, 2012, http://www.mediamarch.org.uk/Images/final-report.pdf)

“Smallerscale and more anecdotal studies suggest four out of five children aged 14-16 regularly access online porn at home.” (Psychologies Magazine, July 2010) (“Independent Parliamentary Inquiry into Online Child Protection”, Media March, May, 2012, http://www.mediamarch.org.uk/Images/final-report.pdf)

“One prominent researcher called the inundation of young children with extreme Internet pornography as ‘the single, largest unregulated social experiment in history.’” (“Pornography: A Public Health Crisis”, National Center on Sexual Exploitation, July 14, 2015, http://shop.endsexualexploitation.org/collections/frontpage/products/pornography-a-public-health-crisishow-porn-fuels-sex-trafficking-child-exploitation-sexual-violence-booklet-and-freedownload?variant=8300519939)

“The study found an increasing trend for the distribution of sexually explicit content produced by younger children using laptop webcams…” (“Pornography: A Public Health Crisis”, National Center on Sexual Exploitation, July 14, 2015, http://shop.endsexualexploitation.org/collections/frontpage/products/pornography-a-public-health-crisishow-porn-fuels-sex-trafficking-child-exploitation-sexual-violence-booklet-and-freedownload?variant=8300519939)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

133

“17.5% of content depicted children aged 15 years or younger” (Publication: Internet Watch Foundation, Author: Internet Watch Foundation, in partnership with Microsoft, Date: 03/10/2015) (“Pornography: A Public Health Crisis”, National Center on Sexual Exploitation, July 14, 2015, http://shop.endsexualexploitation.org/collections/frontpage/products/pornography-a-public-healthcrisis-how-porn-fuels-sex-trafficking-child-exploitation-sexual-violence-booklet-and-freedownload?variant=8300519939)

“85.9% of content depicting children aged 15 or younger was created using a webcam.” (Publication: Internet Watch Foundation, Author: Internet Watch Foundation, in partnership with Microsoft, Date: 03/10/2015) (“Pornography: A Public Health Crisis”, National Center on Sexual Exploitation, July 14, 2015, http://shop.endsexualexploitation.org/collections/frontpage/products/pornography-a-public-health-crisishow-porn-fuels-sex-trafficking-child-exploitation-sexual-violence-booklet-and-freedownload?variant=8300519939)

“93.1% of the content depicting children aged 15 or younger featured girls.”(Publication: Internet Watch Foundation, Author: Internet Watch Foundation, in partnership with Microsoft, Date: 03/10/2015) (“Pornography: A Public Health Crisis”, National Center on Sexual Exploitation, July 14, 2015, http://shop.endsexualexploitation.org/collections/frontpage/products/pornography-a-public-health-crisishow-porn-fuels-sex-trafficking-child-exploitation-sexual-violence-booklet-and-freedownload?variant=8300519939)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

134

Table 1 Characteristics of Exposure to Internet Pornography before Age 18 Boys Girls n = 192 n = 371 Exposure to Internet Pornography Yes, before 18 93.2% 62.1% Yes after 18 4.2 20.6 … Reasons for viewing Internet pornography before 18 Sexual excitement 69.3% Curious 53.1 Wanted information about sex 39.7 Friends who wanted to do it 34.1

16.8% 26.1 19.5 20.8

(Chiara Sabrina, Janis Wolak, David Finkelhor, “The Nature and Dynamics of Internet Pornography Exposure for Youth”, University of New Hampshire, 2008, http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/pdf/CV169.pdf)

“‘We know from the young people who contact ChildLine that viewing porn is a part of everyday life, and our poll shows that one in [20%] five 12 to 13year-olds thinks that watching porn is normal behaviour.’” (Patrick Howse, “’Pornography addiction worry’ for tenth of 12 to 13 year-olds”, BBC News, March 31, 2015, http://www.bbc.com/news/education-32115162?ocid=socialflow_facebook)

“Children May Be Too Clever for Our Internet Porn Filters, Minister Admits” “The government's plans to prevent children from accessing internet pornography may fail because young people are ‘smarter’ than adults when it comes to technology…” (Laura Hughes, “Children May be Too Clever for our Internet Porn Filters, Minister Admits,” The Telegraph, November 5, 2015, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/predictions/technology/11978699/Children-may-be-too-clever-for-ourinternet-porn-filters-minister-admits.html)

The [U.K.] minister for internet safety and security and a former Facebook executive…‘whatever solutions’ the government puts in place children ‘will find their way round it.’” (Laura Hughes, “Children May be Too Clever for our Internet Porn Filters, Minister Admits,” The Telegraph, November 5, 2015, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/predictions/technology/11978699/Children-may-be-too-cleverfor-our-internet-porn-filters-minister-admits.html)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

135

“She said: ‘Whatever solutions are put in place, they will fail at times. Young people are smarter than we are at technology, they will find their way around it and they will find their way to this material. We must be absolutely realistic. In most cases we will never be able to solve this problem completely.’” (Laura Hughes, “Children May be Too Clever for our Internet Porn Filters, Minister Admits,” The Telegraph, November 5, 2015, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/predictions/technology/11978699/Children-may-be-too-cleverfor-our-internet-porn-filters-minister-admits.html)

“She also highlighted research which has suggested that watching pornography can effectively shrink the brains of teenagers because they are not fully developed.” (Laura Hughes, “Children May be Too Clever for our Internet Porn Filters, Minister Admits,” The Telegraph, November 5, 2015, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/predictions/technology/11978699/Children-may-be-too-cleverfor-our-internet-porn-filters-minister-admits.html)

“She said if it was necessary, the government would ‘enshrine in law’ the ability to provide family friendly filters, which she said was ‘a vital tool for parents.’” (Laura Hughes, “Children May be Too Clever for our Internet Porn Filters, Minister Admits,” The Telegraph, November 5, 2015, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/predictions/technology/11978699/Children-may-be-too-cleverfor-our-internet-porn-filters-minister-admits.html)

“But where does it begin? How does it start? How can we prevent it?” (Dale Partridge, “5 Things I’ll Teach My Boys About Pornography,” The Daily Positive, November 30, 2014, http://dalepartridge.com/5-things-ill-teach-my-boys-about-pornography/)

“Science tells us children define gender roles and sexual value patterns between age 2-5 and form more advanced views by age 10. As parents and leaders, we must recognize a warped definition of sexuality at age 9 will likely produce significant damage in a child’s ability to form healthy relationships as an adult.” (Dale Partridge, “5 Things I’ll Teach My Boys About Pornography,” The Daily Positive, November 30, 2014, http://dalepartridge.com/5-things-ill-teach-my-boys-about-pornography/)

“So, how can we protect our boys and set them up for a successful and healthy sex life with their spouse? How can we help these little gentlemen protect and respect women for more than their bodies?” (Dale Partridge, “5 Things I’ll Teach My Boys About Pornography,” The Daily Positive, November 30, 2014, http://dalepartridge.com/5-things-ill-teach-my-boys-about-pornography/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

136

“The Growing Epidemic” “‘Wait! I need to talk to you!’ a woman’s voice called out as I crossed the lobby following a church presentation. Her eyes revealed her distress, and she blurted out, ‘I just found out my 11-year-old daughter’s been watching online porn for months. What should I do?’ Many Christians assume that they are insulated from problems such as these. Sadly, this mother’s situation is far from unique. Parents call us regularly because they’ve discovered their children’s exposure to Internet pornography. Not the pornography of yesteryear; rather, the kind that exists today, a cornucopia of increasing depravity. The Internet offers a depth of degradation that wouldn’t have been available even in adult bookstores 20 years ago. Tragically, I received a call from parents after catching their 8-year-old watching bestiality videos on his iPod Touch.” (David White, “The Normalization of Porn in the Church: What the Church Needs to do Now”, Harvest USA, Fall 2013, http://www.harvestusa.org/the-normalization-of-porn-in-the-church-what-the-church-needs-to-donow/#.VXnbwflVhBd)

“How Does My Viewing Pornography Affect My Children?” “Pornography causes a change in the way the user relates to others— especially to their children and spouse. The pornography user learns a simple, onesided sexual response which eliminates intimacy. The user actually loses his ability to emotionally connect with others. Instead of warmth, empathy, and compassion, the user interacts with family members with detachment and criticism. He is emotionally unavailable. This can be very damaging to children.” (“Safety Net – Resources to Protect Your Family from Pornography,” Healthy Sandy Partnership, www.healthysandy.org/fileadmin/downloads/healthy_sandy/Ecclesiastical_Packet.pdf)

“The Internet Watch Foundation released a report Tuesday that outlines what it calls ‘a disturbing trend’ of ‘younger children … producing sexually explicit content which is being distributed online.’” (Michael Gryboski, “UK Study reveals growing trend in youth-produced child porn on the internet”, Christian Post, March 13, 2015, http://www.christianpost.com/news/uk-study-reveals-growing-trend-in-youth-produced-child-porn-on-theinternet-135575/)

“Worldwide pornography revenues from a variety of sources total approximately $100 billion annually. (Ropelato J. (2010) Internet pornography statistics. TopTenReviews.com. Available at http://Internet-filterreview.toptenreviews.com/Internet-pornography-statistics.html (accessed November 5, 2015).)

Child pornography is $20 billion of that, bringing in 20% of the revenue to

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

137

the pornography industry. (United States House of Representatives, testimony of Ernie Allen. Sexual exploitation of children over the Internet: What parents, kids, and congress need to know about child predators: Hearings before the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, of the House Committee on Energy and Commerce, 109th Cong., 2d Sess.

As with most any business, the pornography industry has a vested interest in keeping 20% of its income intact. Research on male pornography users has found that 21% view child pornography as part of what they consume. These men are more likely than other men to be frequent viewers of pornography and to report that they enjoy new and exciting experiences. Not surprisingly, child pornography viewers are more likely than other pornography viewers to be interested in engaging in sexual behavior with an underage person. (Ray, J.V., Kimonis, E.R., & Seto, M.C. (2014). (2006))

Correlates and Moderators of Child Pornography Consumption in a Community Sample. Sexual

Relatedly, when the sexual interests of child pornography offenders are assessed, they show more sexual arousal to children than to adults. (Seto, M.C. (2006). Child Pornography Offenses Are a Valid Diagnostic Indicator of Pedophilia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 155 (3), 610-615.)” (John Abuse, 26 (6), 523-545.)

D. Foubert, “How Pornography Harms”, John Foubert.com, April 2016, http://www.johnfoubert.com/how-porn-harms)

“…a recent report, published by the Witherspoon Institute at Princeton University, stating,” (John D. Foubert, “How Pornography Harms”, John Foubert.com, April 2016, http://www.johnfoubert.com/how-porn-harms)

“There is abundant evidence that for many pornography users, their interest in adult pornography gradually leads them into child pornography. (Wilcox, S.L., Redmond, S., and Hassan, A.M. (2014). Sexual functioning in military personnel: Preliminary estimates and predictors. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 11 (10), 2537-2545.)

Perhaps it is the ever more popular genre of barely legal pornography and/or pornography featuring models who have (allegedly) recently turned 18 years old.” (John D. Foubert, “How Pornography Harms”, John Foubert.com, April 2016, http://www.johnfoubert.com/how-porn-harms)

“For its report, IWF analyzed 3,803 images and videos from September through November 2014 and found, among other things, that 17.5 percent of content depicts children who are 15 or younger.” (Michael Gryboski, “UK Study reveals growing trend in youth-produced child porn on the internet”, Christian Post, March 13, 2015, http://www.christianpost.com/news/uk-study-reveals-growing-trend-in-youth-produced-child-porn-on-theinternet-135575/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

138

“‘Of particular concern is that the young people depicted took no steps to conceal their identity or location, even in many cases using their real names,’ concluded the researchers.” (Michael Gryboski, “UK Study reveals growing trend in youth-produced child porn on the internet”, Christian Post, March 13, 2015, http://www.christianpost.com/news/uk-study-reveals-growing-trend-in-youth-producedchild-porn-on-the-internet-135575/)

“A split-second look at an image can convey more information than a split-second look at words. Words are often perceived as opinions while images are often perceived as events or facts.” (Mary Anne Layden, PhD, “Pornography and Violence: A New Look at Research,” Social Costs of Pornography, Accessed November 19, 2015, http://www.socialcostsofpornography.com/Layden_Pornography_and_Violence.pdf)

“We also learn better when aroused.” (Mary Anne Layden, PhD, “Pornography and Violence: A New Look at Research,” Social Costs of Pornography, Accessed November 19, 2015, http://www.socialcostsofpornography.com/Layden_Pornography_and_Violence.pdf)

“…learning is better if it is reinforced.” (Mary Anne Layden, PhD, “Pornography and Violence: A New Look at Research,” Social Costs of Pornography, Accessed November 19, 2015, http://www.socialcostsofpornography.com/Layden_Pornography_and_Violence.pdf)

“Learning is also better if we see role models perform a behavior.” (Mary Anne Layden, PhD, “Pornography and Violence: A New Look at Research,” Social Costs of Pornography, Accessed November 19, 2015, http://www.socialcostsofpornography.com/Layden_Pornography_and_Violence.pdf)

“…we learn better when the learning is rewarded.” (Mary Anne Layden, PhD, “Pornography and Violence: A New Look at Research,” Social Costs of Pornography, Accessed November 19, 2015, http://www.socialcostsofpornography.com/Layden_Pornography_and_Violence.pdf)

“Pornography can offer all these elements—images, arousal, reinforcement, the example of others, and reward—so it is a potent teacher of both beliefs and behaviors. It provides the ideal conditions for learning.” (Mary Anne Layden, PhD, “Pornography and Violence: A New Look at Research,” Social Costs of Pornography, Accessed November 19, 2015, http://www.socialcostsofpornography.com/Layden_Pornography_and_Violence.pdf)

“Pornography is an ideal teacher of these releaser beliefs. It can teach specific sexual behaviors and general attitudes toward women and children, teach what relationships are like and teach the nature of sexuality, and thus give permission for a wide range of actions.” (Mary Anne Layden, PhD, “Pornography and Violence: A New Look at Research,” Social Costs of Pornography, Accessed November 19, 2015, http://www.socialcostsofpornography.com/Layden_Pornography_and_Violence.pdf)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

139

“Pornography can teach what to do, with whom to do it, when and how often to do it, it’s okay to do it, and then stimulate the urge to do it now.” (Mary Anne Layden, PhD, “Pornography and Violence: A New Look at Research,” Social Costs of Pornography, Accessed November 19, 2015, http://www.socialcostsofpornography.com/Layden_Pornography_and_Violence.pdf)

“…messages of pornography teach beliefs and behaviors.” (Mary Anne Layden, PhD, “Pornography and Violence: A New Look at Research,” Social Costs of Pornography, Accessed November 19, 2015, http://www.socialcostsofpornography.com/Layden_Pornography_and_Violence.pdf)

“Pornography also encourages physically risky behavior. In pornography no one is shown contracting and dying from AIDS, and no negative consequences are ever shown for having deviant kinds of sex.” (Mary Anne Layden, PhD, “Pornography and Violence: A New Look at Research,” Social Costs of Pornography, Accessed November 19, 2015, http://www.socialcostsofpornography.com/Layden_Pornography_and_Violence.pdf)

“[Pornography] study reported that 29 of the 30 juveniles studied had been exposed to magazines or videos, and the average age of first exposure was about 7.5 years.” (Wieckowski, E., Hartsoe, P., Mayer, A., and Shortz, J. 1998. Deviant sexual behavior in children and young adolescents: Frequency and patterns. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 10, 4, 293-304.) (Mary Anne Layden, PhD, “Pornography and Violence: A New Look at Research,” Social Costs of Pornography, Accessed November 19, 2015, http://www.socialcostsofpornography.com/Layden_Pornography_and_Violence.pdf)

“Only 11% of juvenile sex offenders said they did not use sexually explicit material.” (Becker, J. V. & Stein, R. M. (1991). Is sexual erotica associated with sexual deviance in adolescent males? International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 14, 85-95.) (Mary Anne Layden, PhD, “Pornography and Violence: A New Look at Research,” Social Costs of Pornography, Accessed November 19, 2015, http://www.socialcostsofpornography.com/Layden_Pornography_and_Violence.pdf)

“…nine out of ten children aged 5 to 15 have internet access at home.” (Ofcom children’s and parents’ media use and attitudes report 2011) (“Independent Parliamentary Inquiry into Online Child Protection”, Media March, May, 2012, http://www.mediamarch.org.uk/Images/finalreport.pdf)

“The average age when a child first uses the internet in the UK is 8 years old, and the majority of children access the internet alone…” (Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., Gorzig, A., and Olafsson, K. (2011) EU Kids Online, Risks and Safety on the Internet: The Perspective of European Children 2011) (“Independent Parliamentary Inquiry into Online Child Protection”, Media March, May, 2012, http://www.mediamarch.org.uk/Images/final-report.pdf)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

140

“The Psychopharmacology Of Pornography: A ‘Clear And Present Danger’” “…focuses on how the brain processes images--decodable by children and illiterates alike. New brain imaging and mapping technologies provide photographic neurological evidence that visual pornography exerts a ‘law of strength’ in which the brain commonly processes a stronger over a weaker stimulus. ‘The law of strength’ would explain the significant power of real, pseudo, or virtual pictorial pornography over…” (Judith A. Reisman, PhD, DRAFT “The Psychopharmacology of Pornography: A Clear & Present Danger”, The Institute for Media Education, January 2000)

“As the brain is hard-wired to believe in a millisecond what the eyes see, the brain … the effects of sexually graphic images on public thought and conduct.” (Judith A. Reisman, PhD, DRAFT - “The Psychopharmacology of Pornography: A Clear & Present Danger”, The Institute for Media Education, January 2000)

“What we're saying here is that an event which lasts half a second within five to ten minutes has produced a structural change that is in some ways as profound as the structural changes one sees in [brain] damage.” (Neuroscientist, Dr. Gary Lynch, University of California at Irvine, discussing the brain's processing of sensory communication. In, the award winning program series The Brain: Learning and Memory, The Annenberg/CPB Collection, WNET, 1984) (Judith A. Reisman, PhD, DRAFT - “The Psychopharmacology of Pornography: A Clear & Present Danger”, The Institute for Media Education, January 2000)

“This research paper therefore focuses only on pornography’s place in the field of brain communication study that identifies the laws of mental life (psychonomics), dubbed by neurobiologist Candace Pert a ‘psychosomatic communications network.’” (Judith A. Reisman, PhD, DRAFT “The Psychopharmacology of Pornography: A Clear & Present Danger”, The Institute for Media Education, January 2000)

“Although most of the Mapplethorpe jury felt the selected Museum photographs were obscene, these average citizens ruled the images of urinary, rectal and graphic child sex exposure not ‘obscene.’ For, in numerous media interviews jury members reported they believed the art ‘experts’ claims that the five photographs were harmless, cuttingedge ‘art’ and thereby protected by the First Amendment.” (Judith A. Reisman, PhD, DRAFT - “The Psychopharmacology of Pornography: A Clear & Present Danger”, The Institute for Media Education, January 2000)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

141

“Medicine.Net.com reports that ‘Post Traumatic Stress Disorder’ (PTSD) in teenagers and children reveal that over 40% have endured at least one traumatic event, resulting in the development of PTSD....Up to 100% of children who have….endured sexual assault or abuse tend to develop PTSD.’ (http://www.medicinenet.com/posttraumatic_stress_disorder/article.htm, June 26, 2008.) Neuroscientists agree, ‘memories are stored in the amygdala as rough, wordless blueprints for emotional life. (Goleman, in Consciousness, Brain, States of Awareness, and Mysticism. ibid., at 22.) In his schematic (left) child trauma specialist, Bruce Perry, M.D., Ph.D., notes that child sexual abuse sets off alarm mechanisms in children that further compromise a child victim’s already immature cognitive and emotional development. It follows then from the data that a molested child, innocently browsing Spencer’s pornography, penises, picture books of sex positions, whips and handcuffs, etc., would often subconsciously re-experience the toxic ‘alarm’ that relives the original or ongoing ‘traumatic event’” (JAR) (Image and text taken from the National Institute of Mental Health No, 01-4929 at The Brain exhibit at the Smithsonian, December 29, 2001, co-sponsored by the NIMH and the Smithsonian. Of the millions of Spencer’s child employees and/or customers, roughly 25% of girls and 16% of boys enter and/or work in the store carrying a subconscious or conscious sexual abuse memory. In 1986 the American Medical Association reported one in four girls, and one in eight boys as sexually abused before the age of 18. Two years later, The Handbook on Sexual Abuse of Children, reported one in four girls, and one in six boys sexually abused by age 18.13 The National Institute of Health repeats that children’s brains are not firm. “Viewing emotional images…teens... activated the amygdala, a brain center that mediates fear and other “gut” reactions, more than the frontal lobe [rational, cognitive].”)

“When a child lives in a home where an adult is consuming pornography, he or she encounters the following four risks:” 1. “Decreased parental time and attention” 2. “Increased risk of encountering pornographic material” 3. “Increased risk of parental separation and divorce and” 4. “Increased risk of parental job loss and financial strain” (Chuck Derry, “The Sexualization of Harm in Contemporary Pornography”, Men as Peacemakers, July 17, 2009, http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:cgpdxrzl-

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

142

fMJ:www.menaspeacemakers.org/s/The-Sexualization-of-Harm-in-Contemporary-Pornography-7-1709.doc+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us)

“When a child or adolescent is directly exposed the following effects have been documented:” 1. “Lasting negative or traumatic emotional responses,” 2. “Earlier onset of first sexual intercourse, thereby increasing the risk of STD’s over the lifespan,” 3. “The belief that superior sexual satisfaction is attainable without having affection for one’s partner, thereby reinforcing the commoditization of sex and the objectification of humans.” 4. “The belief that being married or having a family are unattractive prospects;” 5. “Increased risk for developing sexual compulsions and addictive behavior,” 6. “Increased risk of exposure to incorrect information about human sexuality long before a minor is able to contextualize this information in ways an adult brain could.” 7. “And, overestimating the prevalence of less common practices (e.g., group sex, bestiality, or sadomasochistic activity).” (Chuck Derry, “The Sexualization of Harm in Contemporary Pornography”, Men as Peacemakers, July 17, 2009, http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:cgpdxrzlfMJ:www.menaspeacemakers.org/s/The-Sexualization-of-Harm-in-Contemporary-Pornography-7-1709.doc+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us)

“[Pornography] study reported that 29 of the 30 juveniles studied had been exposed to magazines or videos, and the average age of first exposure was about 7.5 years.” (Wieckowski, E., Hartsoe, P., Mayer, A., and Shortz, J. 1998. Deviant sexual behavior in children and young adolescents: Frequency and patterns. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 10, 4, 293-304.) (Mary Anne Layden, PhD, “Pornography and Violence: A New Look at Research,” Social Costs of Pornography, Accessed November 19, 2015, http://www.socialcostsofpornography.com/Layden_Pornography_and_Violence.pdf)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

143

“A study of adolescents revealed that viewing sexually explicit internet materials can significantly increase their uncertainties about sexuality, can lower their self-esteem, and bring about feelings of loneliness and depression.” (Source: Dolf Zillman and Jennings Bryant, "Pornography's Impact on Sexual Satisfaction," Journal of Applied Social Psychology 18 (1988): 448.) (Cathy Cleaver Ruse, “Pornography and its consequences,” Life Site News, July 31, 2014, https://www.lifesitenews.com/opinion/pornographyand-its-consequences

“My own research indicates that the earlier young males are exposed to pornography the more likely they are to engage in non-consensual sex and the more pornography females use the more likely they are to be victims of non-consensual sex. Pornography is an equal opportunity toxin for both males and females.” (Dr. Mary Anne Layden, “Pornography and Crime, Reporting the presence of pornography connected to crime”, American Family Association of Kansas & Missouri, February, 2013, http://afa-ksmo.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/ML-Legislative-Testimony.Kansas.2.2013.pdf)

“…boys were significantly more likely to report feeling sexual excitement (80% of boys, 27% of girls).” (Chiara Sabrina, Janis Wolak, David Finkelhor, “The Nature and Dynamics of Internet Pornography Exposure for Youth”, University of New Hampshire, 2008, http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/pdf/CV169.pdf)

The Impact of Pornography on Children “ABSTRACT: The availability and use of pornography has become almost ubiquitous among adults and adolescents. Consumption of pornography is associated with many negative emotional, psychological, and physical health outcomes. These include increased rates of depression, anxiety, acting out and violent behavior, younger age of sexual debut, sexual promiscuity, increased risk of teen pregnancy, and a distorted view of relationships between men and women. For adults, pornography results in an increased likelihood of divorce which is also harmful to children. The American College of Pediatricians urges healthcare professionals to communicate the risks of pornography use to patients and their families and to offer resources both to protect children from viewing pornography and to treat individuals suffering from its negative effects.” “Pornography may be defined as “the depiction of erotic behavior (sexual display in pictures or writing) that is intended to cause sexual excitement” in the viewer.1 Over the past decade there has been a large increase in the

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

144

pornographic material that is available to both adults and children. Mainstream pornography use has grown common because it is accessible, affordable, and anonymous. It is accessible because it is just a few keystrokes away on the Internet. It is affordable because many online sites offer free pornography to lure viewers to their web sites. Other sites simply post third party videos and do not charge the viewer for web traffic. It is anonymous because it can be viewed in the privacy of a person’s home. There is no longer a need to visit an adult book store or the local XXX theatre.” “While the exact amount of revenue that the pornography industry generates in this country is unclear, the Internet filtering service Covenant Eyes estimates the 2012 U.S. revenue to be around $8 billion.2 It is estimated that since 2007, revenue has declined by 50%,3 but this decline is likely due to the availability of more free online pornography and not to a total decline in pornography usage. In 2008, the Internet and marketing firm Hitwise reported that globally 40,634 web sites distributed pornography.”4 “Who Consumes Pornography and Why Pediatricians Must Take Notice” “A 2014 Barna Group survey revealed the following demographic data regarding pornography use by American adults:”5 “Among males 18-30 years old, 79% viewed pornography once per month and 63% viewed pornography greater than once per week.” “Among males 31-49 years old, 67% viewed pornography once per month and 38% viewed pornography greater than once per week.” “Among males 50-68 years old, 49% viewed pornography once per month and 25% viewed pornography greater than once per week.” “Among females 18-30 years old, 34% viewed pornography once per month and 19% viewed pornography more than once per week.” “Among females 31-49 years old, 16% viewed pornography once per month and 8% viewed pornography greater than once per week.”

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

145

“Among females 50-68 years old, 5% viewed pornography once per month and 0% viewed pornography greater than once per week.” “Demographic data is similar among younger age groups. A 2008 article in the Journal of Adolescent Research revealed that 67% of young men and 49% of young women found pornography acceptable.6 Pornography exposure for children and adolescents has become almost ubiquitous. In a 2010 survey of English students between 14 to 16 years old, almost one third claimed that their first exposure to Internet pornography was at 10 years old or younger.7 In a 2011 survey, 31% of adolescent boys admitted visiting web sites that were intended as Adult Only.8 A large survey of American young people revealed that 51% of males and 32% of females claimed to have viewed pornography for the first time before they were 13 years old.9 In a 2012 Australian study of pornography use, men who were frequent pornography users said that their first exposure was between the ages of 11 to 13 years old.10 Similar findings were recorded in a 2009 study in the Journal of Adolescent Health which found that 85% of adolescent males and 50% of adolescent females had been exposed to pornographic material.11 Clearly, pornography has become pervasive throughout modern American society. Research, however, is only beginning to delineate its impact upon children, adolescents, and adults.” “Grade school children are sometimes exposed to pornography accidentally when they view material on the Internet.12 They may also come into contact with a parent’s or close adult’s pornographic material.13 Sexual predators have purposefully exposed young children to pornography for the purpose of grooming the children for sexual exploitation.14 Pornography exposure at these young ages often results in anxiety for the child.15 Children also report feelings of disgust, shock, embarrassment, anger, fear, and sadness after viewing pornography.16 These children can suffer all of the symptoms of anxiety and depression. They may become obsessed with acting out adult sexual acts that they have seen, and this can be very disruptive and disturbing to the child’s peers who witness or are victimized by this behavior. Children under twelve years old who have viewed pornography are statistically more

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

146

likely to sexually assault their peers.17 In sum, children exposed to pornographic material are at risk for a broad range of maladaptive behaviors and psychopathology.” “Effects of Pornography Exposure and Use” “The effects of pornography exposure upon older adolescents and young adults were recorded in a series of studies conducted by Dolf Zillman and Jennings Bryant in the 1980’s. There are several factors that make the Zillman/Bryant studies noteworthy. First, they were controlled randomized studies dealing with objective exposure to pornographic material, as opposed to convenience sample surveys about pornography exposure and attitudes. Second, they were conducted before the age of Internet pornography, so the participants would likely have had less exposure to pornography compared to the average young adult today. These studies involved recruiting college students and non-college students from the community. Subjects in the experimental group viewed pornographic material for a period of six weeks, while the control group was exposed to more common movie and television content over the same period of time. Afterwards, participants were asked a series of questions to evaluate their attitudes regarding relationship and family issues.”18 “The following observations were noted regarding young adults exposed to pornography compared to the control group:”19, 20 1. “Male subjects demonstrated increased callousness toward women.” 2. “Subjects considered the crime of rape less serious.” 3. “Subjects were more accepting of non-marital sexual activity and noncoital sexual practices such as oral and anal sex.” 4. “Subjects became more interested in more extreme and deviant forms of pornography.” 5. “Subjects were more likely to say they were dissatisfied with their sexual partner.”

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

147

6. “Subjects were more accepting of sexual infidelity in a relationship.” 7. “Subjects valued marriage less and were twice as likely to believe marriage may become obsolete.” 8. “Men experienced a decreased desire for children, and women experienced a decreased desire to have a daughter.” 9. “Subjects showed a greater acceptance of female promiscuity.” “There is evidence that society’s acceptance of pornography creates unique problems for women. The use of pornography can result in violent and sexually aggressive attitudes towards women. Men who consume pornography are more likely to adopt rape myth ideology, which is that women cause rape or actually enjoy rape or sexual assault.21,22 There is strong evidence that exposure to violent pornography is associated with sexually aggressive behaviors in both adolescent23 and adult males.24 It is common for pornographic movies to portray male vs. female verbal and physical aggression as well as sexual acts that are overtly degrading to women.25 For young people, viewing sexually explicit web sites increased the likelihood of having more than one sexual partner in the last three months and for using alcohol and drugs during sexual activity.26 The recent phenomenon of teenage sexting (the sending of sexually explicit photos, images, text messages or e-mails using a mobile device) has been linked with pornography exposure.27 For women, viewing pornography may result in sexual manipulation by a male partner. This is evident by the increased participation in anal sex by women who have viewed pornography despite the data that the majority of women consider anal sex unpleasant.28Often the women who participate in pornography are coerced and forced to participate in sexual acts which they object to; so it is possible that the production of pornography can be considered a form of sex trafficking of women as defined by the United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons.29 As pornography becomes more accepted in a society, that society becomes more hypersexualized and this can increase the demand for sex trafficked women and children.”30

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

148

“Internet pornography addiction is an emerging issue that neuroscientists are just beginning to study. A recent primary research article in JAMA Psychiatry shows that pornography consumption is associated with decreased brain volume in the right striatum, decreased left striatum activation, and lower functional connectivity to the prefrontal cortex.31 The article showed that high pornography consumption is associated with smaller grey matter volume in the viewers, and is associated with downregulation of the brain’s response to erotic material. These neural changes in the brains of pornography users do not prove causation but they are similar to the changes seen in brains of individuals addicted to cocaine, alcohol, and methamphetamines, and this association is one more way regular pornography use mirrors the use of addictive drugs.32 This scientific data is consistent with the observed findings in a 2012 Australian study of pornography showing 20% of regular pornography users preferred the excitement of viewing pornography over being sexually intimate with a real person.33 The observation that male pornography users become addicted to their cyber-sexual activity and lose interest in actual women has obvious deleterious effects on relationships and society at large.” “Pornography use by adolescents and young adults often leads to a distorted view of sexuality and its role in fostering healthy personal relationships. These distortions include the overestimation of the prevalence of sexual activity in the community, the belief that sexual promiscuity is normal, and the belief that sexual abstinence is unhealthy.34 These perspectives are likely to make it more difficult for young people to form lasting, meaningful relationships with the opposite sex, which will ultimately result in more anxiety, depression, and overall life dissatisfaction.”35 “Pornography has a negative effect on marriage and long term cohabitating couples, making them more vulnerable to divorce or dissolution, and this in turn has negative health effects for the children involved.36 The use of pornography in the context of the marriage is largely confined to the husband; the wife being an occasional co-participant, reluctantly accepting the pornography use or being completely unaware of the husband’s

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

149

personal use of pornography.37 Women who have husbands or male partners who view pornography feel betrayed. Women see pornography as a form of sexual objectification of women. When women view the pornography their partners are viewing they can develop a lower selfesteem, feelings of inadequacy, and begin to feel sexually undesirable.38 The more a woman perceives her husband or boyfriend using pornography, the more negative the woman rates her relationship in general and the lower she rates her overall sexual satisfaction.39 This occurs because a significant percentage of male pornography viewers will develop a preference for the fantasy world of pornography over actual sexual activity with their partners.40 Pornography can reinforce the concept of physical domination of the man over the woman and can increase aggressive and violent behaviors against women.41,42 In 2002, the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers reported that 56% of all divorces involved one party having an obsessive interest in pornographic web sites.43 Men who use pornography and women who accept pornography are more likely to accept marital infidelity and cohabitation44 which ultimately destabilizes families.” Conclusion “Children suffer many negative effects due to modern society’s exposure to and acceptance of pornography. These negative effects include mental disturbance and unrest for the young school age child, including acting out and violent behavior. Because of its harmfulness to children, pornography must never be used as a tool to teach children human sexuality. For older adolescents and young adults, pornography teaches a false narrative regarding human sexuality and how men and women form healthy sexual relationships. This makes it more difficult for young men and women to form authentic, stable relationships. For parents, pornography is divisive resulting in a decreased quality of marriage and increasing the likelihood of divorce and separation which has been well documented to be harmful to children.” “Pediatricians should be equipped to discuss with parents both how and why to prevent pornography exposure for both children and

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

150

parents. Because the Internet is the primary medium for pornography exposure, home computers should be located in public spaces (not in a child’s bedroom), and equipped with Internet filtering and monitoring software to reduce exposure. There are a variety of parental controls and filtering systems available to parents, and some current software vendors offer filtering and monitoring of smart phones which are now the primary technology used by adolescents to access the Internet. Also, there are software services which offer the ability to create accountability partnerships so as to increase the success of breaking free from pornography addiction. Pediatricians and pediatric healthcare providers should understand the negative impact that widespread use of pornography is having on today’s children and their parents and how they can help stop this destructive influence on the family.” Primary Author: L. David Perry, MD, FCP Original statement October 2015 Updated June 2016 “The American College of Pediatricians is a national medical association of licensed physicians and healthcare professionals who specialize in the care of infants, children, and adolescents. The mission of the College is to enable all children to reach their optimal physical and emotional health and well-being.” Resources o

“Internet Filtering Software: Covenant Eyes, Mobicip, Net Nanny, Screen Retriever, and K9 Web protection”

o

“Good Pictures Bad Pictures: Porn Proofing Today’s Young Kids by Kristen A. Jenson, MA and Gail Poyner, PhD.”

o

“Good Pictures Bad Pictures Jr.: A Simple Plan to Protect Young Minds by Kristen A. Jenson, MA and Gail Poyner, PhD, this book is intended for 3-6 year olds.”

o

“integrityrestored.com”

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

151

o

“provenmen.org”

o

“bravehearts.net”

References [1] www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/pornography Accessed 6/4/15 [2] www.covenanteyes.com/2012/06/01/how-big-is-the-pornographicindustry-in-the-united-states/ Accessed 6/4/15 [3] Paul M. Barrett, “The new republic of porn,” Bloomberg Businessweek, June 21,2012, http://www.businessweek.com/printer/articles/58466-thenew-republic-of-porn Accessed 6/4/15 [4] Bill Tancer, Click: What Millions of People Are Doing Online and Why It Matters (New York: Hyperion, 2008). www.covenanteyes.com/pornstats/ Accessed 4/10/15 [5] www.provenmen.org/2014pornsurvey/pornography-use-andaddiction Accessed 6/2/15 [6] Carroll, J., Padilla-Walker, L., Olson, C., Barry, C., Madsen, S., Generation XXX Pornography Acceptance and Use Among Emerging Adults. Journal of Adolescent Research. Vol. 23, No. 1. January 2008, pp.6-30. [7] www.psychologies.co.uk/parliament-investigates-online-porn Accessed 6/23/15 [8] www.gfi.com/documents/GFI%20_2011_parent_teen_internet_safety_re port_june.pdfAccessed 6/24/15 [9] Michael Leahy, Porn University: What College Students Are Really Saying About Sex on Campus (Chicago: Northfield Publishing, 2009). [10] Katie Szittner, “Study exposes secret world of porn addiction, “Sydney.edu. May 10, 2012. http://sydney.edu.au/news/84.html?newsstoryid=9176 [11] Braun-Courville, D. and Rojas, M., Exposure to Sexually Explicit Web Sites and Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors, Journal of Adolescent Health, 45(2009) pp. 156-162. [12] Flood, Michael. The Harms of Pornography Exposure Among Children and Young People. Child Abuse Review. 2009 Vol. 18:384-400. [13] Ibid. Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

152

[14] Ibid. [15] Ibid. [16] Manning, Jill. The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research. Sexual Addiction and Compulsivity 2006, 13:131-165. [17] Ibid. [18] Zillman, D., Bryant, J., Effects of Prolonged Consumption of Pornography on Family Values. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 9 No. 4, December 1988, pp. 518-544. [19] Ibid [20] Manning, Jill. The Impact Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research. Sexual Addiction and Compulsivity 2006, 13:131-165. [21] Flood, Michael. The Harms of Pornography Exposure Among Children and Young People. Child Abuse Review. 2009 Vol. 18:384-400. [22] Manning, Jill. The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research. Sexual Addiction and Compulsivity 2006, 13:131-165. [23] Ybarra, M., Mitchell, K., Hamburger, M., Diener-West, M., and Leaf, P. X-Rated Material and Perpetration of Sexually Aggressive Behavior Among Children and Adolescents: I There a Link? Aggressive Behavior Vol. 37 pp. 1-18 (2011) [24] Hald, G., Malmuth, N., and Yuen, C. Pornography and Attitudes Supporting Violence Against Women: Revisiting the Relationship on Nonexperimental Studies, Aggressive Behavior Vol. 36, 2010, pp. 1065-1086. [25] Bridges, A., Wosnitzer, R., E., Sun, C., and Liberman, R. Aggression and Sexual Behavior in Best-Selling Pornography Videos: A Content Analysis Update. Violence Against Women16(10) 2010, pp. 1065-1086. [26] Braun-Courville, D. and Rojas, M., Exposure to Sexually Explicit Web Sites and Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors, Journal of Adolescent Health, 45(2009) pp. 156-162. [27] Van Ouytsel, J., Ponnett, K., and Walrave, M., The Associations Between Adolescents’ Consumption of Pornography and Music Videos and Their Sexting Behavior. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking Vol. 17, No. 12, 2014, pp. 772-778. Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

153

[28] Tyden, T., Olsson, S., and Haggstrom-Nordin, E., Improved Use of Contraceptives, Attitudes Toward Pornography, and Sexual Harassment Among Female University Students, Women’s Health Issues, Vol. 11, No. 2 March/April 2001, pp.87-94. [29] United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and Protocols Thereto., 2004, pp. 42 www.unodc.org/documents/treaties/UNTOC/Publications/TOC%20Con vention/TOCebook-e.pdf accessed 6/23/16 [30] Pornography & Sex Trafficking www.stoptraffickingdemand.com accessed 6/21/16 [31] Kuhn, S., Gallinat, J. Brain Structure and Connectivity Associated with Pornography Consumption, JAMA Psychiatry, May, 2014. [32] Ibid [33] Katie Szittner, “Study exposes secret world of porn addiction”, Sydney.edu. May 10, 2012. http://sydney.edu.au/news/84.html?newsstoryid=9176 Accessed 6/14/15 [34] Zillman, D., Bryant, J., Effects of Prolonged Consumption of Pornography on Family Values. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 9 No. 4, December 1988, pp. 518-544. [35] Michael Leahy, Porn University: What College Students Are Really Saying About Sex on Campus (Chicago: Northfield Publishing, 2009). [36] www.acpeds.org/the-college-speaks/position-statements/parentingissues/the-impact-of-family-structure-on-the-health-of-children-effects-ofdivorce Accessed 3/10/15 [37] Manning, Jill. The Impact Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research. Sexual Addiction and Compulsivity 2006, 13:131-165. [38] Stewart, D.N., Szymanski, D.M., Young Adult Women’s Reports of Their Male Romantic Partner’s Pornography Use as a Correlate of Their Self-Esteem, Relationship Quality, and Sexual Satisfaction. Sex Roles, May 6, 2012. 67:257-271. [39] Ibid [40] Manning, Jill. The Impact Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research. Sexual Addiction and Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

154

Compulsivity 2006, 13:131-165. [41] Zillman, D., Bryant, J., Effects of Prolonged Consumption of Pornography on Family Values. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 9 No. 4, December 1988, pp. 518-544. [42] Manning, Jill. The Impact Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research. Sexual Addiction and Compulsivity 2006, 13:131-165. [43] Jonathan Dedmon, “Is the Internet bad for your marriage? Online affairs, pornographic sites playing a greater role in divorces.” Press release from Dilenshnieder Group, Inc., Nov. 14, 2002. http://prnewswire.com/news-releases/is-the-internet-bad-for-yourmarriage-online-affairs-pornographic-sites-playing-greater-role-in-divorces76826727.html Accessed 6/9/15 [44] Carroll, J., Padilla-Walker, L., Olson, C., Barry, C., Madsen, S., Generation XXX Pornography Acceptance and Use Among Emerging Adults. Journal of Adolescent Research. Vol. 23, No. 1. January 2008, pp. 6-30. (L. David Perry, “The Impact of Pornography on Children”, American College of Pediatricians, June 2016, https://www.acpeds.org/the-collegespeaks/position-statements/the-impact-of-pornography-on-children)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

155

#9 CHILD PORN “Porn poses unique risks beyond supernormal stimulation. First, it's easy to access, available 24/7, free and private. Second, most users start watching porn by puberty, when their brain's are at their peak of plasticity and most vulnerable to addiction and rewiring.” (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, p81)

“In the context of a culture that provides little information about sexuality through conventional socialization channels such as parents, schools, and religion but condones a media environment replete with sexual content, the media have become important sexual socialization agents. Zillmann, in fact, argued that, ‘because consensually accepted programs of sexual education are lacking, erotica have come to serve as a primary agent of sexual socialization.’” (Zillmann, D. (2000). Influence of unrestrained access to erotica on adolescents’ and young adults’ dispositions toward sexuality. Journal of Adolescent Health, 27(S), 41-44) (Jane D. Brown, Kelly L. L’Engle, “X-Rated, Sexual Attitudes and behaviors Assocaited with U.S. Early Adolescents’ Exposure to Sexually Explicit Media”, Communications Research, Volume 36 No. 1, February 2009, http://crx.sagepub.com/content/36/1/129.abstract)

“Although concern has been voiced about the possible negative effects of increased access that children and teens have to sexually explicit media, we know relatively little about recent use or effects of such content, especially in the United States. Recent studies in Taiwan, Sweden, and the Netherlands have documented ready access and frequent use, especially among adolescent boys, but none of these studies have been longitudinal or have assessed both attitudinal and behavioral effects of exposure.” (Lo, V., & Wei, R. (2005). Exposure to Internet pornography and Taiwanese adolescents’ sexual attitudes and behavior. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 49(2), 221-237) (Haggstrom-Nordin, E., Hansom, U., & Tyden, T. (2005). Associations between pornography consumption and sexual practices among adolescents in Sweden. International Journal of STDs & AIDS, 16, 102-107) (Peter, J., & Valkenburg, P. M. (2006a). Adolescents’ exposure to sexually explicit material on the Internet. Communication Research, 33(2), 178-204) (Jane D. Brown, Kelly L. L’Engle, “X-Rated, Sexual Attitudes and behaviors Assocaited with U.S. Early Adolescents’ Exposure to Sexually Explicit Media”, Communications Research, Volume 36 No. 1, February 2009, http://crx.sagepub.com/content/36/1/129.abstract)

“Most studies of the effects of pornography have included college students and/or adults, not younger adolescents who may be most susceptible to attitudinal and behavioral effects as they begin to form their own ideas about appropriate and inappropriate sexual relationships and behavior.” (Malamuth, N., & Huppin, M. (2005). Pornography and teenagers: Importance of individual differences. Adolescent Medicine Clinics, 16, 315-326) (Zillmann, D., & Bryant, J. (1988). Effects of prolonged consumption on pornography on family values. Journal of Family Issues, 9(4), 518-544) (Jane D. Brown, Kelly L. L’Engle, “X-Rated, Sexual Attitudes and behaviors Assocaited with U.S. Early Adolescents’ Exposure to Sexually Explicit Media”, Communications Research, Volume 36 No. 1, February 2009, http://crx.sagepub.com/content/36/1/129.abstract) Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

156

“In this paper, patterns of sexually explicit media use among a demographically diverse panel of early adolescents in the United States are described and relationships between early exposure and sexual attitudes and behaviors two years later are investigated.” (Jane D. Brown, Kelly L. L’Engle, “XRated, Sexual Attitudes and behaviors Assocaited with U.S. Early Adolescents’ Exposure to Sexually Explicit Media”, Communications Research, Volume 36 No. 1, February 2009, http://crx.sagepub.com/content/36/1/129.abstract)

“…a ‘social experiment with unknown long-term consequences’.” (“Independent Parliamentary Inquiry into Online Child Protection”, Media March, May, 2012, http://www.mediamarch.org.uk/Images/final-report.pdf)

“Al Cooper, a California psychologist: 'There's only so many naked women's breasts you can see until you get tired of it,' Cooper said. 'For sex sites to make money, they need to supply people with new material…something new and exciting'…'We're seeing a tremendous increase in people looking for child porn online, then trying to solicit kids for sex,' Cooper said.” (‘Porn Spam: It's Getting Raunchier,’ Wired News, 9/30/02) (Robert Peters, “The Link Between Pornography and Violent Sex Crimes”, Free Public, March, 20014, http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/1218097/posts)

“The correlation (85%) between viewing child pornography and participating in actual sexual relations with children was demonstrated by Bourke and Hernandez.” (Bourke M, Hernandez A. The ‘Butner Study’ redux: A report of the incidence of hands-on child victimization by child pornography offenders. J Fam Violence. 2009;24:183– 91) (Donald L. Hilton and Clark Watts, “Pornography addiction: A neuroscience perspective,” NCBI, February 21, 2011, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3050060/)

“I recently read a disturbing article in the Journal of Human Rights and Civil Society, which is a publication of the Protection Project based at Johns Hopkins University. The title of the article is “The Slave and the Porn Star: Sexual Trafficking and Pornography.” The authors show various connections between pornography and sexual exploitation. Many of the individuals who appear in pornography are slaves. They have been trafficked, drugged, manipulated in some way, and are forced to be part of this wicked business.” (Ben Reaoch, “What Christians Do About Modern Day Slavery”, Desiring God, February 16, 2013, http://www.desiringgod.org/articles/what-christians-do-aboutmodern-day-slavery)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

157

#10 GIRLS AND PORN Natalie’s Story - “I grew up in a Christian home with amazing, loving parents. From a young age, I had a personal relationship with Christ. As a teenager, I was even given leadership roles in the church. My senior year of high school should have been an exciting time; I had been given solid roots in my upbringing and I had big dreams for the future. This was the point where I would begin to make decisions enabling me to live those dreams.” (Luke Gilkerson, “Pornography Among Youth”, Covenant Eyes, 2012, file:///C:/Users/kim.riley/Downloads/pornography-among-youth.pdf)

“Despite all that, it was a horrible year.” (Luke Gilkerson, “Pornography Among Youth”, Covenant Eyes, 2012, file:///C:/Users/kim.riley/Downloads/pornographyamong-youth.pdf)

“The summer before, I had stumbled across erotic literature on the Internet. My parents, as a safety measure, had installed filtering software on my laptop, but somehow the website got past. Afterwards, I told myself it was a one-time thing. But within weeks, I went back for more. I told myself it was okay. It wasn’t real porn; it was just stories. There was nothing wrong with what I was doing.” [Josh note: My child won’t look for porn] (Luke Gilkerson, “Pornography Among Youth”, Covenant Eyes, 2012, file:///C:/Users/kim.riley/Downloads/pornographyamong-youth.pdf)

“Before long, though, I wasn’t just reading stories, but watching videos. Yet it was never enough. By winter, I would spend several hours every night watching and reading. When I had seen everything possible without hacking the filter on my laptop, I turned to my phone. By spring, I couldn’t stop. [Josh note: Addiction] Even if I was exhausted, I had to go one more story, one more video. I couldn’t have enough. Before, I had convinced myself that I wasn’t addicted, that I could stop anytime I wanted. Now, I wanted to stop, but I couldn’t. My life had no purpose. I felt like I had nowhere to go to for help. I was trapped.” [Josh note: 93% of churches have no program to help]

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

158

(Luke Gilkerson, “Pornography Among Youth”, Covenant Eyes, 2012, file:///C:/Users/kim.riley/Downloads/pornography-among-youth.pdf)

“As time drew near for me to leave for college, I began to get scared. How was I going to live out my dreams if I was chained to this monster called pornography? I realized that in the past year, I had not only become addicted to porn, but I had also grown further away from God than I ever had before.” (Luke Gilkerson, “Pornography Among Youth”, Covenant Eyes, 2012, file:///C:/Users/kim.riley/Downloads/pornography-amongyouth.pdf)

“Two weeks before leaving for college, I begged God to forgive me and asked Him to help me break the addiction. I knew I could not possibly do it; He had to help me. For the next two weeks, I refused to take my laptop into my bedroom. I spent time praying and reading my Bible every day. Even though it was hard, life began to look hopeful again.” (Luke Gilkerson, “Pornography Among Youth”, Covenant Eyes, 2012, file:///C:/Users/kim.riley/Downloads/pornography-among-youth.pdf)

“My first night at college, God placed Christ-like friends around me who lifted me up and within a few weeks knew about my problem. They began to keep me accountable. [Josh note: One another] These relationships made it easy to say “no” to porn. Not only would they ask me how I was doing at resisting temptation, but they would also keep my laptop overnight, stop me from beating myself up when I messed up, and, most importantly, pray for me. I would not have been able to make it through fall quarter without depending on them.” (Luke Gilkerson, “Pornography Among Youth”, Covenant Eyes, 2012, file:///C:/Users/kim.riley/Downloads/pornography-among-youth.pdf)

“Over winter break, being away from my accountability, I slipped up several times. At first, I was mad at myself for returning to my old ways. Then, one of my friends showed me that I was still growing and God had forgiven me.” (Luke Gilkerson, “Pornography Among Youth”, Covenant Eyes, 2012, file:///C:/Users/kim.riley/Downloads/pornography-among-youth.pdf)

“I was able to find the courage to talk to my parents about the problem. Bringing it up with them was one of the hardest things I Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

159

have ever done, but also one of the most rewarding. Together, we decided that the Internet filter on my computer was not doing any good and decided to try Covenant Eyes. Now, knowing that my parents can see whatever I do online, resisting temptation is much easier.” (Luke Gilkerson, “Pornography Among Youth”, Covenant Eyes, 2012, file:///C:/Users/kim.riley/Downloads/pornography-among-youth.pdf)

“Before using Covenant Eyes, I did not think it was possible to have an open relationship with my parents. In the past, bringing up personal issues wasn’t easy. Now, I understand that they really do want the best that God has for me and don’t judge the decisions I make or condemn me when I mess up. Because I understand this now, it’s easy to come to them when I have problems in other areas. I can ask for their advice and respect it because they’ve demonstrated that they’re willing to do whatever it takes to see me succeed.” (Luke Gilkerson, “Pornography Among Youth”, Covenant Eyes, 2012, file:///C:/Users/kim.riley/Downloads/pornography-among-youth.pdf)

“An exaggerated perception of sexual activity in society” (“Pornography among Youth: Problems, Roadblocks and Solutions”, Covenant Eyes, 2011, http://www.covenanteyes.com/lemonade/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/pornographyamong-youth.pdf)

“The abandonment of the hope of sexual monogamy” (“Pornography among Youth: Problems, Roadblocks and Solutions”, Covenant Eyes, 2011, http://www.covenanteyes.com/lemonade/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/pornographyamong-youth.pdf)

“The belief that promiscuity is the natural state” (“Pornography among Youth: Problems, Roadblocks and Solutions”, Covenant Eyes, 2011, http://www.covenanteyes.com/lemonade/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/pornographyamong-youth.pdf)

“The belief that abstinence and sexual inactivity are unhealthy” (“Pornography among Youth: Problems, Roadblocks and Solutions”, Covenant Eyes, 2011, http://www.covenanteyes.com/lemonade/wpcontent/uploads/2011/10/pornography-among-youth.pdf)

“Cynicism about love or the need for affection between sexual partners” (“Pornography among Youth: Problems, Roadblocks and Solutions”,

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

160

Covenant Eyes, 2011, http://www.covenanteyes.com/lemonade/wpcontent/uploads/2011/10/pornography-among-youth.pdf)

“The belief that marriage is sexually confining” (“Pornography among Youth: Problems, Roadblocks and Solutions”, Covenant Eyes, 2011, http://www.covenanteyes.com/lemonade/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/pornographyamong-youth.pdf)

“A study of youth between the ages of 10 and 17 concluded that there is a significant relationship between frequent porn use and feelings of loneliness and major depressions. (Michele L. Ybarra and Kimberly J. Mitchell. “Exposure to Internet Pornography among Children and Adolescents: A National Survey,” CyberPsychology & Behavior, 2005.) (“Pornography among Youth: Problems, Roadblocks and Solutions”, Covenant Eyes, 2011, http://www.covenanteyes.com/lemonade/wpcontent/uploads/2011/10/pornography-among-youth.pdf)

“15% of cell-owning teens (ages 12-17) say they have received sexually suggestive nude or nearly nude images of someone they know. This percentage steadily climbs the older youth get, (Amanda Lenhart, “Teens and Sexting,” Pew Internet and American Life Project, 2009) and is as high as 46% among young adults (ages 2026).” (The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy and CosmoGirl.com “Tech: Results from a Survey of Teens and Young Adults” 2008.) (“Pornography among Youth: Problems, Roadblocks and Solutions”, Covenant Eyes, 2011, http://www.covenanteyes.com/lemonade/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/pornographyamong-youth.pdf)

“It was when a doctor in the group spoke up that the group was stunned into silence. According to Pearson:” A GP, let’s call her Sue, said: ‘I’m afraid things are much worse than people suspect.’ In recent years, Sue had treated growing numbers of teenage girls with internal injuries caused by frequent anal sex; not, as Sue found out, because she wanted to, or because she enjoyed it – on the contrary – but because a boy expected her to. ‘I’ll spare you the gruesome details,’ said Sue, ‘but these girls are very young and slight and their bodies are simply not designed for that.’ (Jonathon Van Maren, “Porn is fuelling a new, violent sexual ideology in our teens. It has to stop.”, Life Site

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

161

News, April 28, 2015, https://www.lifesitenews.com/blogs/porn-is-fuelling-a-new-violent-sexualideology-in-our-teens.-it-has-to-stop)

“Her patients were deeply ashamed at presenting with such injuries. They had lied to their mums about it and felt they couldn’t confide in anyone else, which only added to their distress. When Sue questioned them further, they said they were humiliated by the experience, but they had simply not felt they could say no. Anal sex was standard among teenagers now, even though the girls knew that it hurt.” (Jonathon Van Maren, “Porn is fuelling a new, violent sexual ideology in our teens. It has to stop.”, Life Site News, April 28, 2015, https://www.lifesitenews.com/blogs/porn-is-fuellinga-new-violent-sexual-ideology-in-our-teens.-it-has-to-stop)

“And where are these brutal expectations coming from? Every adult knew without asking: From pornography. Anal sex, especially of the violent variety, is now mainstream in porn, as the research of Dr. Gail Dines and others show us.” (Jonathon Van Maren, “Porn is fuelling a new, violent sexual ideology in our teens. It has to stop.”, Life Site News, April 28, 2015, https://www.lifesitenews.com/blogs/porn-is-fuelling-a-new-violent-sexual-ideology-in-our-teens.-ithas-to-stop)

“This is resulting in a sharp upswing in emotional problems among girls, something I’ve seen time and time again when interacting with high school students as well. Researchers with the Journal of Adolescent Health, Pearson reports, have been shocked to see a 7% spike in emotional issues in a mere five years—and in girls between the ages of 11 to 13. In a culture saturated with pornography, girls especially feel the pressure to conform to the fantasy that has consumed the minds of the boys and spilled out to invade their reality.” (Jonathon Van Maren, “Porn is fuelling a new, violent sexual ideology in our teens. It has to stop.”, Life Site News, April 28, 2015, https://www.lifesitenews.com/blogs/porn-is-fuellinga-new-violent-sexual-ideology-in-our-teens.-it-has-to-stop)

“‘Take female insecurity, warp and magnify it in the internet Hall of Mirrors, add a longing to be ‘fit’ and popular, then stir into a ubiquitous porn culture, and you have a hellish recipe for sad, abused girls,’ Pearson writes. ‘It explains why more than four in 10 girls between the ages of 13 and 17 in England say they have been coerced into sex acts, according to one of the largest European polls on teenage sexual experience. Recent research by the Universities of Bristol and Central Lancashire found that a fifth of girls had suffered violence or intimidation from their teenage boyfriends, a high Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

162

proportion of whom regularly viewed pornography, with one in five boys harbouring ‘extremely negative attitudes towards women.’” (Jonathon Van Maren, “Porn is fuelling a new, violent sexual ideology in our teens. It has to stop.”, Life Site News, April 28, 2015, https://www.lifesitenews.com/blogs/porn-is-fuelling-a-newviolent-sexual-ideology-in-our-teens.-it-has-to-stop)

“… online pornography is much more appealing to boys than girls, in part because it eliminates narratives. ‘… Now it’s only about physical sexual contact.’” (Stuart Jeffries, “Psychologist Philip Zimbardo: ‘Boys Risk Becoming Addicted to Porn, Video Games and Ritalin’”, The Guardian, May 9, 2015, http://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2015/may/09/philip-zimbardo-boys-are-a-mess)

“Young women in Sweden who had viewed pornography were more likely than those who had not viewed to report having had oral and anal intercourse.” (Rogala, C., & Tyden, T. (2003). Does pornography influence young women’s sexual behavior? Women’s Health Issues, 13, 39-43. Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 2003. (2004). Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services) (Tyden, T., Olsson, S. E., & Haggstrom-Nordin, E. (2001). Improved use of contraceptives, attitudes toward pornography and sexual harassment among female university students. Women’s Health Issues, 11, 87-94) (Jane D. Brown, Kelly L. L’Engle, “X-Rated, Sexual Attitudes and behaviors Assocaited with U.S. Early Adolescents’ Exposure to Sexually Explicit Media”, Communications Research, Volume 36 No. 1, February 2009, http://crx.sagepub.com/content/36/1/129.abstract)

“In a qualitative study, teen girls reported that when they watch pornography, they feel their bodies are inferior in comparison with those they see; while boys reported worrying that they will not be able to perform as well as the male actors (Owens, Behun, Manning, & Reid, 2012).” (John D. Foubert and Ana J. Bridges, “What is the Attraction? Porngraphy Use Motives in Relation to Bystander Intervention”, Oklahoma State University, 2015, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26209307)

“‘Girls in particular have said they feel like they have to look and behave like porn stars to be liked by boys.’” (“One in ten children aged 12 and 13 ‘involved in sexually explicit videos’”, The Telegraph, March 30, 2015, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/health/children/11505252/One-in-ten-children-aged-12-and-13involved-in-sexually-explicit-videos.html)

“Both girls and boys who watch pornography report earlier involvement in sexual activities than underage individuals who do not view pornography (Brown & L’Engle, 2009).” (John D. Foubert and Ana J. Bridges, “Predicting Bystander Efficacy and Willingness to Intervene in College Men and Women: The Role of Exposure to Varying Levels of Violence in Pornography”, Sage Publishing, 2016, http://media.wix.com/ugd/9e4c55_3005afc5635d414188270d248dc9bac4.pdf) Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

163

“For girls, they report feeling that their bodies are not good enough compared with the women they see on film, in videos, and in pictures. Boys wonder whether they will be able to perform as well sexually as the male actors they watch in the fantasy world of pornography (Owens, Behun, Manning, & Reid, 2012).” (John D. Foubert and Ana J. Bridges, “Predicting Bystander Efficacy and Willingness to Intervene in College Men and Women: The Role of Exposure to Varying Levels of Violence in Pornography”, Sage Publishing, 2016, http://media.wix.com/ugd/9e4c55_3005afc5635d414188270d248dc9bac4.pdf)

“Young women who view pornography have found they have stronger attitudes that support acceptance of rape and stronger beliefs that they should succumb to sexual violence when compared with young women who avoid pornography (Davis et al., 2006; Norris et al., 2004).” (John D. Foubert and Ana J. Bridges, “Predicting Bystander Efficacy and Willingness to Intervene in College Men and Women: The Role of Exposure to Varying Levels of Violence in Pornography”, Sage Publishing, 2016, http://media.wix.com/ugd/9e4c55_3005afc5635d414188270d248dc9bac4.pdf)

P168 “A few small studies of U.S adolescents’ exposure to sexually explicit magazines and movies in the 1980s found that even then exposure was almost universal by the end of high school. The average age of first exposure to Playboy was 11 years for males and 12 for females; by 15 years old, most had also seen an X-rated film. Appetite for sexually explicit media has been a primary driver for the success of the Internet.” (Bryant, J., & Brown, D. (1989). Uses of pornography. In D. Zillmann & J. Bryant (Eds.), Pornography: Research advances and policy considerations (pp. 25-55). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum) (Jane D. Brown, Kelly L. L’Engle, “X-Rated, Sexual Attitudes and behaviors Assocaited with U.S. Early Adolescents’ Exposure to Sexually Explicit Media”, Communications Research, Volume 36 No. 1, February 2009, http://crx.sagepub.com/content/36/1/129.abstract)

“…53% of males reported sexually explicit media use, while only 28% of females did … both male and female adolescents who had engaged in oral sex and sexual intercourse were much more likely to be using sexually explicit media than teens who had never engaged in these sexual behaviors.” (Jane D. Brown, Kelly L. L’Engle, “X-Rated, Sexual Attitudes and behaviors Assocaited with U.S. Early Adolescents’ Exposure to Sexually Explicit Media”, Communications Research, Volume 36 No. 1, February 2009, http://crx.sagepub.com/content/36/1/129.abstract)

“Experimental studies with young adults typically have found that males’ attitudes and behaviors are more affected than females’ after exposure to pornography, while females’ attitudes are more affected than males’ after exposure to sexual content on mainstream television.” (Zillmann, D. (1989). The Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

164

effects of prolonged consumption of pornography. In D. Zillmann & J. Bryant (Eds.), Pornography: Research advances and policy considerations (pp. 127-158). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbau) (Aubrey, J., Harrison, K., Kramer, L., & Yellin, J. (2003). Variety vs. timing: Gender differences in college students’ sexual expectations as predicted by exposure to sexually oriented television. Communication Research, 30(4), 432-460) (Jane D. Brown, Kelly L. L’Engle, “X-Rated, Sexual Attitudes and behaviors Assocaited Effect”, Your Brain on Porn, August 8, 2011, http://www.yourbrainonporn.com/porn-novelty-and-thecoolidge-effect)

“A 2015 peer-reviewed research study that analyzed 22 different studies from 7 different countries concluded that there is ‘little doubt that, on the average, individuals who consume pornography more frequently are more likely to hold attitudes [supporting] sexual aggression and engage in actual acts of sexual aggression.’ [20]” [20] Wright, P., Tokunaga, R. S., & Kraus, A. (2015). A MetaAnalysis Of Pornography Consumption And Actual Acts Of Sexual Aggression In General Population Studies. Journal Of Communication, 66(1), 183-205. Doi:10.1111/Jcom.12201 (Fight the New Drug, August 23, 2017, “How Porn Affects Sexual Tastes”, site accessed 11.1.17, http://fightthenewdrug.org/why-consumingporn-is-an-escalating-behavior/)

“Research has shown that when women are exposed to pornography before the age of 18, they are more likely to have attitudes supporting sexual violence as adults (Corne, Briere, & Esses, 1992).” (Matthew W. Brosi, John D. Foubert, R. Sean Bannon, and Gabe Yandell, “Effects of women’s pornography use on bystander intervention in a sexual assault situation and rape myth acceptance”, The Research Journal of the Association of Fraternity/Sorority Advisors, 2011, https://works.bepress.com/john_foubert/8/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

165

#11 STUDENTS AND PORN “According to research with first-year college students, the following effects and/or risks are associated with frequent exposure to erotica. These effects and/or risks are listed here because of the potential they have for shaping sexual development as well as future marital and familial relationships:” (Zillman, D. (2000). Influence of unrestrained access to erotica on adolescents’ and young adults’ dispositions toward sexuality. Journal of Adolescent Health, 27, 41–44.) (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact

of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005,http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Developing a negative body image, especially for women.” (Siegel, S. (1997). Applying social comparison theory to women’s body image and self-esteem: The effects of pornography. Dissertation, Pacific University, Palo Alto, CA.) (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005,http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Robert E. Freeman-Longo, an expert in sexual abuse assessment, prevention, and treatment, adds to the list:” (Freeman-Longo, R. E. (2000). Children, teens, and sex on the Internet. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 7, 75–90.) (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005,http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Increased risk for developing sexual compulsions;” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005,http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Increased risk for developing a sexual addiction;” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005,http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Increased risk of exposure to incorrect information about human sexual behavior (e.g., bestiality or sex with children); and” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005,http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Exposure to age-inappropriate sexual material” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005,http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“The paper, titled ‘Pornography and the Male Sexual Script: An Analysis of Consumption and Sexual Relations’ is based on a survey of 487 American college men aged 18-29. The survey found that use of pornography correlates with decreased enjoyment of sex with a real partner.” (Chyng Sun, Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

166

Ana Bridges, Jennifer Johnason, Matt Ezzell, “Pornography and the Male Sexual Script: An analysis of Consumption and Sexual Relations”, Research Gate, July 17, 2013, 269173515_Pornography_and_the_Male_Sexual_Script_An_Analysis_of_Consumption_and_Sexual_Rel ations) (Lara Updike, “Research Confirms Pornography Harms”, Family Policy Institute, January 21, 2015, http://www.fpiw.org/blog/2015/01/21/research-confirms-pornography-harms/)

“A paper published last month in the scientific journal Archives of Sexual Behavior adds significant data to the growing body of research on pornography. The paper, titled ‘Pornography and the Male Sexual Script: An Analysis of Consumption and Sexual Relations’ is based on a survey of 487 American college men aged 18-29. The survey found that use of pornography correlates with decreased enjoyment of sex with a real partner. The younger the men were first exposed to pornography, the higher their current use of pornography, and those who reported high use of pornography were more likely to rely on pornography to achieve and maintain sexual excitement.” (Lara Updike, “Research Confirms Pornography Harms”, Family Policy Institute, January 21, 2015, http://www.fpiw.org/blog/2015/01/21/research-confirms-pornographyharms/)

“In an interview with Pornharms.com, sociologist and therapist Dr. Jill Manning reported that a frequent question from the teenagers she works with is, ‘What’s the big deal about pornography?’ These young people, she reports, are surprised when she tells them what research has shown about pornography use; they often express dismay that no one has warned them about its dangers.” (Lara Updike, “Research Confirms Pornography Harms”, Family Policy Institute, January 21, 2015, http://www.fpiw.org/blog/2015/01/21/research-confirms-pornography-harms/)

“One of the grimmer consequences of adult-like sexual activity among children has been a steady increase in the extent to which youth are afflicted with venereal disease.” (Neil Postman, The Disappearance of Childhood (New York: Vintage, 1994), 137.) (Donna Rice Hughes, “How Pornography Harms Children”, Protect Kids, 2001, http://www.protectkids.com/effects/harms.htm)

“In the United States about one in four sexually experienced teenagers acquires a sexually transmitted disease (STD) every year, resulting in three million cases of teenage STDs. Infectious syphilis rates have more than doubled among teenagers since the mid-1980s. More children contract sexually transmitted diseases each year than all the victims of polio in its eleven-year epidemic, 1942-1953.” (Tom Minnery, Pornography: A Human Tragedy (Wheaton: Tyndale House).) (Donna Rice Hughes, “How Pornography Harms Children”, Protect Kids, 2001, http://www.protectkids.com/effects/harms.htm)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

167

“Another obvious result of children involved in adult sexual activity is the increased rate of pregnancy among teenagers.” (Donna Rice Hughes, “How Pornography Harms Children”, Protect Kids, 2001, http://www.protectkids.com/effects/harms.htm)

“Research has shown that ‘males who are exposed to a great deal of erotica before the age of 14 are more sexually active and engage in more varied sexual behaviors as adults than is true for males not so exposed.’” (K.E. Davis and G.N. Braucht, Exposure to Pornography, Character and Sexual Deviance, Technical Reports of the Commission on Obscenity and Pornography (1970), 7.) (Donna Rice Hughes, “How Pornography Harms Children”, Protect Kids, 2001, http://www.protectkids.com/effects/harms.htm)

“Other Effects of Pornography” “Many adolescents who view pornography initially feel shame, diminished self-confidence, and sexual uncertainty, but these feelings quickly shift to unadulterated enjoyment with regular viewing.” “The presence of sexually oriented businesses significantly harms the surrounding community, leading to increases in crime and decreases in property values.” “Common warning signs that an adolescent may be experiencing compulsive sexual behavior problems” (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/how-pornography-addiction-affects-the-teenage-brain-infographic/)

“A demonstrated lack of empathy toward other individuals involved (either directly or indirectly) in the child’s sexual behavior.” (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/how-pornography-addiction-affects-theteenage-brain-infographic/)

“Viewing and/or masturbating to pornography for multiple hours per day/night.” (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/how-pornography-addictionaffects-the-teenage-brain-infographic/)

“Decreased interest in and/or declining performance in school and extracurricular activities.” (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/howpornography-addiction-affects-the-teenage-brain-infographic/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

168

“Diminished interest in ad/or ability to socialize with peers.”

(“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/how-pornography-addiction-affects-theteenage-brain-infographic/)

“Excessive interest (or a total lack of interest) in typical adolescent dating activity.” (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/how-pornographyaddiction-affects-the-teenage-brain-infographic/)

“Secretiveness around computer and smartphone usage such as erasing browser histories, password protecting devices, etc. (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/how-pornography-addiction-affects-theteenage-brain-infographic/)

“Lying to parents or others about the nature or the amount of sexual/romamtic activities.” (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/howpornography-addiction-affects-the-teenage-brain-infographic/)

“Sexual aggression, incest, age-inappropriate relationships, etc.” (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/how-pornography-addiction-affects-theteenage-brain-infographic/)

“Secrecy in general, such as spending large amounts of time alone in a room with the door locked.” (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/how-pornography-addiction-affects-the-teenage-brain-infographic/)

“Sexual behavior involving drug use.”

(“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/how-pornography-addiction-affects-the-teenage-brain-infographic/) Sources http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3050060 http://www.fightthenewdrug.org/get-the-facts#porn-is-addictive http://www.thefix.com/content/youth-and-pornography-addiction http://www.salvomag.com/new/articles/salvo13/13hilton.php http://thegospelcoalition.org/article/9-things-you-should-know-about-pornography-and-the-brain/ http://yourbrainonporn.com/ http://www.freedominstitute.org/blog/adolescents/teenagers-porn-and-sexual-addiction-what-s-theproblem/ http://youtu.be/wSF82AwSDiU http://youtu.be/1Ya67aLaaCc (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/how-pornography-addiction-affects-the-teenage-brain-infographic/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

169

“According to the Journal of Adolescent Health, (Dolf Zillmann, “Influence of unrestrained Access to Erotica on Adolescents’ and Young Adults’ Dispositions toward Sexuality” Journal of Adolescent Health, Vol. 27, Iss. 2, Supp. 1, August 2000.) prolonged exposure to pornography leads to:” (“Pornography among Youth: Problems, Roadblocks and Solutions”, Covenant Eyes, 2011, http://www.covenanteyes.com/lemonade/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/pornography-amongyouth.pdf)

“An exaggerated perception of sexual activity in society” (“Pornography among Youth: Problems, Roadblocks and Solutions”, Covenant Eyes, 2011, http://www.covenanteyes.com/lemonade/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/pornographyamong-youth.pdf)

“The abandonment of the hope of sexual monogamy” (“Pornography among Youth: Problems, Roadblocks and Solutions”, Covenant Eyes, 2011, http://www.covenanteyes.com/lemonade/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/pornographyamong-youth.pdf)

“The belief that promiscuity is the natural state” (“Pornography among Youth: Problems, Roadblocks and Solutions”, Covenant Eyes, 2011, http://www.covenanteyes.com/lemonade/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/pornographyamong-youth.pdf)

“The belief that abstinence and sexual inactivity are unhealthy” (“Pornography among Youth: Problems, Roadblocks and Solutions”, Covenant Eyes, 2011, http://www.covenanteyes.com/lemonade/wpcontent/uploads/2011/10/pornography-among-youth.pdf)

“Cynicism about love or the need for affection between sexual partners” (“Pornography among Youth: Problems, Roadblocks and Solutions”, Covenant Eyes, 2011, http://www.covenanteyes.com/lemonade/wpcontent/uploads/2011/10/pornography-among-youth.pdf)

“The belief that marriage is sexually confining” (“Pornography among Youth: Problems, Roadblocks and Solutions”, Covenant Eyes, 2011, http://www.covenanteyes.com/lemonade/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/pornographyamong-youth.pdf)

“A study of youth between the ages of 10 and 17 concluded that there is a significant relationship between frequent porn use and feelings of loneliness and major depressions. (Michele L. Ybarra and Kimberly J. Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

170

Mitchell. “Exposure to Internet Pornography among Children and Adolescents: A National Survey,” CyberPsychology & Behavior, 2005.) (“Pornography among Youth: Problems, Roadblocks and Solutions”, Covenant Eyes, 2011, http://www.covenanteyes.com/lemonade/wpcontent/uploads/2011/10/pornography-among-youth.pdf)

“15% of cell-owning teens (ages 12-17) say they have received sexually suggestive nude or nearly nude images of someone they know. This percentage steadily climbs the older youth get, (Amanda Lenhart, “Teens and Sexting,” Pew Internet and American Life Project, 2009) and is as high as 46% among young adults (ages 2026).” (The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy and CosmoGirl.com “Tech: Results from a Survey of Teens and Young Adults” 2008.) (“Pornography among Youth: Problems, Roadblocks and Solutions”, Covenant Eyes, 2011, http://www.covenanteyes.com/lemonade/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/pornographyamong-youth.pdf)

“In one university study, participants were shown just a few hours of mainstream pornography over a stretch of many weeks. The results are very telling.” (Dolf Zillmann and Jennings Bryant, “Effects of massive exposure to pornography,” in Pornography and Sexual Aggression (New York: Academic Press, 1984); Dolf Zillmann and Jennings Bryant, “Shifting preferences in pornography consumption,” Communication Research 13 (1986); 560-578, Dolf Zillmann and Jennings Bryant, “Pornography’s impact on sexual satisfaction,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 18 (1988): 438–453, Dolf Zillmann and Jennings Bryant, “Effects of Prolonged Consumption of Pornography on Family Values,” Journal of Family Issues 9 (1988): 518-544.) (Luke Gilkerson, “When Your Child is Looking at Porn”, Covenant Eyes, 2013, http://www.covenanteyes.com/when-your-child-is-looking-at-porn/)

“One 19-year-old college student writes: ‘It started seriously when I was about 14, I stumbled across some pictures while doing homework. Because all I had typed into Google was 'cream and sugar', I knew my parents wouldn't notice. I learnt all the ways round the parental controls, meticulously deleted my activities on the history and deleted the search engine entries every time.’” (Tanith Carey, “Why more and more women are using pornography”, The Guardian, April 7, 2011, http://www.theguardian.com/culture/2011/apr/07/women-addicted-internet-pornography)

“No longer do teen boys have to pass around a purloined copy of their older brother’s Playboy to get a look at women’s bodies. Erotic and

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

171

pornographic content have gone mainstream as cable and satellite television present X-rated content that is readily accessible by the many adolescents who have televisions in their own bedrooms or video capability on their cell phones.” (Roberts, D., & Foehr, U. G. (2004). Kids & media in America. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press) (Jane D. Brown, Kelly L. L’Engle, “X-Rated, Sexual Attitudes and behaviors Assocaited with U.S. Early Adolescents’ Exposure to Sexually Explicit Media”, Communications Research, Volume 36 No. 1, February 2009, http://crx.sagepub.com/content/36/1/129.abstract)

“A recent cross-sectional study among 14- to 18-year-old black females found that exposure to X-rated movies was correlated with having sex more frequently, multiple sex partners, and not using contraception.” (Wingood, G. M., DiClemente, R. J., Harrington, K., Davies, S., Hook, E. W., & Oh, M. K. (2001). Exposure to X-rated movies and adolescents’ sexual and contraceptive-related attitudes and behaviors. Pediatrics, 107(5), 1116-1119) (Jane D. Brown, Kelly L. L’Engle, “X-Rated, Sexual Attitudes and behaviors Assocaited with U.S. Early Adolescents’ Exposure to Sexually Explicit Media”, Communications Research, Volume 36 No. 1, February 2009, http://crx.sagepub.com/content/36/1/129.abstract)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

172

#12 YOUTH AND PORN “Today’s kids can’t necessarily stop themselves:” (Gary Wilson and Marnia Robinson, “Why Shouldn’t Johnny Watch Porn If He Likes”, Good Men Project, October 5, 2011, http://goodmenproject.com/families/boys/why-shouldnt-johnny-watch-porn-if-he-wants-to/)

“Clinical psychologist Rebecca Daly-Peoples says “It’s [Porn] completely influencing the entire way they’re [Adolescence] seeing sex and intimacy.” (Alastair Lynn, “Online pornography warping adolescent brains,” July 27, 2016, Stuff, http://www.stuff.co.nz/national/education/82520188/Online-pornography-warping-adolescent-brains)

“According to the Journal of Adolescent Health, (Dolf Zillmann, “Influence of unrestrained Access to Erotica on Adolescents’ and Young Adults’ Dispositions toward Sexuality” Journal of Adolescent Health, Vol. 27, Iss. 2, Supp. 1, August 2000.) prolonged exposure to pornography leads to:” (“Pornography among Youth: Problems, Roadblocks and Solutions”, Covenant Eyes, 2011, http://www.covenanteyes.com/lemonade/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/pornography-amongyouth.pdf)

“Research into pornography in a dozen countries found that boy who are exposed to pornography found it more difficult to form successful relationships when older, while they were more likely to have casual sexual intercourse.” “Previous research has found that six in 10 boys in Britain under 16 have watched pornography, either accidentally or deliberately. The average amount of time they watch porn on the internet is 90 minutes a week.” “Michael Flood, who carried out the study at the Australian Research centre in Sex, Health and Society, said: ‘There is compelling evidence from around the world that pornography has negative effects on idividuals and communities.” “Porn is a very poor sex educator because it shows sex in unrealistic ways and fails to address intimacy, love, connection or romance. Often it is quite callous and hostile in its depictions of women.” “It doesn’t mean that every young person is going out to rape somebody, but it does increase the likelihood that will happen.”

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

173

“John Carr, secretary of the Children’s Charities’ Coalition on Internet Safety (CHIS), told The Sunday Times: We had a case in west London where a boy in the first year of primary school was bringing pictures to school and was acting them out in the playground during the break. When they did a home visit the dad was downloading it and it was all over the house.” “It is not an argument for banning it but it is an argument for find better ways to make it harder for kids to get hold of it.” “Petra Boynton, a psychologist, added: Children are not necessarily lookin gat porn for gratification. They are doing so because they are bored and not supervised. Often when children look at more extreme porn it is done for bravado so they can laugh and say how disgusting it is.” “Last months scientists at the University of Montreal set out to research the effects of pornography onbly to abandon their study because they were unable to find any 20-year-old men who had not been exposed to it. They did however find that yound boys first watched pornography when they were just 10.” (Chris Irvine, The Telegraph, January 24, 2010, “Boys who watch porn ‘think sexual harassment is acceptable’”, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/7066865/Boys-whowatch-porn-think-sexual-harassment-is-acceptable.html)

“A Time Magazine cover story reported that porn causes erectile dysfunction in young men whose minds have marinated in X-rated clips from the time they were teenagers.” “Pornography trains the user to seek more extreme sexual experiences to receive the same satisfying flood of dopamine. It’s what researchers call the Coolidge effect—the prospect of a new sexual partner excites males (and sometimes females) so much that normal sexual activity becomes boring by comparison.” “Aside from the neurological consequences, science has unpacked a plethora of sociological effects. Pornography negatively shapes romantic relationships; one study found that women in relationships with men who

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

174

use porn report being less happy than those with men who abstain. Research in a dozen countries showed that men who viewed pornography when they were boys were less likely to form healthy relationships and more likely to think sexual harassment was acceptable.” “At the same time that researchers are unearthing porn’s tolls, Americans have grown more tolerant of it. According to an extensive study conducted by Barna Group, only half of US adults and one-third of teens and young adults thought pornography was “wrong.” Teens and young adults believe not recycling is more immoral than using porn. Barna found porn use is up among Christians, too. Some 41 percent of Christian men ages 13–24 and 23 percent of Christian men ages 25 and up said they “frequently” used porn. (The figures were 5 percent and 13 percent for Christian women in those age groups.)” (Halee Gray Scott, Christianity Today, July/August 2016, “The Porn Paradox”, http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2016/julaug/porn-is-simultaneously-more-criticized-and-more-populartha.html?start=2)

“One of the major forces preventing young people from obeying the call of God into vocational Christian service is defeat in the area of lust.” (John Piper, “Missions and Masturbation”, Desiring God, September 10, 1984, http://www.desiringgod.org/articles/missions-and-masturbation) “Using pornography affects teenagers by shaping what they view as appropriate sexual activity (Peter & Valkenburg, 2006). Notably, surveys of teens who use pornography demonstrate they are less likely to use contraception during sexual encounters, exposing them to a wide range of risks (Wright, 2014), than teens to who do not use pornography.” (John D. Foubert and Ana J. Bridges, “Predicting Bystander Efficacy and Willingness to Intervene in College Men and Women: The Role of Exposure to Varying Levels of Violence in Pornography”, Sage Publishing, 2016, http://media.wix.com/ugd/9e4c55_3005afc5635d414188270d248dc9bac4.pdf)

“Both girls and boys who watch pornography report earlier involvement in sexual activities than underage individuals who do not view pornography (Brown & L’Engle, 2009).” (John D. Foubert and Ana J. Bridges, “Predicting Bystander Efficacy and Willingness to Intervene in College Men and

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

175

Women: The Role of Exposure to Varying Levels of Violence in Pornography”, Sage Publishing, 2016, http://media.wix.com/ugd/9e4c55_3005afc5635d414188270d248dc9bac4.pdf)

“For boys, there is more violent behavior that results from watching pornography when compared with what girls learn. Underage boys who (illegally) watch pornography, particularly that which is more violent, report a higher likelihood of committing sexual harassment and sexual aggression, have more conduct problems in school, and have more legal trouble than boys who do not watch (Owens et al., 2012). This same effect is not evident in girls. Instead, studies of young women who view pornography have found they have stronger attitudes that support acceptance of rape and stronger beliefs that they should succumb to sexual violence when compared with young women who avoid pornography (Davis et al., 2006; Norris et al., 2004).” (John D. Foubert and Ana J. Bridges, “Predicting Bystander Efficacy and Willingness to Intervene in College Men and Women: The Role of Exposure to Varying Levels of Violence in Pornography”, Sage Publishing, 2016, http://media.wix.com/ugd/9e4c55_3005afc5635d414188270d248dc9bac4.pdf)

“Three separate studies that focused on adolescents and pornography use specifically found that for males and females there was a strong association between pornography consumption and engaging in oral and anal sex (Rogala & Tydén, 2003; Tydén & Rogala, 2004; Häggström & Nordin, et al, 2005) even though the majority of females described anal intercourse as a negative experience (Rogala & Tydén, 2003).” (Jill C. Manning, Ph.D., July 2008, “The Impact of Pornography on Women: Social Science Findings and Clinical Observation”, http://afaofpa.org/wp-content/uploads/The-Impact-of-Pornography-on-Women.pdf)

“For years, like since I was 11-years old, I have been looking at porn and masturbating. I just can’t resist it and I do it too much now. I wanna stop it now. I’m 15 years old and wanna stop it because I think it’s affecting my social life, relationships and school grades. How do I stop?” (Gary Wilson and Marnia Robinson, “Why Shouldn’t Johnny Watch Porn If He Likes”, Good Men Project, October 5, 2011, http://goodmenproject.com/families/boys/why-shouldnt-johnny-watch-porn-if-he-wants-to/)

“The result? That is what Pearson’s doctor friend deals with, the medical treatment of young girls who got treated like porn stars—brutally abused and coerced into things they didn’t want to do. ‘Young girls—children,

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

176

really—who abase themselves to pass for normal in a grim, pornified culture,’ says Pearson. ‘Another study of British teenagers found that most youngsters’ first experience of anal sex occurred within a relationship, but it was ‘rarely under circumstances of mutual exploration of sexual pleasure.’ Instead, it was the boys who pushed the girls to try it, with boys reporting that they felt ‘expected’ to take that role.’” (Jonathon Van Maren, “Porn is fuelling a new, violent sexual ideology in our teens. It has to stop.”, Life Site News, April 28, 2015, https://www.lifesitenews.com/blogs/porn-is-fuelling-a-new-violent-sexual-ideology-in-our-teens.-it-has-tostop)

“To suppose that boys in general, even boys from good families, are not exposed to pornography in some form or another is naïve. [Headmaster of Private Secular School, October 13, 2014]…Porn is inescapable because it is immediately accessible. It is always just a click away, and hence it is everywhere.” (Sean Fitzpatrick, “Boys, Porn and Education”, Crisis Magazine, October 31, 2014, http://www.crisismagazine.com/2014/boys-porn-education)

“Your Brain on Porn” “Inability to control use and use that interferes with one's life are two cardinal signs of addiction. Priorities have shifted due to changes in the brain that we'll look at later. In effect, life's natural rewards, such as friendship, exercise and accomplishment, can no longer compete. Your brain now believes that IT – in this case internet porn use – is an important goal, and equates it with your survival.” (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, p39)

“Adolescents wire together experiences and arousal much faster and more easily than young adults will just a few years later. The brain actually shrinks after age 12 as billions of nerve connections are pruned and reorganized. The use-it-or-lose-it principle governs which nerve connections survive.” (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, p86)

“Watching porn could shrink a part of the brain linked to pleasure, according to a study from 2014. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute in Berlin looked at the brains of more than 60 men while they looked at pornographic images, and quizzed them on their porn-watching habits.” “The found that the striatum, a part of the brain that makes up the reward system, was smaller in those who watched a lot of porn -meaning they

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

177

might require more graphic material to get aroused. But the researchers couldn’t conclude if respondents with smaller striatum’s were driven to watch more porn, or if their frequent porn-watching had caused it to shrink – although they ‘assume’ the latter is the case.” (Jessica Brown, BBC Future, September 26, 2017, “Is porn harmful? The evidence, the myths and the unknowns,” http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20170926-is-porn-harmful-the-evidence-the-myths-and-the-unknowns)

“Once new connections form, teen brains hold tightly to these associations. In fact, research shows that our most powerful and lasting memories arise from adolescence – along with our worst habits.” (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, p87) “For hundreds of years, young people have turned to sexually explicit materials to satisfy their curiosity about sexual bodies, how sex is performed, and to arouse themselves sexually.” (Brown, D., & Bryant, J. (1989). The manifest content of pornography. In D. Zillmann & J. Bryant (Eds.), Pornography: Research advances and policy considerations (pp. 3-24). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum) (Jane D. Brown, Kelly L. L’Engle, “X-Rated, Sexual Attitudes and behaviors Assocaited with U.S. Early Adolescents’ Exposure to Sexually Explicit Media”, Communications Research, Volume 36 No. 1, February 2009, http://crx.sagepub.com/content/36/1/129.abstract)

“A few small studies of U.S adolescents’ exposure to sexually explicit magazines and movies in the 1980s found that even then exposure was almost universal by the end of high school. The average age of first exposure to Playboy was 11 years for males and 12 for females; by 15 years old, most had also seen an X-rated film. Appetite for sexually explicit media has been a primary driver for the success of the Internet.” (Bryant, J., & Brown, D. (1989). Uses of pornography. In D. Zillmann & J. Bryant (Eds.), Pornography: Research advances and policy considerations (pp. 25-55). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum) (Jane D. Brown, Kelly L. L’Engle, “X-Rated, Sexual Attitudes and behaviors Assocaited with U.S. Early Adolescents’ Exposure to Sexually Explicit Media”, Communications Research, Volume 36 No. 1, February 2009, http://crx.sagepub.com/content/36/1/129.abstract)

“Sensation seeking may be related to increased exposure to sexual content for arousal as well as a rebellious tasting of forbidden fruit.” (Donohew, L., Zimmerman, R., Cupp, P. S., Novak, S., Colon, S., & Abell, R. (2000). Sensation seeking, impulsive decision-making, and risky sex: Implications for risk-taking and design of interventions. Personality and Individual Differences, 28(6), 1079-1091)(Jane D. Brown, Kelly L. L’Engle, “X-Rated, Sexual Attitudes and behaviors Assocaited with U.S. Early Adolescents’ Exposure to Sexually Explicit Media”, Communications Research, Volume 36 No. 1, February 2009, http://crx.sagepub.com/content/36/1/129.abstract)

“Much of the concern over increasing accessibility of explicit sexual content is based on the assumption that young people may develop unrealistic ideas about and/or undesirable patterns of sexual behavior from exposure.” (Nathan, D. (2007). Pornography. Toronto, Canada: Groundwork Books)(Jane D. Brown, Kelly L. L’Engle,

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

178

“X-Rated, Sexual Attitudes and behaviors Assocaited with U.S. Early Adolescents’ Exposure to Sexually Explicit Media”, Communications Research, Volume 36 No. 1, February 2009, http://crx.sagepub.com/content/36/1/129.abstract)

“Sexual socialization theory suggests that frequent exposure to consistent themes about gender and sexual behavior can affect a young person’s developing sense of what is expected sexually for males and females and may affect subsequent behavior as well. Although only recently applied to sexual content, the cognitive information-processing model helps explain how exposure to sexually explicit media may affect young people’s attitudes and behavior.” (Aubrey, J., Harrison, K., Kramer, L., & Yellin, J. (2003). Variety vs. timing: Gender differences in college students’ sexual expectations as predicted by exposure to sexually oriented television. Communication Research, 30(4), 432-460) (Jane D. Brown, Kelly L. L’Engle, “XRated, Sexual Attitudes and behaviors Assocaited with U.S. Early Adolescents’ Exposure to Sexually Explicit Media”, Communications Research, Volume 36 No. 1, February 2009, http://crx.sagepub.com/content/36/1/129.abstract)

“Three recent large-scale longitudinal studies have found that exposure to non-explicit sexual content on television and in other media frequently used by adolescents (music, magazines, and movies) predicts earlier initiation of sexual behaviors, including intercourse.” (Ashby, S. L., Arcari, C. M., & Edmonson, M. B. (2006). Television viewing and risk of sexual initiation by young adolescents. Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine, 160, 375-380) (Brown, J., L’Engle, K., Pardun, C., Guo, G., Kenneavy, K., & Jackson, C. (2006). Sexy media matter: Exposure to sexual content in music, movies, television and magazines predicts black and white adolescents’ sexual behavior. Pediatrics, 117, 1018-1027) (Collins, R., Elliott, M., Berry, S., Kanouse, D., Kunkel, D., Hunter, S., et al. (2004). Watching sex on television predicts adolescent initiation of sexual behavior. Pediatrics, 114(3), E280-E289) (Jane D. Brown, Kelly L. L’Engle, “X-Rated, Sexual Attitudes and behaviors Assocaited with U.S. Early Adolescents’ Exposure to Sexually Explicit Media”, Communications Research, Volume 36 No. 1, February 2009, http://crx.sagepub.com/content/36/1/129.abstract)

“Earlier experimental studies of young adults showed that exposure to sexually explicit media affected erotic fantasies and increased self-reported sexual activity.” (Zillmann, D. (1989). The effects of prolonged consumption of pornography. In D. Zillmann & J. Bryant (Eds.), Pornography: Research advances and policy considerations (pp. 127-158). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum) (Jane D. Brown, Kelly L. L’Engle, “X-Rated, Sexual Attitudes and behaviors Assocaited with U.S. Early Adolescents’ Exposure to Sexually Explicit Media”, Communications Research, Volume 36 No. 1, February 2009, http://crx.sagepub.com/content/36/1/129.abstract)

“…53% of males reported sexually explicit media use, while only 28% of females did … both male and female adolescents who had engaged in oral sex and sexual intercourse were much more likely to be using sexually explicit media than teens who had never engaged in these sexual behaviors.” (Jane D. Brown, Kelly L. L’Engle, “X-Rated, Sexual Attitudes and behaviors Assocaited with U.S. Early Adolescents’ Exposure to Sexually Explicit Media”, Communications Research, Volume 36 No. 1, February 2009, http://crx.sagepub.com/content/36/1/129.abstract)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

179

“For males, exposure to sexually explicit media in early adolescence (12 to 14 years old) was related to more permissive sexual norms, more frequent sexual harassment, and having had oral sex and intercourse by middle adolescence (14 to 16 years old).” (Jane D. Brown, Kelly L. L’Engle, “X-Rated, Sexual Attitudes and behaviors Assocaited with U.S. Early Adolescents’ Exposure to Sexually Explicit Media”, Communications Research, Volume 36 No. 1, February 2009, http://crx.sagepub.com/content/36/1/129.abstract)

“Experimental studies with young adults typically have found that males’ attitudes and behaviors are more affected than females’ after exposure to pornography, while females’ attitudes are more affected than males’ after exposure to sexual content on mainstream television.” (Zillmann, D. (1989). The effects of prolonged consumption of pornography. In D. Zillmann & J. Bryant (Eds.), Pornography: Research advances and policy considerations (pp. 127-158). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbau) (Aubrey, J., Harrison, K., Kramer, L., & Yellin, J. (2003). Variety vs. timing: Gender differences in college students’ sexual expectations as predicted by exposure to sexually oriented television. Communication Research, 30(4), 432-460) (Jane D. Brown, Kelly L. L’Engle, “X-Rated, Sexual Attitudes and behaviors Assocaited Effect”, Your Brain on Porn, August 8, 2011, http://www.yourbrainonporn.com/porn-novelty-and-thecoolidge-effect)

“One of the most troubling findings in this study is that exposure was related to not only early oral sex and sexual intercourse for both males and females but also perpetration of sexual harassment by adolescent males.” (Jane D. Brown, Kelly L. L’Engle, “X-Rated, Sexual Attitudes and behaviors Assocaited with U.S. Early Adolescents’ Exposure to Sexually Explicit Media”, Communications Research, Volume 36 No. 1, February 2009, http://crx.sagepub.com/content/36/1/129.abstract)

“…experience more novel sex partners every ten minutes than your huntergatherer ancestors experienced in a lifetime.” (Gary Wilson, “Porn Novelty and the Coolidge Effect”, Your Brain on Porn, August 8, 2011, http://www.yourbrainonporn.com/porn-novelty-andthe-coolidge-effect)

“A recent cross-sectional study among 14- to 18-year-old black females found that exposure to X-rated movies was correlated with having sex more frequently, multiple sex partners, and not using contraception.” (Wingood, G. M., DiClemente, R. J., Harrington, K., Davies, S., Hook, E. W., & Oh, M. K. (2001). Exposure to X-rated movies and adolescents’ sexual and contraceptive-related attitudes and behaviors. Pediatrics, 107(5), 1116-1119) (Jane D. Brown, Kelly L. L’Engle, “X-Rated, Sexual Attitudes and behaviors Assocaited with U.S. Early Adolescents’ Exposure to Sexually Explicit Media”, Communications Research, Volume 36 No. 1, February 2009, http://crx.sagepub.com/content/36/1/129.abstract)

“By the age of 18, for instance, 39% of boys and 23% of girls have seen acts of sex involving bondage online.” (Chiara Sabina, Janis Wolak, and David Finkelhor, “The Nature and Dynamics of Internet Pornography Exposure for Youth”

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

180

CyberPsychology & Behavior vol.11, no.6, 2008.) (Luke Gilkerson, “Your Brain on Porn”, Covenant Eyes, Accessed July 29, 2016, http://www.covenanteyes.com/brain-ebook/)

“The frequency of pornography consumption has been shown to predict various negative outcome measures in humans. A representative Swedish study on adolescent boys has shown that boys with daily consumption showed more interest in deviant and illegal types of pornography and more frequently reported the wish to actualize what was seen in real life.” (Gunter B. Media Sex: What Are the Issues? London, United Kingdom: Routledge; 2001.; Svedin CG, Åkerman I, Priebe G. Frequent users of pornography: a population based epidemiological study of Swedish male adolescents. J Adolesc. 2011; 34(4):779-788.; Fattore L, Melis M, Fadda P, Pistis M, FrattaW. The endocannabinoid system and nondrug rewarding behaviours. Exp Neurol. 2010;224(1):23-36.; Müller CP, Schumann G. To use or not to use: expanding the view on non-addictive psychoactive drug consumption and its implications. Behav Brain Sci. 2011;34(6):328-347.) (Simone Kuhn, Jurgen Gallinat, “Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity Associated with Pornography Consumption”, JAMA Psychiatry, Volume 71, Number 7, July, 2014, http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1874574)

“Porn has lasting consequences that will not only impact them but their future relationships as well, with consequences (Dolf Zillmann, “Influence of unrestrained access to erotica on adolescents’ and young adults’ dispositions toward sexuality,”Journal of Adolescent Health 27 (Aug. 2000): 41-44.)

• • • • •

including:

“A belief that promiscuity is the natural state.” “A belief that marriage is sexually confining.” “The abandonment of hope of sexual monogamy.” “A belief that sexual inactivity and abstinence are unhealthy.” “Diminished trust between intimate couples.”

(Julia Feeser, YouthWorker, “We Have To Talk About Porn”, Site Accessed February 21, 2018, https://www.youthworker.com/articles/we-have-to-talk-about-porn/)

“What are the effects of pornography in children and teens?” “Research has associated the following outcomes with the use of pornography by children and teens.” • “An exaggerated perception of sexual activity in society… the belief that ‘everyone’s doing it’ and “this must be normal.” • “The abandonment of the hope of remaining sexually monogamous.”

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

181

• “Belief that sexual promiscuity is natural and normal.” • “Belief that sexual abstinence and sexual inactivity are abnormal and unhealthy.” • “Belief that marriage is sexually confining.” • “A lack of attraction to family and child-rearing.” • “Negative and/or traumatic emotional responses.” • “Earlier onset of first sexual intercourse.” • “The commodification of sex and the sexual objectification of persons.” • “Increased acceptance of sexual perversions (bestiality, group sex. bondage, etc.) as normal.” • “Belief that all women should act and be treated as porn stars, including screaming in ecstacy when touched by a man, and willingly receiving/enjoying aggressive and violent sexual perversions.” (Walt Mueller, “A Parent’s Primer on Internet Pornography”, Info. for families, July 30, 2012, http://www.infoforfamilies.com/blog/2012/07/30/aparents-primer-on-internet-pornography)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

182

#13 SEXUAL AGGRESSION AND PORN “Many porn viewers find themselves getting aroused by things that used to disgust them or things that they might have previously considered to be inappropriate or unethical. As viewers consume more extreme and dangerous sex acts, they gradually begin to feel that those behaviors are more common and acceptable than they really are.” (Site accessed 8.2.17; Article updated May 4, 2017, http://fightthenewdrug.org/how-porn-affects-your-sexual-tastes/)

“Once consumers start viewing extreme and dangerous sex acts, things that they thought were disgusting or shameful can start to seem normal, acceptable, and more common than they really are. [14] One study found that people exposed to significant amounts of porn thought things like sex with animals and violent sex were twice as common as what those not exposed to porn thought. [15] And when people believe a behavior is normal, they’re more likely to try it.” [16] “Research has also found that watching pornography affects attitudes and beliefs toward sex, women, and relationships.[17] Porn consumers are more likely to express attitudes supporting violence against women, [18] and studies have shown a strong correlation between men’s porn consumption and their likelihood to victimize women. [19] In fact, a 2015 peer-reviewed research study that analyzed 22 different studies from 7 different countries concluded that there is “little doubt that, on the average, individuals who consume pornography more frequently are more likely to hold attitudes [supporting] sexual aggression and engage in actual acts of sexual aggression.” [20] (See How Watching Porn Can Lead to Violence.)” “Obviously not everyone who looks at porn is going to turn into a rapist, but the reality is that even casual pornography consumption has the power to change ideas and attitudes. [21]”

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

183

(Site accessed 8.2.17; Article updated May 4, 2017, http://fightthenewdrug.org/how-porn-affects-yoursexual-tastes/) [14] Zillmann, D. (2000). Influence Of Unrestrained Access To Erotica On Adolescents’ And Young Adults’ Dispositions Toward Sexuality. Journal Of Adolescent Health, 27, 2: 41–44. Retrieved From Https://Www.Ncbi.Nlm.Nih.Gov/Pubmed/10904205 [15] Zillmann, D. (2000). Influence Of Unrestrained Access To Erotica On Adolescents’ And Young Adults’ Dispositions Toward Sexuality. Journal Of Adolescent Health, 27, 2: 41–44. Retrieved From Https://Www.Ncbi.Nlm.Nih.Gov/Pubmed/10904205 [16] Layden, M. A. (2004). Committee On Commerce, Science, And Transportation, Subcommittee On Science And Space, U.S. Senate, Hearing On The Brain Science Behind Pornography Addiction, November 18; Cline, V. B. (2001). Pornography’s Effect On Adults And Children. New York: Morality In Media; Zillmann, D., & Bryant, J. (1984). Effects Of Massive Exposure To Pornography. In N. M. Malamuth And E. Donnerstein (Eds.) Pornography And Sexual Aggression. New York: Academic Press. [17] Weinberg, M. S., Williams, C. J., Kleiner, S., & Irizarry, Y. (2010). Pornography, Normalization And Empowerment. Archives Of Sexual Behavior, 39 (6) 1389-1401. Doi:10.1007/S10508-009-9592-5; Doring, N. M. (2009). The Internet’s Impact On Sexuality: A Critical Review Of 15 Years Of Research. Computers In Human Behavior, 25(5), 1089-1101. Doi:10.1016/J.Chb.2009.04.003 [18] Hald, G. M., Malamuth, N. M., & Yuen, C. (2010). Pornography And Attitudes Supporting Violence Against Women: Revisiting The Relationship In Nonexperimental Studies. Aggression And Behavior 36, 1: 14–20. Doi: 10.1002/Ab.20328; Berkel, L. A., Vandiver, B. J., And Bahner, A. D. (2004). Gender Role Attitudes, Religion, And Spirituality As Predictors Of Domestic Violence Attitudes In White College Students. Journal Of College Student Development 45(2):119–131. [19] DeKeseredy, W. (2015). Critical Criminological Understandings Of Adult Pornography And Woman Abuse: New Progressive Directions In Research And Theory. International Journal For Crime, Justice And Social Democracy, 4(4), 4-21. Doi:10.5204/Ijcjsd.V4i4.184; Simmons, C. A., Lehmann, P., & CollierTenison, S. (2008). Linking Male Use Of The Sex Industry To Controlling Behaviors In Violent Relationships: An Exploratory Analysis. Violence Against Women, 14(4), 406-417. Doi:10.1177/1077801208315066; Shope, J. H. (2004), When Words Are Not Enough: The Search For The Effect Of Pornography On Abused Women. Violence Against Women, 10(1), 56-72. Doi: 10.1177/1077801203256003 [20] Wright, P., Tokunaga, R. S., & Kraus, A. (2015). A Meta-Analysis Of Pornography Consumption And Actual Acts Of Sexual Aggression In General Population Studies. Journal Of Communication, 66(1), 183-205. Doi:10.1111/Jcom.12201 [21] Peter, J. & Valkenburg, P. M., (2016) Adolescents And Pornography: A Review Of 20 Years Of Research. Journal Of Sex Research, 53(4-5), 509-531. Doi:10.1080/00224499.2016.1143441 (“Existing Research Has Produced Consistent Evidence That Adolescents’ Pornography Use Is Related To Their Sexual Attitudes.”); Bridges, A. J. (2010). Pornography’s Effect On Interpersonal Relationships. In J. Stoner And D. Hughes (Eds.) The Social Costs Of Pornography: A Collection Of Papers (Pp. 89-110). Princeton, NJ: Witherspoon Institute. (John Stonestreet, Life Site News, August 7, 2015, “We need to treat porn like what it is: a public health hazard”, https://www.lifesitenews.com/opinion/we-need-to-treat-porn-like-what-itis-a-public-health-hazard)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

184

“How Porn Kills Love” “In porn, finding a “partner” is effortless. He or she is always ready, willing, and longing for your attention. This partner has nothing else to do with their time but wait for the consumer, breathless and perpetually aroused. He or she is young, attractive, sexually adventurous, and anxious to please. This partner will never get bored or annoyed, never have an “off” day or need a listening ear. In fact, all he or she will ever want is wild, ecstatic orgasms that look real! And if this porn-partner ever fails to keep the consumer entertained, they can simply be exchanged with the click of a computer mouse.”A “…limitless novelty, on-demand accessibility, and easy escalation to more extreme material…” “…In porn, mistakes are edited out and flaws are Photoshopped away.” “Regardless of how a consumer’s romantic relationship is being impacted by porn, as human beings, we interact with different people daily, in a number of ways. One of the dangers of porn is that it can distort the way a consumer sees people, causing him or her to see friends, family members, coworkers, or strangers on the street only as a sum of body parts, discarding their humanity.B Essentially, porn tells consumers that people are objects with the sole purpose of providing sexual satisfaction, and that’s unhealthy for relationships, romantic or otherwise.”C “Not long ago, Princeton psychologists performed a study showing a group of men pictures of men and women, some barely clothed and some not. The psychologists monitored their medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which is involved in recognizing human faces and distinguishing one person from another. For the most part, the mPFC was activated with each picture. However, when the subjects of the study were shown the pictures of scantily clothed people, it was not activated.D Basically, the automatic reaction in their brains suggested that they didn’t perceive the sexualized people as fully human. Just as a body, a sum of parts.”

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

185

“Obviously, porn is not the best representation of how real men and women look or how real sex and intimacy work in a real-life relationship. And yet, whether they realize it or not, porn consumers are affected by the portrayals they see in porn even after the browser window is closed.”E “As a porn consumer finds himself or herself further down this cycle, an isolating porn habit can lead consumers to skip out on interacting with friends, trying new hobbies or participating in old ones, and ultimately connecting with the people in their lives.F This is all because consumers’ brains have become so reliant on porn that it can start to make them think they will be happier watching porn than participating in those real-life experiences.”G “I can see beauty in so many different forms now... real forms. I'm back at composing music, studying, my grades have boosted, have way more energy... I take more care of myself, exercise… When I meet a girl now, sex is not my goal. There's no goal. The present is the only goal, so a cool conversation, or maybe just a flirty smile can make my day.” 23 YEAR OLD MALE AFTER 2 MONTHS OF QUITTING PORN CONSUMPTIONH (“How Porn Kills Love”, Fight the New Drug, August 23, 2017, https://fightthenewdrug.org/how-porn-killslove/) A.

(Estellon, V., And Mouras, H. (2012). Sexual Addiction: Insights From Psychoanalysis And Functional Neuroimaging. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology 2: 11814. Doi:10.3402/Snp.V2i0.11814)

B. (Park, B. Y., Et Al. (2016). Is Internet Pornography Causing Sexual Dysfunctions? A Review With Clinical Reports. Behavioral Sciences, 6, 17. Doi:10.3390/Bs6030017; Bostwick, J. M., & Bucci, J. E. (2008). Internet Sex Addiction Treated With Naltrexone. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 83(2), 226–230. Doi:10.4065/83.2.226; Kalman, T. P. (2008). Kalman, T.P. (2008). Clinical Encounters With Internet Pornography. Journal Of The American Academy Of Psychoanalysis And Dynamic Psychiatry, 36(4) 593618. Doi:10.1521/Jaap.2008.36.4.593; Doidge, N. (2007). The Brain That Changes Itself. New York: Penguin Books. (110).) C. (Rudman, L. A., & Borgida, E. (1995). The Afterglow Of Construct Accessibility: The Behavioral Consequences Of Priming Men To View Women As Sexual Objects. Journal Of Experimental Social Psychology, 31, 493–517; Loughnan, S., Haslam, N., Murnane, T., Vaes, J., Reynolds, C., & Suitner, C. (2010). Objectification Leads To Depersonalization: The Denial Of Mind And Moral Concern To Objectified Others. European Journal Of Social Psychology, 40, 709–717.)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

186

D.

(Cikara, M., Eberhardt, J.L. & Fiske, S.T. (In Press). From Agents To Objects: Sexist Attitudes And Neural Responses To Sexualized Targets. Journal Of Cognitive Neuroscience.)

E. (Morgan, E. M. (2011). Associations Between Young Adults’ Use Of Sexually Explicit Materials And Their Sexual Preferences, Behaviors, And Satisfaction. Journal Of Sex Research, 48,(6), 520-530. 8(6):520-30. Doi:10.1080/00224499.2010.543960) F. (Volkow, N. D., Koob, G. F., & Mclellan, A. T. (2016). Neurobiological Advances From The Brain Disease Model Of Addiction. New England Journal Of Medicine, 374, 363-371. Doi:10.1056/Nejmra1511480; Park, B. Y., Et Al. (2016). Is Internet Pornography Causing Sexual Dysfunctions? A Review With Clinical Reports. Behavioral Sciences, 6, 17. Doi:10.3390/Bs6030017) G. (Volkow, N. D., Koob, G. F., & McLellan, A. T. (2016). Neurobiological Advances From The Brain Disease Model Of Addiction. New England Journal Of Medicine, 374: 363-371. Doi:10.1056/NEJMra1511480)” H. (Age 23 – I’m A New Human Being (ED) | Your Brain On Porn. (N.D.). Retrieved From Https://Yourbrainonporn.Com/Age-23-Im-New-Human-Being-Ed)

Dr. Neil Malamuth, a social psychologist at UCLA, conducted a classic study connecting pornography and sexual violence. Dr. Malamuth found for men who are at high risk for committing sexual violence, violent pornography activates something evil within them. Two characteristics of men that are strongly associated with committing sexual assault are hostile masculinity and a preference for impersonal sex. For men with hostile masculinity and a preference for impersonal sex, pornography exposure can trigger their aggressive response. Unlike other men, these high-risk men see sexually violent media and are then motivated to be sexually aggressive, and sometimes, commit rape. (Malamuth N. (1981). Rape fantasies as a function of exposure to violent-sexual stimuli. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 10, 33-47.) (John D. Foubert, “How Pornography Harms”, John Foubert.com, April 2016, http://www.johnfoubert.com/how-porn-harms)

“So in the last two decades, we have conducted a vast experiment on the social consequences of such material. If the supporters of censorship were right, we should be seeing an unparalleled epidemic of sexual assault. But all the evidence indicates they were wrong. As raunch has waxed, rape has waned.” (Steve Chapman, “Is Pornography a Catalyst of Sexual Violence?”, Reason.com, November 5, 2007, https://reason.com/archives/2007/11/05/is-pornography-a-catalyst-of-s)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

187

“This study showed that men who viewed pornography, particularly rape and sadomasochistic pornography, report a greater likelihood of raping, committing sexual assault, higher rape myth acceptance, lower willingness to intervene in a sexual assault situation, and lower efficacy to intervene in a sexual assault situation.” (John D. Foubert, Matthew W. Brosi and Sean Bannon, “Pornography Viewing among Fraternity Men: Effects on Bystander Intervention, Rape Myth Acceptance and Behavioral Intent to Commit Sexual Assault”, Sexual Addiction and Compulsivity, November 28, 2011, https://media.wix.com/ugd/9e4c55_334edae0a4e64f078b8b0479f7c9cb56.pdf)

“In recent years, porn has been accused of becoming increasingly violent. A veteran porn star said in a recent documentary about porn that, in the 1990s, it constituted ‘making love on a bed,’ and having ‘lovey dovey sex.’ But in 2010, researchers analyzed more than 300 porn scenes and found that 88% contained physical aggression. Most of the perpetrators were male, and their targets female, and the latter’s most common response to aggression was to show pleasure or respond neutrally.” “Neil Malamuth at the University of California, Los Angeles has carried out numerous studies examining porn and sexual violence, including one involving 300 men, and concluded that men who are already sexually aggressive and consume a lot of sexually aggressive pornography are more likely to commit a sexually aggressive act. But he argues that porn isn’t the cause of sexual violence. In 2013, he told BBC Radio 4 that porn consumption can be compared to alcohol, suggesting that it isn’t inherently dangerous, but can be for those who have other risk factors.” (Jessica Brown, BBC Future, September 26, 2017, “Is porn harmful? The evidence, the myths and the unknowns,” http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20170926-is-porn-harmful-the-evidence-the-myths-and-the-unknowns)

“Watching pornography also conditioned participants to trivialize rape. Participants were asked to read about a legal case where a man raped a female hitchhiker and then recommend a length for the rapist’s prison sentence. Males in the No Exposure Group said 94 months; the Massive Exposure Group cut this by nearly half, recommending only 50 months.” (Luke Gilkerson, “Your Brain on Porn”, Covenant Eyes, Accessed July 29, 2016, http://www.covenanteyes.com/brain-ebook/)

“Once consumers start viewing extreme and dangerous sex acts, things that they thought were disgusting or shameful can start to seem normal, Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

188

acceptable, and more common than they really are. [14] One study found that people exposed to significant amounts of porn thought things like sex with animals and violent sex were twice as common as what those not exposed to porn thought. [15] And when people believe a behavior is normal, they’re more likely to try it.” [16] “A 2015 peer-reviewed research study that analyzed 22 different studies from 7 different countries concluded that there is “little doubt that, on the average, individuals who consume pornography more frequently are more likely to hold attitudes [supporting] sexual aggression and engage in actual acts of sexual aggression.” [20] (Site accessed 8.2.17; Article updated May 4, 2017, http://fightthenewdrug.org/how-porn-affects-your-sexual-tastes/) [14] Zillmann, D. (2000). Influence Of Unrestrained Access To Erotica On Adolescents’ And Young Adults’ Dispositions Toward Sexuality. Journal Of Adolescent Health, 27, 2: 41–44. Retrieved From Https://Www.Ncbi.Nlm.Nih.Gov/Pubmed/10904205 [15] Zillmann, D. (2000). Influence Of Unrestrained Access To Erotica On Adolescents’ And Young Adults’ Dispositions Toward Sexuality. Journal Of Adolescent Health, 27, 2: 41–44. Retrieved From Https://Www.Ncbi.Nlm.Nih.Gov/Pubmed/10904205 [16] Layden, M. A. (2004). Committee On Commerce, Science, And Transportation, Subcommittee On Science And Space, U.S. Senate, Hearing On The Brain Science Behind Pornography Addiction, November 18; Cline, V. B. (2001). Pornography’s Effect On Adults And Children. New York: Morality In Media; Zillmann, D., & Bryant, J. (1984). Effects Of Massive Exposure To Pornography. In N. M. Malamuth And E. Donnerstein (Eds.) Pornography And Sexual Aggression. New York: Academic Press. [20] Wright, P., Tokunaga, R. S., & Kraus, A. (2015). A Meta-Analysis Of Pornography Consumption And Actual Acts Of Sexual Aggression In General Population Studies. Journal Of Communication, 66(1), 183-205. Doi:10.1111/Jcom.12201

“Over the past few decades, experimental and correlational research has focused on variables associated with pornography exposure. The most prominent of these is sexual aggression. In their review of more than 50 experimental studies and meta-analyses, Malamuth, Addison, and Koss (2000) conclude pornography exposure has a causal but complicated relationship with aggressive behavior; the link between pornography and sexual aggression is much stronger in men with predisposing risk factors such as high rape myth acceptance and low empathy. The associations between pornography and sexual aggression are also present in women. In

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

189

experimental studies with women, violent pornography exposure, especially in combination with alcohol intoxication, is associated with increased ratings of blame for rape victims, decreased assignment of responsibility to male sexual assault perpetrators, and the belief that victims should accept sexual victimization (Davis, Norris, George, Martell, & Heiman, 2006; Norris, Davis, George, Martell, & Heiman, 2004). Moreover, both men’s and women’s use of pornography has been associated with a decreased selfreported likelihood that they will intervene to prevent sexual assault (Brosi, Foubert, Bannon, & Yandell, 2011; Foubert, Brosi, & Bannon, 2011). Taken together, results support decades-old assertions that pornographic media contribute to a culture of sexual callousness, especially toward violence against women (Zillmann & Bryant, 1982).” (John D. Foubert and Ana J. Bridges, “What is the Attraction? Porngraphy Use Motives in Relation to Bystander Intervention”, Oklahoma State University, 2015, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26209307)

“…boys’ use of violent pornography is correlated with histories of more severe levels of sexually aggressive behavior, more conduct problems, more juvenile delinquency, and higher levels of depression than boys who avoid violent pornography (Owens et al., 2012).” (John D. Foubert and Ana J. Bridges, “What is the Attraction? Porngraphy Use Motives in Relation to Bystander Intervention”, Oklahoma State University, 2015, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26209307)

“If in fact pornographic media create a cultural climate that permits violence against women (Krafka et al., 1997), then perhaps reducing pornography use would help reduce the acceptability of sexual violence against women, just as experimental evidence suggests reducing use increases commitment to a romantic partner (Lambert, Negash, Stillman, Olmstead, & Fincham, 2012).” (John D. Foubert and Ana J. Bridges, “What is the Attraction? Porngraphy Use Motives in Relation to Bystander Intervention”, Oklahoma State University, 2015, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26209307)

“Notably, research has shown when women in popular mainstream pornographic movies experience physical aggression by a male, 95% of the time they respond with either a response of pleasure or no response at all. Today’s mainstream pornography reinforces the Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

190

notion that violence against women in sexual situations is acceptable and the belief that women enjoy the violence (Bridges et al., 2010).” (Matthew W. Brosi, John D. Foubert, R. Sean Bannon, and Gabe Yandell, “Effects of women’s pornography use on bystander intervention in a sexual assault situation and rape myth acceptance”, The Research Journal of the Association of Fraternity/Sorority Advisors, 2011, https://works.bepress.com/john_foubert/8/)

“The script of mainstream pornography is one of men being violent toward women. How do we know? The leading researcher about the content of today’s pornography is Dr. Ana Bridges, a professor of psychology at the University of Arkansas. Dr. Bridges is an author of one of the most prominent studies of pornography ever undertaken. She and her research team purchased the most popular pornography videos in the mid 2000’s. They methodically watched each one, coding the behavior that occurred in every scene of every movie. They found critically important implications for our understanding of pornography.” (John D. Foubert, “How Pornography Harms”, John Foubert.com, April 2016, http://www.johnfoubert.com/how-porn-harms)

“Each pornography movie had several scenes – perhaps a dozen or more. In 88% of the scenes – not just the movies, but the scenes in these movies, there was verbal or physical aggression, usually toward a woman. What is even more interesting is the result of this violence, as scripted by the pornography industry. When there is aggressive talk or behavior toward someone in porn, 95% of the time, the target expresses pleasure or has no response at all. This teaches viewers that people enjoy being hit. It also teaches viewers that if they are hit during a sexual encounter, they should like it, or at least not object. Think about how an 11-year-old boy, or girl, would interpret what they see. If a woman is hit, she likes it. Pornography teaches boys to hit girls, and shows girls that they should like it. That is why pornography is a recipe for sexual violence.” (John D. Foubert, “How Pornography Harms”, John Foubert.com, April 2016, http://www.johnfoubert.com/how-porn-harms)

“Director of the Psychopathology program at the University of Pennsylvania, Dr. Mary Anne Layden, she noted that critics of the

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

191

pornography research say things like “well these are correlational studies and correlation does not imply causality.” Her response to this criticism is telling.” (John D. Foubert, “How Pornography Harms”, John Foubert.com, April 2016, http://www.johnfoubert.com/how-porn-harms)

“‘Oh dear, I guess you don’t actually believe that cigarette smoking causes cancer since all that research is correlational and we don’t have any experimental studies on cigarette smoking! So I guess you tell your children go ahead and smoke cigarettes because we don’t have anything that says cigarettes causes cancer or all the other things they cause. So if you do think cigarettes cause cancer, are you aware that there are only correlational studies, that it would be unethical to do experimental studies with cigarettes. Like we got 2 groups of 3rd graders and we are going to make one group smoke and one not and see how long it takes to kill them? We won’t be doing that! Or you don’t actually believe that drunk driving causes accidents, because all of that research is correlational as well.’” (John D. Foubert, “How Pornography Harms, Life Rich Publishing, 2017, https://www.amazon.com/How-Pornography-Harms-John-Foubert/dp/148971023X)

“The types of sexual violence committed by high risk boys was studied by a team of researchers including Dr. Eileen Alexy and Dr. Ann Burgess from Boston College and Dr. Robert Prentky from Farleigh Dickinson University. They studied children and adolescents who have a predisposition to sexually aggressive behavior. The researchers found that children and adolescents predisposed to sexual aggression who also use pornography are more likely to commit rape and are also more likely to have sex with animals than are similar juveniles who were not pornography consumers. Pornography consumers were also more likely to commit theft and arson.” (Alexy, E. M., Burgess, A. W., & Prentky, R. A. (2009). Pornography use as a risk marker for an aggressive pattern of behavior among sexually reactive children and adolescents. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 42, 442–453.) (John D. Foubert, “How Pornography Harms”, John Foubert.com, April 2016, http://www.johnfoubert.com/how-porn-harms)

“…frequent pornography use by itself is not a singular, direct cause for sexual assault. However, if a man has other risk factors for committing sexual violence, for example hostile masculinity or a preference for

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

192

impersonal sex, adding frequent pornography use makes it significantly more likely that he will commit sexual violence.” (Malamuth N, Addison T, Koss M. (2000). Pornography and sexual aggression: are there reliable effects and can we understand them? Annual Review of Sex Research, 11:26–91.) (John D. Foubert, “How Pornography Harms”, John Foubert.com, April 2016, http://www.johnfoubert.com/how-porn-harms)

“This is part of a broad decrease in criminal mayhem. Since 1993, violent crime in America has dropped by 58 percent. But the progress in this one realm has been especially dramatic. Rape is down 72 percent and other sexual assaults have fallen by 68 percent. Even in the last two years, when the FBI reported upticks in violent crime, the number of rapes continued to fall.” (Steve Chapman, “Is Pornography a Catalyst of Sexual Violence?”, Reason.com, November 5, 2007, https://reason.com/archives/2007/11/05/is-pornography-a-catalyst-of-s)

“Nor can the decline be dismissed as the result of underreporting. Many sexual assaults do go unreported, but there is no reason to think there is less reporting today than in the past. In fact, given everything that has been done to educate people about the problem and to prosecute offenders, victims are probably more willing to come forward than they used to be.” (Steve Chapman, “Is Pornography a Catalyst of Sexual Violence?”, Reason.com, November 5, 2007, https://reason.com/archives/2007/11/05/ispornography-a-catalyst-of-s)

“No one would say the current level of violence against women is acceptable. But the enormous progress in recent years is one of the most gratifying successes imaginable.” (Steve Chapman, “Is Pornography a Catalyst of Sexual Violence?”, Reason.com, November 5, 2007, https://reason.com/archives/2007/11/05/is-pornography-a-catalyst-of-s)

“How can it be explained? Perhaps the most surprising and controversial account comes from Clemson University economist Todd Kendall, who suggests that adult fare on the Internet may essentially inoculate against sexual assaults.” (Steve Chapman, “Is Pornography a Catalyst of Sexual Violence?”, Reason.com, November 5, 2007, https://reason.com/archives/2007/11/05/is-pornography-a-catalyst-of-s)

“In a paper presented at Stanford Law School last year, he reported that, after adjusting for other differences, states where Internet access expanded the fastest saw rape decline the most. A 10 percent increase in Internet access, Kendall found, typically meant a 7.3 percent reduction in the number of reported rapes. For other types of crime, he found no correlation with Web use. What this research Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

193

suggests is that sexual urges play a big role in the incidence of rape - and that pornographic Web sites provide a harmless way for potential predators to satisfy those desires.” (Steve Chapman, “Is Pornography a Catalyst of Sexual Violence?”, Reason.com, November 5, 2007, https://reason.com/archives/2007/11/05/is-pornography-a-catalyst-of-s)

“That, of course, is only a theory, and the evidence he cites is not conclusive. States that were quicker to adopt the Internet may be different in ways that also serve to prevent rape. It's not hard to think of other explanations why sexual assaults have diminished so rapidly -- such as DNA analysis, which has been an invaluable tool in catching and convicting offenders.” (Steve Chapman, “Is Pornography a Catalyst of Sexual Violence?”, Reason.com, November 5, 2007, https://reason.com/archives/2007/11/05/ispornography-a-catalyst-of-s)

“Changing social attitudes doubtless have also played a role. Both young men and young women are more aware today of the boundaries between consensual and coercive sex. Kim Gandy, president of the National Organization for Women, thinks the credit for progress against rape should go to federal funding under the Violence Against Women Act and to education efforts stressing that ‘no means no.’” (Steve Chapman, “Is Pornography a Catalyst of Sexual Violence?”, Reason.com, November 5, 2007, https://reason.com/archives/2007/11/05/is-pornography-acatalyst-of-s)

“A 10 percent increase in Internet access, Kendall found, typically meant a 7.3 percent reduction in the number of reported rapes. For other types of crime, he found no correlation with Web use. What this research suggests is that sexual urges play a big role in the incidence of rape -- and that pornographic Web sites provide a harmless way for potential predators to satisfy those desires.” (Steve Chapman, “Is Pornography a Catalyst of Sexual Violence?” Reason, November 5, 2007, https://reason.com/archives/2007/11/05/is-pornography-a-catalyst-of-s)

“That, of course, is only a theory, and the evidence he cites is not conclusive.” (Steve Chapman, “Is Pornography a Catalyst of Sexual Violence?” Reason, November 5, 2007, https://reason.com/archives/2007/11/05/is-pornography-a-catalyst-of-s)

“One study of Australian men found no relationship between men’s frequency of viewing pornography and their attitudes toward women (McKee, 2007). Instead of choosing established and available measures of the attitudes toward women construct, the researcher used a self designed survey where only 7% of respondents replied by Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

194

mail. The defi- nition of attitudes toward women used related to many political issues that may not be relevant to what are commonly conceptualized in the literature as attitudes toward women (McKee, 2007). Early nonexperimental studies suggested that there might not be an association between pornography and rape supportive attitudes. For example two meta-analyses (Allen, D’Alessio, & Brezgel, 1995; Allen, Emmers, Gebhardt, & Giery, 1995) yielded findings of no association between pornography and rape supportive attitudes. However, these findings were conclusively reversed by a recent meta analysis that clarified that there is, in fact, a strong link between these variables when one takes into account the manner in which pornography is defined and moderating variables are taken into consideration (Hald, Malamuth, & Yuen, 2010). In addition, the same study found that pornography consumption was particularly inducing of violence for men who showed risk for committing sexual aggression. The recent highlighting of moderator variables emphasizes that pornography may not impact every viewer in the same way; rather, some men may experience greater impacts than others (Kingston, Malmuth, Fedoroff, & Marshall, 2009).” (John D. Foubert, Matthew W. Brosi and Sean Bannon, “Pornography Viewing among Fraternity Men: Effects on Bystander Intervention, Rape Myth Acceptance and Behavioral Intent to Commit Sexual Assault”, Sexual Addiction and Compulsivity, November 28, 2011, https://media.wix.com/ugd/9e4c55_334edae0a4e64f078b8b0479f7c9cb56.pdf)

“Researchers assessing the most popular pornography videos today found that 88% of the scenes included physical aggression toward women such as spanking, open-hand slapping, hair pulling, choking, and bondage. Among the most recent trends in 41% of the most popular mainstream pornography movies today are scenes in which a man puts his penis in a woman’s anus followed immediately by placing it in her mouth so that she can taste her own excrement, known as ass to mouth or ATM (Bridges, Wosnitzer, Scharrer, Sun, & Liberman, 2010). Another tactic of increasing popularity involves scenes of shoving a penis so forcefully down a woman’s throat that it causes gagging and vomiting (Malarek, 2009). Does watching this level of violence in pornography have any effect on men’s attitudes or behavior?” (John D. Foubert, Matthew W. Brosi and Sean Bannon, “Pornography Viewing among Fraternity Men: Effects on Bystander Intervention, Rape Myth Acceptance and Behavioral Intent to Commit Sexual Assault”, Sexual Addiction and Compulsivity, November 28, 2011, https://media.wix.com/ugd/9e4c55_334edae0a4e64f078b8b0479f7c9cb56.pdf)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

195

“…pornography actually cultivates increased callousness regarding violence against women.” (John D. Foubert and Ana J. Bridges, “What is the Attraction? Porngraphy Use Motives in Relation to Bystander Intervention”, Oklahoma State University, 2015, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26209307)

“Sexual Assault Bystander Intervention Bystander behavior has been the topic of much research in the area of sexual assault prevention during the last decade (Banyard, Moynihan, & Plante, 2007; Banyard, Plante, & Moynihan, 2004; Foubert, LanghinrichsenRohling, Brasfield, & Hill, 2010; Katz, 2006). Researchers who study bystander intervention have explored the factors that lead people to intervene to help others who are in distress, rather than stand by and ignore and/or otherwise not act (Banyard, Plante, & Moynihan). Several factors have been shown to increase the likelihood people will intervene as bystanders. These include being aware of a situation in which someone is being victimized, making a prior commitment to help, having a sense of partial responsibility for helping, believing that the victim has not caused the situation to occur, having a sense of self-efficacy in possessing the skills to do something, and having seen others modeling such pro-social behavior (Latane & Darley, 1968; Banyard, Plante, & Moynihan).” (Matthew W. Brosi, John D. Foubert, R. Sean Bannon, and Gabe Yandell, “Effects of women’s pornography use on bystander intervention in a sexual assault situation and rape myth acceptance”, The Research Journal of the Association of Fraternity/Sorority Advisors, 2011, https://works.bepress.com/john_foubert/8/)

“Of the 304 scenes analyzed, 88.2% contained physical aggression, principally spanking, gagging, and slapping, while 48.7% of scenes contained verbal aggression, primarily name–calling. Perpetrators of aggression were usually male, whereas targets of aggression were overwhelmingly female.” ([24] Ana Bridges, et al., “Violence Against Women,” Sage 16, no. 10 (October 2010): 1065–1085. This current study analyzes the content of popular pornographic videos with the objectives of updating depictions of aggression, degradation, and sexual practices and comparing the study’s results to previous content analysis studies. Findings indicate high levels of aggression in pornography in both verbal and physical forms.) (“Pornography”, Enough is Enough, Accessed 3.20.2017, http://www.enough.org/stats_porn_industry)

“A recent content analysis of the 50 best-selling adult videos revealed that across all scenes:” (“Pornography”, Enough is Enough, Accessed 3.20.2017, http://www.enough.org/stats_porn_industry)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

196

“3,376 verbal and/or physically aggressive acts were observed.”

(R., Scharrer, E., Sun, C., & Liberman, R. (in press). Aggression and sexual behavior in bestselling pornography: A content analysis update. Violence Against Women.) (“Pornography”, Enough is Enough, Accessed 3.20.2017, http://www.enough.org/stats_porn_industry)

“On average, scenes had 11.52 acts of either verbal of physical aggression, ranging from none to 128.” (R., Scharrer, E., Sun, C., & Liberman, R. (in press). Aggression and sexual behavior in best-selling pornography: A content analysis update. Violence Against Women.) (“Pornography”, Enough is Enough, Accessed 3.20.2017, http://www.enough.org/stats_porn_industry)

“48 percent of the 304 scenes analyzed contained verbal aggression, while more than 88 percent showed physical aggression.” (R., Scharrer, E., Sun, C., & Liberman, R. (in press). Aggression and sexual behavior in best-selling pornography: A content analysis update. Violence Against Women.) (“Pornography”, Enough is Enough, Accessed 3.20.2017, http://www.enough.org/stats_porn_industry)

“72 percent of aggressive acts were perpetrated by men.” (R., Scharrer, E., Sun, C., & Liberman, R. (in press). Aggression and sexual behavior in best-selling pornography: A content analysis update. Violence Against Women.) (“Pornography”, Enough is Enough, Accessed 3.20.2017, http://www.enough.org/stats_porn_industry)

“88.2% of top-rated porn scenes contain physical aggression (spanking, gagging, slapping, etc.); 48.7% contain verbal aggression (name calling). Perpetrators were usually male,” (R., Scharrer, E., Sun, C., & Liberman, R. (in press). Aggression and sexual behavior in best-selling pornography: A content analysis update. Violence Against Women.) (“Pornography”, Enough is Enough, Accessed 3.20.2017, http://www.enough.org/stats_porn_industry)

“94 percent of aggressive acts were committed against women. (Bridges, A., Wosnitzer)” (R., Scharrer, E., Sun, C., & Liberman, R. (in press). Aggression and sexual behavior in best-selling pornography: A content analysis update. Violence Against Women.) (“Pornography”, Enough is Enough, Accessed 3.20.2017, http://www.enough.org/stats_porn_industry)

“The result? That is what Pearson’s doctor friend deals with, the medical treatment of young girls who got treated like porn stars—brutally abused and coerced into things they didn’t want to do. ‘Young girls—children, really—who abase themselves to pass for normal in a grim, pornified culture,’ says Pearson. ‘Another study of British teenagers found that most youngsters’ first experience of anal sex occurred within a relationship, but it Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

197

was ‘rarely under circumstances of mutual exploration of sexual pleasure.’ Instead, it was the boys who pushed the girls to try it, with boys reporting that they felt ‘expected’ to take that role.’” (Jonathon Van Maren, “Porn is fuelling a new, violent sexual ideology in our teens. It has to stop.”, Life Site News, April 28, 2015, https://www.lifesitenews.com/blogs/porn-is-fuelling-a-new-violent-sexual-ideology-in-our-teens.-it-has-tostop)

“One of the most troubling findings in this study is that exposure was related to not only early oral sex and sexual intercourse for both males and females but also perpetration of sexual harassment by adolescent males.” (Jane D. Brown, Kelly L. L’Engle, “X-Rated, Sexual Attitudes and behaviors Assocaited with U.S. Early Adolescents’ Exposure to Sexually Explicit Media”, Communications Research, Volume 36 No. 1, February 2009, http://crx.sagepub.com/content/36/1/129.abstract)

“A massive analysis spanning seven countries has found that people who view pornography are more likely to be physically or verbally aggressive than those who do not.” (Ben Johnson, “Porn viewers more likely to rape, sexually harass, use threats to ‘obtain sex’: massive study”, Life Site News, January 7, 2016, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/pornography-viewers-more-likely-to-be-sexually-aggressive-studyfinds)

“‘Consumption of pornography was associated with an increased likelihood of committing actual acts of sexual aggression,’ according to the report, which was published in the Journal of Communication on December 29.” (Ben Johnson, “Porn viewers more likely to rape, sexually harass, use threats to ‘obtain sex’: massive study”, Life Site News, January 7, 2016, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/pornography-viewers-more-likely-to-be-sexuallyaggressive-study-finds)

“Leading sexual violence researchers Neil Malamuth, Ed Donnerstein, and Dolf Zillman state that, in general, ‘Pornography desensitizes. Exposure to these materials, whether violent or nonviolent, coercive or noncoercive, experimentally increases male aggressive behavior against women, and decreases both male and female sensitivity to rape and the plight of the rape victim. Both males and females, after viewing this material, judge the female rape victim to be less injured, less worthy, and more responsible for her own plight.’” (“Pornography: one of the greatest enemies of the family today,” These Last Days Ministries, April 2, 2012, http://www.tldm.org/News6/purity2.htm)

“High risk factors that were taken into consideration for this study included impulsivity, hostility toward women, and promiscuity. Youth who had the same risk levels of aggressive behavior, but who consumed pornography ‘somewhat,’ ‘seldom,’ or ‘never’ did not show the same levels of sexual aggression.” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

198

Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005,http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“‘While correlation does not prove causation, and it therefore cannot be concluded from these studies that it was the consumption of the pornography that was responsible for the males' higher acceptance of violence against women, their findings are consistent with a theory that a causal connection exists.’” (Christopher Carmouche, “The Scope and Detrimental Effects of worldwide Pornography”, The World Congress of Families, June 2, 2010, http://worldcongress.org/wcfreg.spkrs/wcf.reg.uk.carmouche.htm)

“Bridges, Wosnitzer, Scharrer, Sun, and Liberman (2010) found that violence against women is now commonplace in today’s most popular pornography films. When adolescents view this combination of violence and sex, they may develop sexual scripts that infuse the two (Wright, 2011).” (John D. Foubert and Ana J. Bridges, “What is the Attraction? Porngraphy Use Motives in Relation to Bystander Intervention”, Oklahoma State University, 2015, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26209307)

“Rape Proclivity” “Prolonged exposure to pornography increases men*s selfacknowledged rape proclivity. Both non-coercive and coercive sexual displays have this effect.” (James B. Weaver III, “Effects of Pornography Addiction on Families and Communities”, Dr. Judith Reisman, November 18, 2014, http://www.drjudithreisman.com/archives/Senate-Testimony-20041118_Weaver.pdf)

“Psychoticism exacerbates the influence of pornography on men*s rape proclivity. Psychotic men are strongly affected, whereas men with minimal psychotic inclination are not.” (James B. Weaver III, “Effects of Pornography Addiction on Families and Communities”, Dr. Judith Reisman, November 18, 2014, http://www.drjudithreisman.com/archives/Senate-Testimony-20041118_Weaver.pdf)

“Pornography is dangerous because it is becoming a new ideology of sex, in which women are objects to be abused and consumed and men are sexual aggressors, using the girls and women to physically extract as much so-called ‘pleasure’ as possible.” (Jonathon Van Maren, “Porn is fuelling a new, violent sexual ideology in our teens. It has to stop.”, Life Site News, April 28, 2015, https://www.lifesitenews.com/blogs/porn-is-fuelling-a-new-violent-sexual-ideology-inour-teens.-it-has-to-stop)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

199

“…addiction, isolation, increased aggression, distorted beliefs and perceptions about relationships and sexuality, negative feelings about themselves, and neglecting other areas of their lives.” (“Top Pornography FAQ’s – What About Pornography”, Moral Revolution, Accessed November 13, 2015, http://moralrevolution.com/pornography-faqs/)

“…repeatedly told the Panel of the changes that they are witnessing in terms of body image, sexual behaviour and relationship difficulties. Overuse of pornographic material has been shown to desensitise children and young people to violent or sexually aggressive acts, diminish sympathy for victims of sexual assault and reduce children’s own inhibitions, making them more vulnerable to abuse and exploitation. Moreover, a vicious circle of behaviour can develop where exposure to porn leads to early sexual involvement and an increased consumption of sexual media.” (NSPCC written submission to the Parliamentary Inquiry) (“Independent Parliamentary Inquiry into Online Child Protection”, Media March, May, 2012, http://www.mediamarch.org.uk/Images/final-report.pdf)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

200

#14 RELATIONSHIPS AND PORN “When pornography use becomes excessive, romantic relationships can suffer. Destin Stewart, PhD, and Dawn Szymanski, PhD, at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, surveyed female college students and found that those who perceived their boyfriends' porn use to be problematic experienced lower self-esteem, poorer relationship quality and lower sexual satisfaction (Sex Roles, 2012).” (Kirsten Weir, “Is Pornography Addictive”, American Psychological Association, April 2014, http://www.apa.org/monitor/2014/04/pornography.aspx)

“Abstract: A brief survey was completed by 91 women and 3 men, aged 24-27, who had experienced serious adverse consequences of their partner’s cybersex involvement. In 60.6% of cases the sexual activities were limited to cybersex and did not include offline sex. Although not specifically asked about this, 31% of partners volunteered that the cybersex activities were a continuation of pre-existing compulsive sexual behaviors. Open-ended questions yielded the following conclusions: 1. “In response to learning about their partner’s online sexual activities, the survey respondents felt hurt, betrayal, rejection, abandonment, devastation, loneliness, shame, isolation, humiliation, jealousy, and anger, as well as loss of self-esteem. Being lied to repeatedly was a major cause of distress.” 2. “Cybersex addiction was a major contributing factor to separation and divorce of couples in this survey: 22.3% of the respondents were separated or divorced, and several others were seriously contemplating leaving.” 3. “Among 68% of the couples one or both had lost interest in relational sex: 52.1% of addicts had decreased interest in sex with spouse, as did 34% of partners. Some couples had had no relational sex in months or years.” 4. “Partners compared themselves unfavorably with the online women (or men) and pictures, and felt hopeless about being able to compete with them.”

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

201

5. “Partners overwhelmingly felt that cyber affairs were as emotionally painful to them as live or offline affairs, and many believed that virtual affairs were just as much adultery or ‘cheating’ as live affairs.” 6. “Adverse effects on the children included (1) exposure to cyberporn and to objectification of women, (2) involvement in parental conflicts, (3) lack of attention because of one parent’s involvement with the computer and the other parent’s preoccupation with the cybersex addict, (4) breakup of the marriage.” 7. “In response to their spouses’ cybersex addiction, partners went through a sequence of pre-recovery phases which consisted of a) ignorance/denial, b) shock/discovery of cybersex activities, and c) problem-solving attempts. When their attempts failed and they realized how unmanageable their lives had become, they entered the crisis stage and began their own recovery.” “Most SOs described some combination of devastation, hurt, betrayal, loos of self-esteem, mistrust, suspicion, fear, and a lack of intimacy in their relationship. Other responses were: extreme anger or rage, and two became physically abusive to their husbands; feeling sexually inadequate or feeling unattractive and even ugly; doubting one’s judgement and even sanity; severe depression, and, in two cases hospitalization for suicidality.” “He put the porn and masturbation as a priority to sexual relations with me. I felt totally degraded, not much of a woman, not ‘good enough’ for him. I felt betrayed, that he conned me into marrying him. He knew his actions were destroying our marriage, yet he lied to me continually. After I moved out, he swore to me that he would never ‘do porn again,’ only to continue it within a week of my returning. Without a doubt, the lies have been the worst. The second worst was seeing it happen. [41 year old woman, still married]” “This behavior has left me feeling alone, isolated, rejected, and less than. Masturbation hangs a sign on the door that says ‘You are not needed, I can take care of myself, thank you very much.’ I have threatened, manipulated, tried to control, cried, gave him the cold shoulder, yelled, tried to be understanding, and even tried to ignore it. Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

202

Denial and codependence are my character defects. [55 year old woman, married 36 years]” “Trust was a major casualty of the secrecy of cybersex addiction. Many SOs felt that this was at least as harmful to the relationship as the sexual activities themselves. Partners reported losing all trust in their mate and in anything he/she told them. Many reported that despite the addict’s promises, ‘behavior has continued, but he has learned to be much more secretive about it.’ With each discovery, trust is further eroded. ‘Every time I walk into our ‘office’ area, I am fearful of what might appear on the screen.’ A common theme was, ‘The lies he told me concerning his whereabouts, while he looked me straight in the eye, have hurt worse than his having sex with them.’” “A 34-year old woman who had learned of her husband’s cybersex involvement only weeks earlier, described the effects on the couple’s sexual relationship: “I realize now that many of the things he most liked and requested when we made love were re-creations of downloaded images. He is unable to be intimate, he objectifies me, he objectifies women and girls on the streets, he fantasizes when we’re together. I feel humiliated, used, and betrayed, as well as lied to and misled. It’s almost impossible for me to let him touch me without feeling really yucky and/or crying. I tried to continue being sexual with him initially (and in fact, being ‘more’ sexual, trying to fix it by being sexier, better than the porn girls), and I couldn’t do it. We have now been consensually abstinent for 3 weeks.” “Two-thirds of respondents (68.1%) described sexual problems in the couple relationship, which were generally related to the cybersex addict’s sexual activities. In some cases these problems had resulted in decreased interest by the cybersex user in relational sex. In others it was the SO who had lost interest, and in some cases both partners had a decreased interest.”

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

203

“When asked about the effect of cybersex on their sexual relationship, fully half of the 94 respondents (49, or 52.1%) said that their husbands were not interested, or hardly interested in sex with them.” “Cybersex addict alone has lost interest in couple sex. Thirty-two respondents (34%) reported that although they still wanted a sexual relationship, the cybersex addict had withdrawn his sexual (and general) attention from the partner and family and devoted his (or her) time and energy instead to computer sex. Recurrent themes here were: • “The partner felt hurt, angry, sexually rejected, inadequate, and unable to compete with cyberimages and sexy online women (or men) who were willing to do anything.” • “The addict made excuses to avoid sex with partner (not in the mood, too tired, working too hard, has already climaxed and doesn’t want sex, the children might hear, his back hurts too much).” • “During relational sex, the addict appeared distant, emotionally detached, and interested only in his/her own pleasure.” • “The partner ended up doing most or all of the initiating, either to get her/his own needs met, or else in an attempt to get the addict to decrease the online activities.” • “The addict blamed the partner for their sexual problems.” • “The addict wanted the partner to participate in sexual activities which she/he found objectionable.” (Jennifer P. Schneider, “Effects of cybersex addiction on the family: Results of a survey”, site accessed 9.21.17, http://www.jenniferschneider.com/articles/cybersex_family.html)

“Currently we have sex once every three months, usually only after I blow my stack and I suppose he feels obligated. Although I know that I am bright and attractive, emotionally I feel ugly, worthless, and unwanted by him or anybody else. For me the issue has not been the difference between him having email sex or actual physical contact, it is that someone else is receiving his attention and I am not. I do many mental gymnastics in order to cope with this. In order to prevent

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

204

becoming irritated with my partner because he rejects my sexual advances, I masturbate daily with the hope that it will prevent me from becoming ‘horny.’ Sometimes it works. I would not care at all if he masturbated online with a host of others, as long as I was an active part of his sex life. [33 year old gay male]” “Since my husband was living in a fantasy world of internet porn, I was the only one who initiated sex. I thought if I didn’t we would never have sex and this would cause him to go elsewhere. He would respond but always seemed to be in another world during sex. When confronted with why he was not interested in sex, he said that ‘it was not as important to him as it is to other men.’ [28 year old woman, married 8 years]” “He’s not interested in sex with me and blames me. He told me it’s his way or no way. He wanted me to participate with him on the net. He is up all night on the net and then is tired and unavailable. I feel like I’m making love to a corpse – he doesn’t really participate. [34 year old woman, married 10 years]” “Partner increases sexual activities to combat the problem. Some partners attempted a sexual solution to the cybersex addiction problem, typically either increasing the frequency of sexual activities with the addict, or else joining with the addict in his preferred activities: “I tried to initiate a variety of things I have seen in Penthouse. I feel ashamed of the things I’ve suggested, which I thought would change his behavior. I have to remind myself every day that that wasn’t my normal behavior, and am trying to forgive myself. It’s extremely difficult. [39 year old woman, married 8 years, now divorced]” “My husband is a minister who was stationed overseas for a year. We chatted daily, but never sexually. Then I learned about his cybersex activities, and felt cheated. Why wouldn’t he ask me to have cybersex? I wasn’t comfortable with this, but I thought I could ‘rescue’

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

205

him. So we began a cybersex relationship. But much to my horror, he never quit with all the anonymous partners. So he lumped me together with all the online whores. When he returned, he continued his cybersex even though we were reunited. [34 year old woman, still in a long-term marriage]” “What’s the big deal about online sex? This is the most common question that is asked by persons who focus on the absence of skin-to-skin contact during cybersex activities, and cannot understand why marriages actually break up over this issue.” (Jennifer P. Schneider, “Effects of cybersex addiction on the family: Results of a survey”, site accessed 9.21.17, http://www.jenniferschneider.com/articles/cybersex_family.html)

“Concern about escalation. Tolerance – the need to do more to get the same results – is a common feature of addictive disorders. Online viewing which begins as harmless recreation can become an all-consuming activity, and it can also lead to real sexual encounters, either with sexual partners met online, or escalation of the sex addiction in general. Even when the sex involves only the computer, there is often escalation of conflict in the relationship.” “It’s still cheating/a mental affair/adultery because it involves lying, and emotional unavailability. Thirty respondents explained why they consider online sex activities the same as adultery. The most important reasons were 1. “Having interactive sex with another person is adultery, whether or not they have skin-to-skin contact.” 2. “Cybersex results in lying, hiding one’s activities, and covering up, and the lies are often the most painful part of an affair.” 3. “The spouse feels betrayed, devalued, deceived, ‘less than,’ abandoned ---same as with a real affair.” 4. “Cybersex takes away from the sexual relationship of the couple. As one woman wrote, ‘I may not be getting a disease from him, but I’m not getting anything else either!”

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

206

5. “A real-life person cannot compete with fantasy. The cybersex addict loses interest in his spouse because he has ‘ideal’ relationships where there is no hassle.” 6. “Cybersex takes the addict away from his partner – in terms of time and emotions. It results in emotional detachment from the marriage. ‘I care more about what is going on in my mate’s mind than any physical action!’ wrote one wife.” “The addict is using sexual energy that should be used with his wife/partner. The person on the other end of that computer is live and is participating in a sexual activity. It is one thing to masturbate to a 2-dimensional image in a magazine. But to engage in an interactive sexual encounter in real time means that you are being sexual with another person. I believe that is cheating.” “He did have affairs, although not physically. He had affairs of the mind and that to me is as much a violation as if he actually had a physical affair with someone. Due to my religious beliefs, he committed adultery just the same as if he had another partner. Moreover, in one sense I feel that having an affair of the mind is worse than having an actual partner: My husband can, at any time, have an ‘affair’ without leaving the house or seeing another human being. [woman, 39, married 14 years]” “Effect on self-esteem. The reason some respondents gave for why cybersex is so destructive is the adverse effect on their self-esteem.” “True, you don’t have the risk of the diseases, but it is still an emotional thing. It’s hard to think that the sex addict wants to do it without the actual touch—how can it be better for them? Especially since they have to do all the work themselves!! Plus, when the sex addict is with you, they are not really there emotionally. They are thinking about and picturing the ‘others’ that they were with, what they were saying to them, etc. So: the sex addict is getting off on

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

207

something that has nothing to do with you. It really hurts your selfesteem, and most of us don’t have a very good self-esteem as it is. [37-year old woman, married 17 years]” “I can’t compete with fantasy/can’t measure up/comparison with. Cybersex taps into partners’ deepest insecurities about their ability to measure up. The need to compete with interactive sex online pressures them into unwanted sexual activities. “Sex with the fantasy leaves practically nothing left to be desired when compared with the all too human and flawed spouse,’ explained one woman.” “Another wondered, ‘When he closes his eyes when we are together, what is he thinking of? The babe on the screen? Is he happy with my body? Is he grossed out?” “He does not have an actual human mistress from the internet, but the internet pornography is the ‘mistress’ that is coming between us. The idealized images of perfect women make me feel inadequate. Conversely, the kinky and perverted behaviors shown all over the internet fuel his beliefs and give him ammunition to say that I am the ‘weird one’ for not wanting anal sex – ‘See all of the women out there on the internet who are just crazy about it!’ [31 year old woman married 3 years]” “On the internet it is possible to find groups of people who are interested in all kinds of unusual or even deviant sexual practices. Interacting with these people desensitizes the user to these activities and ‘normalizes’ them. Some cybersex users eventually come to blame their partners for being unwilling to engage in these behaviors.” “It has adversely affected our relationship. Some SOs focused not on the adultery aspect of cybersex, but rather on the overall effect on the couple relationship: “What’s the fuss? I tell them that not everyone who looks at pornography is an addict, that some are merely curious. But when the addict never admits to viewing pornography, when he goes to great

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

208

lengths to hide it, when he lies about his whereabouts and what he’s doing, when he lies about his use of pornography to the marriage counselor he’s agreed to go to because he wants to save his marriage, that’s when it becomes a problem. I tell them I knew something was wrong in our intimate relationship and I always wondered who he was making love to, because it never was me. [39year old woman, divorced after an 8-year marriage].” “Partners who have experienced both. Several partners who had dealt with both cyberaffairs and live affairs said they hurt the same: “They should try it for themselves one time, and see how it feels to be less important to their partner than a picture on a computer screen! They should see what it feels like to lie in bed and know their partner is on the computer and what he is doing with it. It’s not going to do much for the self-esteem. My husband has actually cheated on me and it FEELS NO DIFFERENT. The online ‘safe’ cheating has just as dirty, filthy, a feel to it as does the ‘real-life’ cheating. [38-year old woman, married 18 year]” (Jennifer P. Schneider, “Effects of cybersex addiction on the family: Results of a survey”, site accessed 9.21.17, http://www.jenniferschneider.com/articles/cybersex_family.html)

“Men’s pornography viewing has been shown to be associated with unhealthy, less stable relationships. The bulk of these effects center around disconnecting intimacy and intercourse, whereby emotional attachment is separated from sexual behavior. For example, viewing pornography has been associated with (a) a decrease of interest in relational sexual intimacy (Bergner & Bridges, 2002; Schneider, 2000); (b) an increase in egocentric sexual practices aimed at personal pleasure and with little regard to the pleasure of the engaging partner (Manning, 2006; Schneider, 2000; Tyden, Olsson, & Haggstrom-Nordin, 2001); (c) an increase in the belief that sexual satisfaction can be obtained without affection or emotional attachment (Manning, 2006); (d) an increase in the belief that relationships are sexually confining (Zillman, 2000); and, (e) a decrease of interest in monogamy and child rearing (Schneider, 2000). Furthermore, men who frequently view pornography express a greater dissatisfaction with their partner’s physical appearance, sexual performance, and sexual curiosity

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

209

(Manning, 2006), which manifests in greater attention towards excitatory variables of sexual behavior and greater number of requests for sexual practices that partners often find objectionable or demeaning (Schneider, 2000; Tyden et al., 2001)” (John D. Foubert, Matthew W. Brosi and Sean Bannon, “Pornography Viewing among Fraternity Men: Effects on Bystander Intervention, Rape Myth Acceptance and Behavioral Intent to Commit Sexual Assault”, Sexual Addiction and Compulsivity, November 28, 2011, https://media.wix.com/ugd/9e4c55_334edae0a4e64f078b8b0479f7c9cb56.pdf)

“Dr. Bridges is part of a research team that has recently conducted several studies about how pornography use affects romantic relationships. The others who worked with her were Dr. Chyng Sun from New York University, Dr. Matt Ezzel from James Madison University, and Dr. Jennifer Johnson from Virginia Commonwealth University. At the time this book went to press, not all of their research had been published, so what I report here can be considered preliminary results and a preview of research that will be released soon after this book is published.” (John D. Foubert, “How Pornography Harms”, John Foubert.com, April 2016, http://www.johnfoubert.com/howporn-harms)

“They found different impacts for men and women, regarding their relationships. They found that the more pornography men viewed, the less satisfied they were with their partner. This effect seems likely due to comparing the physical attractiveness of their partner with women in pornography. In addition, men who used porn very frequently had less satisfaction with their partner in general and in the sexual aspect of their relationship. If their partner viewed pornography, men’s satisfaction with their partner was higher.” (John D. Foubert, “How Pornography Harms”, John Foubert.com, April 2016, http://www.johnfoubert.com/how-porn-harms)

“Dr. Bridges’ confirmed the results of several earlier studies. In one study published in the Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, a research team found that when people use pornography more frequently, their satisfaction in their couple relationship declined.” (Lambert, N. M., Negash, S., Stillman, T. F., Olmstead, S. B., & Fincham, F. D. (2012). A love that doesn't last: Pornography consumption and weakened commitment to one's romantic partner. Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, 31(4), 410-438. doi:10.1521/jscp.2012.31.4.410) Pornography users were also less

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

210

committed to their romantic partner and were more likely to have sex with another person while still in the relationship with their partner. Similarly, another research team found that the more men use pornography, the less they, and their wives or partners, are satisfied with their sexual relationship. (Poulsen, F. O., Busby, D. M., & Galovan, A. M. (2013). Pornography use: Who uses it and how it is associated with couple outcomes. Journal of Sex Research, 50(1), 72-83. doi:10.1080/00224499.2011.648027) (John D. Foubert, “How Pornography Harms”, John Foubert.com, April 2016, http://www.johnfoubert.com/how-porn-harms

“But it's not always that simple. In a 2013 study, researchers at Brigham Young University and the University of Missouri surveyed heterosexual couples who were married or living together and found that men's use of porn was associated with lower sexual quality for both men and their partners. Female use of porn, however, was associated with improved sexual quality for women (Journal of Sex Research, 2013).” (Kirsten Weir, “Is Pornography Addictive”, American Psychological Association, April 2014, http://www.apa.org/monitor/2014/04/pornography.aspx)

“Bridges and Patricia Morokoff, PhD, reported similar findings: When men used porn, they tended to report lower levels of sexual intimacy in their real-life relationships. When women used porn, however, intimacy increased (Personal Relationships, 2011).” (Kirsten Weir, “Is Pornography Addictive”, American Psychological Association, April 2014, http://www.apa.org/monitor/2014/04/pornography.aspx)

“Bridges points to two possible explanations for the finding. First, she says, while men tend to view pornography solo, women are more likely to watch it with their partners in a shared sexual experience. ‘This was something that they incorporated into their lovemaking ritual,’ she says.” (Kirsten Weir, “Is Pornography Addictive”, American Psychological Association, April 2014, http://www.apa.org/monitor/2014/04/pornography.aspx)

“Also, men and women typically use different types of porn. Men are more often drawn to videos showing sex acts absent of context. ‘You might not even see anybody's face,’ she says. Women, though, tend to watch ‘couples porn,’ with story lines and softer angles. ‘When partners use porn together, they tend to watch things where both people are more egalitarian participants in a sexual act,’ Bridges says.” (Kirsten Weir, “Is Pornography Addictive”, American Psychological Association, April 2014, http://www.apa.org/monitor/2014/04/pornography.aspx)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

211

“Although some couples seem to benefit from pornography, that's not the case for everyone. When one partner uses porn at a high frequency — typically the men in the heterosexual couples Bridges has studied — there can be a tendency to withdraw emotionally from the relationship. Those men report ‘increased secrecy, less intimacy and also more depression,’ she says.” (Kirsten Weir, “Is Pornography Addictive”, American Psychological Association, April 2014, http://www.apa.org/monitor/2014/04/pornography.aspx)

“It's not clear, however, whether pornography is the proverbial chicken or the egg. Does a person turn to pornography because he's already in an unsatisfying relationship? Or do women pull away and lose interest in sex when they discover their partner is spending quality time with adult film stars?” (Kirsten Weir, “Is Pornography Addictive”, American Psychological Association, April 2014, http://www.apa.org/monitor/2014/04/pornography.aspx)

“Bridges says both scenarios are probably true, based on the couples she's interviewed. And indeed, the two scenarios tend to feed off each other. If a couple goes through a dry spell, the man may watch more porn to fill the void. Some women may feel threatened or confused by that response. They often report feeling less attractive, like they could never measure up to the X-rated actresses. The result: even less sex, even more porn and a relationship that continues to falter.” (Kirsten Weir, “Is Pornography Addictive”, American Psychological Association, April 2014, http://www.apa.org/monitor/2014/04/pornography.aspx)

“It’s still cheating/a mental affair/adultery because it involves lying, and emotional unavailability. Thirty respondents explained why they consider online sex activities the same as adultery. The most important reasons were 1. “Having interactive sex with another person is adultery, whether or not they have skin-to-skin contact.” 2. “Cybersex results in lying, hiding one’s activities, and covering up, and the lies are often the most painful part of an affair.” 3. “The spouse feels betrayed, devalued, deceived, ‘less than,’ abandoned ---same as with a real affair.”

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

212

4. “Cybersex takes away from the sexual relationship of the couple. As one woman wrote, ‘I may not be getting a disease from him, but I’m not getting anything else either!” 5. “A real-life person cannot compete with fantasy. The cybersex addict loses interest in his spouse because he has ‘ideal’ relationships where there is no hassle.” 6. “Cybersex takes the addict away from his partner – in terms of time and emotions. It results in emotional detachment from the marriage. ‘I care more about what is going on in my mate’s mind than any physical action!’ wrote one wife.” “The addict is using sexual energy that should be used with his wife/partner. The person on the other end of that computer is live and is participating in a sexual activity. It is one thing to masturbate to a 2-dimensional image in a magazine. But to engage in an interactive sexual encounter in real time means that you are being sexual with another person. I believe that is cheating.” “He did have affairs, although not physically. He had affairs of the mind and that to me is as much a violation as if he actually had a physical affair with someone. Due to my religious beliefs, he committed adultery just the same as if he had another partner. Moreover, in one sense I feel that having an affair of the mind is worse than having an actual partner: My husband can, at any time, have an ‘affair’ without leaving the house or seeing another human being. [woman, 39, married 14 years]” (Jennifer P. Schneider, “Effects of cybersex addiction on the family: Results of a survey”, site accessed 9.21.17, http://www.jenniferschneider.com/articles/cybersex_family.html)

“Addicted to love?” “In partnerships, a decrease in sexual satisfaction and a tendency to adopt pornographic scripts have been associated with frequent Internet pornography consumption.” (Knudsen SV, Mårtenson LL, Månsson S-A. Generation P? Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus Universitetsforlag; 2007) (Simone Kühn, PhD; Jürgen Gallinat, PhD, “Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity Associated with Pornography Consumption,” JAMA Psychiatry. 2014;71(7):827-834, http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1874574)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

213

“Michael kept insisting that his viewing pornography wasn’t hurting anybody. ‘I’m divorced, and what else am I going to do with my sex drive? This isn’t hurting me; it’s actually helping me.’” (Nicholas Black, “Pornography and Injustice: The Social Impact of Sexual Sin”, Harvest USA, June 4, 2014, https://truthandmercy.wordpress.com/2014/06/04/pornography-and-injustice-the-social-impact-of-sexualsin/)

“The paper, entitled Pornography Consumption and Satisfaction: A MetaAnalysis, concluded that ‘Pornography consumption was associated with lower interpersonal satisfaction outcomes in cross-sectional surveys, longitudinal surveys, and experiments.’” (“New Research Shows Pornography Use Decreases Satisfaction”, National Center on Sexual Exploitation, March 14, 2017, http://endsexualexploitation.org/articles/new-research-shows-pornography-use-decreasessatisfaction/)

“Drs. John and Julie Gottman, world-renowned researchers and clinical psychologists, wrote an Open Letter on Porn to discuss the corroding effect of pornography for romantic couples. In their letter the Gottmans stated: ‘We are led to unconditionally conclude that for many reasons, pornography poses a serious threat to couple intimacy and relationship harmony.’” (“New Research Shows Pornography Use Decreases Satisfaction”, National Center on Sexual Exploitation, March 14, 2017, http://endsexualexploitation.org/articles/new-research-shows-pornography-usedecreases-satisfaction/)

“The meta-analysis included more than 50,000 participants from 10 countries, used sound methodology, and found clear and consistent results, which starkly contradicts the widely reported article Porn Sex Versus Real Sex: How Sexually Explicit Material Shapes Our Understanding of Sexual Anatomy, Physiology, and Behaviour.” “Drs. John and Julie Gottman, world-renowned researchers and clinical psychologists, wrote an Open Letter on Porn to discuss the corroding effect of pornography for romantic couples. In their letter the Gottmans stated: ‘We are led to unconditionally conclude that for many reasons, pornography poses a serious threat to couple intimacy and relationship harmony.’”

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

214

(“New Research Shows Pornography Use Decreases Satisfaction”, National Center on Sexual Exploitation, March 14, 2017, http://endsexualexploitation.org/articles/new-research-showspornography-use-decreases-satisfaction/)

“Specifically, pornography was linked to significant ‘lower sexual and relational satisfaction’ among male viewers.” (“New Research Shows Pornography Use Decreases Satisfaction”, National Center on Sexual Exploitation, March 14, 2017, http://endsexualexploitation.org/articles/new-research-shows-pornography-usedecreases-satisfaction/)

“In men, prolonged exposure to pornography creates and enhances sexual callousness toward women.” (James B. Weaver III, “Effects of Pornography Addiction on Families and Communities”, Dr. Judith Reisman, November 18, 2014, http://www.drjudithreisman.com/archives/Senate-Testimony-20041118_Weaver.pdf)

1. P111 “People who watch porn have lower levels of relational commitment” “The Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology released the result of several studies about the impact of porn on relationships. In one experiment, half of a group gave up porn for three weeks, and the other half gave up their favorite food, but were allowed to watch porn. Interestingly, those who quit porn showed increased commitment to their romantic relationship at the end of the three weeks.” (Matt Fradd, “5 Ways Watching Porn is Terrible for your Romantic Relationships”, Life Site News, April 23, 2015, https://www.lifesitenews.com/blogs/5-ways-watching-porn-is-terrible-for-your-romanticrelationships)

2. P112 “People who watch porn have higher levels of negative communication with their partner” “According to a study published in the Archives of Sexual Behavior, compared to those who watch porn alone or watch porn with their partner, those who don’t view any porn have lower levels of negative communication with their romantic partner.” (Matt Fradd, “5 Ways Watching Porn is Terrible for your Romantic Relationships”, Life Site News, April 23, 2015, https://www.lifesitenews.com/blogs/5-ways-watching-porn-is-terrible-for-your-romanticrelationships)

“…accessing pornography online was predictive of compulsive computer use after 1 year.” (Meerkerk G-J, Van Den Eijnden RJ, Garretsen HFL. Predicting compulsive Internet use: it’s all about sex! Cyberpsychol Behav. 2006;9(1):95-103) (Simone Kuhn, Jurgen Gallinat, “Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity Associated with Pornography Consumption”, JAMA Psychiatry, Volume 71, Number 7, July, 2014, http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1874574)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

215

“Porn disconnects sex from relationships—its subjects (usually women) become merely objects for sexual pleasure and/or a commodity for sale.” (Nicholas Black, “Pornography and Injustice: The Social Impact of Sexual Sin”, Harvest USA, June 4, 2014, https://truthandmercy.wordpress.com/2014/06/04/pornography-and-injustice-the-social-impact-ofsexual-sin/)

“Porn disconnects sex from love and respect—this especially has been shown to lead to aggression and violence toward women (many point to a “rape culture” on college campuses that some say is the result of resulting from the widespread usage of pornography among male students).” (Nicholas Black, “Pornography and Injustice: The Social Impact of Sexual Sin”, Harvest USA, June 4, 2014, https://truthandmercy.wordpress.com/2014/06/04/pornographyand-injustice-the-social-impact-of-sexual-sin/)

“Porn is about sex without human dignity—today, perversity knows no bounds when it comes to pornography.” (Nicholas Black, “Pornography and Injustice: The Social Impact of Sexual Sin”, Harvest USA, June 4, 2014, https://truthandmercy.wordpress.com/2014/06/04/pornography-and-injustice-the-social-impact-ofsexual-sin/)

“How does viewing pornography affect me and my relationships?” “Pornography use destroys trust and respect and can make the user emotionally and physically unavailable to his partner. Pornography becomes a counterfeit attachment, drawing attention and time away from other relationships such as with a spouse or girlfriend. Additionally, addicts turn to pornography to satiate emotional needs and numb uncomfortable or painful emotions. This progressive behavior chokes the life out of healthy emotional, sexual, and spiritual intimacy between individuals.” (“Safety Net – Resources to Protect Your Family from Pornography,” Healthy Sandy Partnership, www.healthysandy.org/fileadmin/downloads/healthy_sandy/Ecclesiastical_Packet.pdf)

“Due to their secretive behavior, porn addicts tend to isolate themselves from others and have little to no motivation to go out and interact with others. It leads to a decline in quality of almost every area of life. This leads to increased depression, feelings of disgust, and a lack of desire to do anything to put an end to their porn addiction.” (http://www.conversantlife.com/morality/the-social-costs-of-pornography) (“Is it bad to watch porn? – The Impact of Pornography Addiction”, The Social Costs of Pornography, Accessed 4.24.2017, http://www.socialcostsofpornography.org/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

216

“87% said that their partner’s online cheating (by porn or other means on the internet) had a negative affect on their relationship. 41% called their partner’s online cheating significant, while 35% said it caused an end to the relationship.” (Huffpost, January 7, 2015) “What about the mess that he chose and I didn’t, and yet I am mired in it? What about the broken heart that I have, and the damage that he’s done to our relationship? I suspect she didn’t tell you that when this secret in their family became unveiled, that she felt a little like an albatross was placed around her neck, and it was squeezing her, and she couldn’t breathe.” “‘Porn has controlled me for more than half my life.’ ‘I can’t look at anyone without thinking sexual thoughts.’” – Student Quotes (Nate Herbst, “Beating Pornography” Sermon, Sermon Central, https://www.sermoncentral.com/sermons/beating-pornographynate-herbst-sermon-on-pornography-131769)

“Pornography belittles real beauty — like the fear of the Lord (Proverbs 31:30) — and replaces it with a cheap and fading imitation.” (Marshall Segal, “Never Harmless, Never Private, Never Safe”, Desiring God.Org, October 26, 2016, http://www.desiringgod.org/articles/never-harmless-never-private-never-safe)

“Normalization of adverse reactions to offensive material;” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005,http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Developing tolerance toward sexually explicit material, thereby requiring more novel or bizarre material to achieve the same level of arousal or interest;” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005,http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Misperceptions of exaggerated sexual activity in the general populace;” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005,http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Overestimating the prevalence of less common sexual practices (e.g., group sex, bestiality, and sadomasochistic activity);” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005,http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

217

“Diminished trust in intimate partners;” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005,http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Abandoning the goal of sexual exclusivity with a partner;” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005,http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Perceiving promiscuity as a normal state of interaction;” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005,http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Perceiving sexual inactivity as constituting a health risk;” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005,http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Developing cynical attitudes about love;” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005,http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Believing superior sexual satisfaction is attainable without having affection for one’s partner;” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005,http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Believing marriage is sexually confining;” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005,http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Believing that raising children and having a family is as an unattractive prospect; and” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005,http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“In men, prolonged exposure to pornography creates and enhances sexual callousness toward women.” (James B. Weaver III, “Effects of Pornography Addiction on Families and Communities”, Dr. Judith Reisman, November 18, 2014, http://www.drjudithreisman.com/archives/Senate-Testimony-20041118_Weaver.pdf)

“Doring provides a comprehensive review and cautions that studies such as the two aforementioned cannot be interpreted in a causal way: individuals with such proclivities may be more likely to turn to pornography

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

218

in the first place. …they find that pornography users are less likely to attend church, more likely to involve themselves in other deviant sexual behavior such as adultery and prostitution, and less likely to be involved in selfdescribed happy marriages.” (Doring, Nicola M. (2009). The Internet’s Impact on Sexuality: A Critical Review of 15 Years of Research. Computers in Human Behavior 25: 1089-1101.) (Michael Malcolm, George Naufal, “Are Pornography and Marriage Substitutes for Young Men?” The Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), November, 2014, http://www.iza.org/en/webcontent/publications/papers/viewAbstract?dp_id=8679)

“5 Ways Watching Porn Is Terrible For Your Romantic Relationships” “Two weeks ago I was invited to speak at Sex Week (there is such a thing on most campuses) at the University of Maryland. Amidst such talks as, ‘BDSM on a Budget,’ and, ‘Deconstructing Gender in Families and Relationships,’ there I was, speaking about the negative effects of pornography (watch a similar talk of mine here). At the end of my talk a young lady raised her hand and asked my opinion on the claim that porn can enhance romantic intimacy within a relationship. I, as you might have guessed, shared why I thought the claim false.” (Matt Fradd, “5 Ways Watching Porn is Terrible for your Romantic Relationships”, Life Site News, April 23, 2015, https://www.lifesitenews.com/blogs/5-ways-watching-porn-is-terrible-for-your-romantic-relationships)

“The fact is that many studies show that porn doesn’t compliment sexual intimacy with one’s partner, it competes with it. In this post, then, I’d like to suggest five ways—all of which are based on scientific data—in which porn is detrimental to a romantic relationship.” (Matt Fradd, “5 Ways Watching Porn is Terrible for your Romantic Relationships”, Life Site News, April 23, 2015, https://www.lifesitenews.com/blogs/5-ways-watching-porn-is-terrible-for-your-romanticrelationships)

“Skeptics may be quick to ask, ‘But do any of these studies show causation?’ That’s a fair question, but somewhat beside the point of this article. While most of these studies only show correlations between watching porn and problems in relationships, this should hardly matter to the porn consumer. No matter how you slice it, if porn makes you a bad lover, or if porn is just the symptom of being a bad lover, or if porn viewing and being a bad lover are both symptoms of the same problem, the verdict about porn is decisively

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

219

negative.” (Matt Fradd, “5 Ways Watching Porn is Terrible for your Romantic Relationships”, Life Site News, April 23, 2015, https://www.lifesitenews.com/blogs/5-ways-watching-porn-isterrible-for-your-romantic-relationships)

“People who watch porn have lower levels of sexual satisfaction with their partner” “Drs. Dolf Zillman and Jennings Bryant, in their now-famous porn experiments back in the 1980s, found the more video porn one watches, the more dissatisfied someone is with their partner’s physical appearance and sexual performance.” (Matt Fradd, “5 Ways Watching Porn is Terrible for your Romantic Relationships”, Life Site News, April 23, 2015, https://www.lifesitenews.com/blogs/5-ways-watching-porn-is-terrible-for-your-romanticrelationships)

“A study published in the Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy reports similar findings. After being exposed to centerfold models from Playboy or Penthouse, subjects had significantly lower judgments about the attractiveness of ‘average’ people.” (Matt Fradd, “5 Ways Watching Porn is Terrible for your Romantic Relationships”, Life Site News, April 23, 2015, https://www.lifesitenews.com/blogs/5-ways-watching-porn-is-terrible-for-your-romanticrelationships)

“People who watch porn have lower levels of relational commitment” “The Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology released the result of several studies about the impact of porn on relationships. In one experiment, half of a group gave up porn for three weeks, and the other half gave up their favorite food, but were allowed to watch porn. Interestingly, those who quit porn showed increased commitment to their romantic relationship at the end of the three weeks.” (Matt Fradd, “5 Ways Watching Porn is Terrible for your Romantic Relationships”, Life Site News, April 23, 2015, https://www.lifesitenews.com/blogs/5-ways-watching-porn-is-terrible-for-your-romanticrelationships)

“People who watch porn have higher levels of negative communication with their partner” “According to a study published in the Archives of Sexual Behavior, compared to those who watch porn alone or watch porn with their partner, those who don’t view any porn have lower levels of negative communication with their romantic partner.” (Matt Fradd, “5 Ways Watching Porn is Terrible for your Romantic Relationships”, Life Site News, April 23, 2015, https://www.lifesitenews.com/blogs/5-ways-watching-porn-is-terrible-for-your-romanticrelationships)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

220

“People who watch porn are more likely to cheat” “Some men have thought—or even said out loud to their partner—’At least I go to porn to get my needs met. I don’t sleep around.’ This hardly serves as a vote of confidence, does it? He’s essentially saying, ‘If I didn’t have the ability to get off to virtual women, who knows what I would do to real women?’ Hmmm, right. #StayClassyExBoyfriend” (Matt Fradd, “5 Ways Watching Porn is Terrible for your Romantic Relationships”, Life Site News, April 23, 2015, https://www.lifesitenews.com/blogs/5ways-watching-porn-is-terrible-for-your-romantic-relationships)

“In one study, for those who don’t watch any porn, their rate of infidelity is at least half of those who had watched porn either alone or with their partners.” (Matt Fradd, “5 Ways Watching Porn is Terrible for your Romantic Relationships”, Life Site News, April 23, 2015, https://www.lifesitenews.com/blogs/5-ways-watching-porn-is-terrible-for-yourromantic-relationships)

“Another study found, regardless of how satisfied one feels in their own relationship, watching porn heightens a person’s perceptions that ‘the grass is greener’ somewhere else, and they are more likely to flirt with others and cheat on their partner.” (Matt Fradd, “5 Ways Watching Porn is Terrible for your Romantic Relationships”, Life Site News, April 23, 2015, https://www.lifesitenews.com/blogs/5-ways-watching-porn-is-terrible-for-your-romanticrelationships)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

221

#15 LEARNING EXPERIENCES AND PORN “Pornography can offer all these elements—images, arousal, reinforcement, the example of others, and reward—so it is a potent teacher of both beliefs and behaviors. It provides the ideal conditions for learning.” (Mary Anne Layden, PhD, “Pornography and Violence: A New Look at Research,” Social Costs of Pornography, Accessed November 19, 2015, http://www.socialcostsofpornography.com/Layden_Pornography_and_Violence.pdf)

“Pornography is an ideal teacher of these releaser beliefs. It can teach specific sexual behaviors and general attitudes toward women and children, teach what relationships are like and teach the nature of sexuality, and thus give permission for a wide range of actions.” (Mary Anne Layden, PhD, “Pornography and Violence: A New Look at Research,” Social Costs of Pornography, Accessed November 19, 2015, http://www.socialcostsofpornography.com/Layden_Pornography_and_Violence.pdf)

“Pornography can teach what to do, with whom to do it, when and how often to do it, it’s okay to do it, and then stimulate the urge to do it now.” (Mary Anne Layden, PhD, “Pornography and Violence: A New Look at Research,” Social Costs of Pornography, Accessed November 19, 2015, http://www.socialcostsofpornography.com/Layden_Pornography_and_Violence.pdf)

“…messages of pornography teach beliefs and behaviors.” (Mary Anne Layden, PhD, “Pornography and Violence: A New Look at Research,” Social Costs of Pornography, Accessed November 19, 2015, http://www.socialcostsofpornography.com/Layden_Pornography_and_Violence.pdf)

“We also learn better when aroused.” (Mary Anne Layden, PhD, “Pornography and Violence: A New Look at Research,” Social Costs of Pornography, Accessed November 19, 2015, http://www.socialcostsofpornography.com/Layden_Pornography_and_Violence.pdf)

“…learning is better if it is reinforced.” (Mary Anne Layden, PhD, “Pornography and Violence: A New Look at Research,” Social Costs of Pornography, Accessed November 19, 2015, http://www.socialcostsofpornography.com/Layden_Pornography_and_Violence.pdf)

“Learning is also better if we see role models perform a behavior.” (Mary Anne Layden, PhD, “Pornography and Violence: A New Look at Research,” Social Costs of Pornography, Accessed November 19, 2015, http://www.socialcostsofpornography.com/Layden_Pornography_and_Violence.pdf)

“…we learn better when the learning is rewarded.” (Mary Anne Layden, PhD, “Pornography and Violence: A New Look at Research,” Social Costs of Pornography, Accessed November 19, 2015, http://www.socialcostsofpornography.com/Layden_Pornography_and_Violence.pdf)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

222

“Researchers Chyng Sun, Ana Bridges, Jennifer Johnson and Matt Ezzell explain in their abstract: ‘The more a user watches a particular media script, the more embedded those codes of behavior become in their worldview and the more likely they are to use those scripts to act upon real life experiences. We argue pornography creates a sexual script that then guides sexual experiences.’” (Lara Updike, “Research Confirms Pornography Harms”, Family Policy Institute, January 21, 2015, http://www.fpiw.org/blog/2015/01/21/research-confirms-pornographyharms/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

223

#16 CHILD SEX TRAFFICKING AND PORN “According to Dr. Janice Crouse, a researcher for Concerned Women for America, it is estimated that 600,000-800,000 women, men and children are trafficked internationally each year with another 2 to 4 million trafficked within countries. Women make up 80 percent of humans trafficked and 70 percent of these women are used for sexual purposes (e.g., prostitution). The U.S. government estimates that 14,500 – 17,500 people are trafficked into the U.S. each year.” “Boeringer (1994) found that men exposed to violent pornography were 6 times more likely to report rape behavior than a low-exposure sample, and Crossman (1995) found pornography use was the strongest correlate of sexual aggression. Furthermore, Cramer and McFarlane (1994) surveyed a sample of women who had been battered and found that: (a) 75 percent of the women had been shown pornography and sked or forced to perform similar sex acts; (b) 64 percent had had pornography described to them and sked or forced to perform similar sex acts; (c) 31 percent had been asked to participate in pornographic photographs; and (d) 81 percent had reported rape.” (Jill C. Manning, Ph.D., July 2008, “The Impact of Pornography on Women: Social Science Findings and Clinical Observation”, http://afaofpa.org/wp-content/uploads/The-Impact-ofPornography-on-Women.pdf)

“In the last few years, although pornography is becoming more endemic (or ‘normalized’) in society, we are finally hearing reports that show a connection between the production and usage of pornography and the explosion of commercial sex enterprises, like prostitution and sex trafficking. Covenant Eyes, a ministry offering accountability software for computers and mobile devices, has a few excellent articles on its website (covenanteyes.com) that show the link between pornography and sex trafficking. One article, “The Connections between Pornography and Sex Trafficking,” refers to a report that states, ‘Pornography is the primary gateway to the purchase of humans for commercial sex.’ In a compelling Newsweek article that describes how pornography usage increases men’s aggression and fuels the demand for commercial sex enterprises” (Nicholas Black, “Pornography and Injustice: The Social Impact of Sexual Sin”, Harvest USA, June 4, 2014, https://truthandmercy.wordpress.com/2014/06/04/pornography-and-injustice-the-social-impact-of-sexualsin/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

224

“Nowhere do we see more of the destructive and dehumanizing effects that pornography spawns than in prostitution and sex trafficking. The image of the happy hooker (Julia Robert’s Pretty Woman) is a Hollywood lie. The vast majority enter prostitution (and other commercial sex enterprises, like strip clubs, erotic massage, escort services, the production of porn movies, etc.) because of complex social, emotional, and economic reasons. Divorce, abandonment, abuse, drugs, mental illness and poverty have long been the broken social fabric that propels women into such activities. And sex trafficking is even more damaging, where through the use of manipulation or force a person (frequently a minor) is trafficked for sex, oftentimes kidnapped and transported for such acts far from their home environment.” (Nicholas Black, “Pornography and Injustice: The Social Impact of Sexual Sin”, Harvest USA, June 4, 2014, https://truthandmercy.wordpress.com/2014/06/04/pornography-and-injustice-the-social-impact-ofsexual-sin/)

“True, not everyone goes from viewing pornography to buying sex. But we must see the deeper connections that viewing pornography facilitates. Participating in the ‘business’ of just looking at pornography keeps the industry going. Whether the pornography is free, paid, professional or amateur, people are being used. As prostitution was once erroneously called ‘a victimless crime,’ pornography is equally not a victimless activity. Somewhere along the line, somewhere in the complex web of sexual distortions that pornography weaves among its viewers, the dignity of men and women made in the image of God is increasingly defaced. Viewing it, engaging in it, contributes to the entire ‘system’ of broken sexuality throughout the world. Those looking at porn are “served” through the oppression of many.” (Nicholas Black, “Pornography and Injustice: The Social Impact of Sexual Sin”, Harvest USA, June 4, 2014, https://truthandmercy.wordpress.com/2014/06/04/pornography-and-injustice-the-social-impact-ofsexual-sin/)

“Pornography's Relationship to Child Molestation” “In a study of convicted child molesters, 77 percent of those who molested boys and 87 percent of those who molested girls admitted to the habitual use of pornography in the commission of their crimes. (Take Action Manual (Washington, D.C.: Enough is Enough, 1995-96), 9.) Besides stimulating the perpetrator, pornography facilitates child molestation in several ways. For Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

225

example, pedophiles use pornographic photos to demonstrate to their victims what they want them to do. They also use them to arouse a child or to lower a child's inhibitions and communicate to the unsuspecting child that a particular sexual activity is okay: ‘This person is enjoying it; so will you.’” (Donna Rice Hughes, “How Pornography Harms Children”, Protect Kids, 2001, http://www.protectkids.com/effects/harms.htm)

“I’ve had this sick and disturbing fact confirmed by expert after expert. When I talked to Dr. Mary Anne Layden of the University of Pennsylvania, she explained to me that the sexual exploitation industries teach men something very simple: If you can buy something, you can steal it. And in ten years of working with sexual trauma victims, she’s discovered that pornography played a part in every single situation. Dr. Paul Jensen of the University of Texas told me that when he speaks to men, he just asks them a simple question: Does porn help you become the man you want to be? Men know instinctively, he says, that pornography does something dark and awful to them.” (Jonathon Van Maren, “Porn is fuelling a new, violent sexual ideology in our teens. It has to stop.”, Life Site News, April 28, 2015, https://www.lifesitenews.com/blogs/porn-is-fuellinga-new-violent-sexual-ideology-in-our-teens.-it-has-to-stop)

“And lastly, child pornography reports to Cyber Tipline, a congressionally mandated mechanism for monitoring child sexual exploitation, jumped from 3,267 tips in 1998 to 106,199 tips in 2004.” (Christopher Carmouche, “The Scope and Detrimental Effects of worldwide Pornography”, The World Congress of Families, June 2, 2010, http://worldcongress.org/wcfreg.spkrs/wcf.reg.uk.carmouche.htm)

“Moreover, FBI’s Joseph Campbell says ‘the level of pedophilia is unprecedented right now.’ A ‘surveyof high school graduates’ found 13.5% had sex with a teacher.” (Judith Gelernter Reisman and Mary E. McAlister, “‘The Exual Revolution’ Gave Us ‘The Rape Culture,’” Breitbart.com, January 1, 2016, http://www.breitbart.com/biggovernment/2016/01/01/the-sexual-revolution-gave-us-the-rape-culture/)

“The correlation (85%) between viewing child pornography and participating in actual sexual relations with children was demonstrated by Bourke and Hernandez.” (Bourke M, Hernandez A. The ‘Butner Study’ redux: A report of the incidence of hands-on child victimization by child pornography offenders. J Fam Violence. 2009;24:183– 91) (Donald L. Hilton and Clark Watts, “Pornography addiction: A neuroscience perspective,” NCBI, February 21, 2011, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3050060/)

“…normalness of porn…become embedded into our pop culture…” (“Men and Porn, An Introduction,” The Art of Manliness, October 6, 2014, http://www.artofmanliness.com/2014/10/06/men-and-porn-an-introduction/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

226

“…researchers have had trouble finding men who haven’t looked at internet porn to compare what their brains or lives are like compared to men who do look at porn.” (“Men and Porn, An Introduction,” The Art of Manliness, October 6, 2014, http://www.artofmanliness.com/2014/10/06/men-and-porn-an-introduction/)

“Pornography fuels sex slavery — real people held against their will and raped repeatedly — all over the world, even in the United States, even in your city or the major city near you.” (Marshall Segal, “Never Harmless, Never Private, Never Safe”, Desiring God.Org, October 26, 2016, http://www.desiringgod.org/articles/neverharmless-never-private-never-safe)

“…so called device-level filters – rather than blocking content at a network level. … in tackling child abuse imagery by collectively … with the IWF to block sites known to contain illegal abuse images.” (“Independent Parliamentary Inquiry into Online Child Protection”, Media March, May, 2012, http://www.mediamarch.org.uk/Images/final-report.pdf)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

227

#17 VIDEO GAMES AND PORN “PORN AND VIDEO GAME ADDICTS RISK ‘MASCULINITY CRISIS’, SAYS STANFORD PROFESSOR” “For those who think online video games and porn are passive online activities that have no real consequences in the real world, take heed.” (“Porn and video game addicts risk ‘masculinity crisis’, says Stanford Professor", RT Question More, May 10, 2015, https://www.rt.com/news/257269-porn-gaming-study-youth/)

“Phillip Zimbardo, 82, is a psychologist and a professor emeritus at Stanford University. He is perhaps best known for his 1971 experiment in which students were asked to play the roles of 'guards' and 'prisoners' in a mock prison. Intended to continue for two weeks, the experiment was aborted in less than a week as the initially normal 'guards' eventually became sadistic and the 'prisoners' became submissive and depressed. Zimbardo has also written introductory psychology books, textbooks for college students, and other notable works, including The Lucifer Effect and the The Time Cure. Zimbardo is the founder and president of the Heroic Imagination Project.” (“Porn and video game addicts risk ‘masculinity crisis’, says Stanford Professor", RT Question More, May 10, 2015, https://www.rt.com/news/257269-porn-gaming-study-youth/) “Psychologist Philip Zimbardo interviewed 20,000 young people in the United States, 75 percent of them male, and found that excessive, solitary playing of video games and watching porn is seriously damaging the social development of young men.” (“Porn and video game addicts risk ‘masculinity crisis’, says Stanford Professor", RT Question More, May 10, 2015, https://www.rt.com/news/257269-porn-gaming-study-youth/)

“‘Our focus is on young men who play video games to excess, and do it in social isolation - they are alone in their room,’ Zimbardo, who just released a book on the subject, entitled ’Man (Dis)Connected,’ told the BBC in an interview.” (“Porn and video game addicts risk ‘masculinity crisis’, says Stanford Professor", RT Question More, May 10, 2015, https://www.rt.com/news/257269-porngaming-study-youth/)

“‘Now, with freely available pornography - which is unique in history they are combining playing video games, and as a break, watching on average, two hours of pornography a week.’” (“Porn and video game

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

228

addicts risk ‘masculinity crisis’, says Stanford Professor", RT Question More, May 10, 2015, https://www.rt.com/news/257269-porn-gaming-study-youth/)

“Zimbardo says ’excessive’ use of video games and pornography is not necessarily a matter of specific time, but rather the psychological change in mindset that such isolated activities produce, where the individual begins to feel he’d rather be doing that particular activity than anything else.” (“Porn and video game addicts risk ‘masculinity crisis’, says Stanford Professor", RT Question More, May 10, 2015, https://www.rt.com/news/257269-porn-gamingstudy-youth/)

“‘When I'm in class, I'll wish I was playing World of Warcraft. When I'm with a girl, I'll wish I was watching pornography, because I'll never get rejected,’ he explained. The brains of young men are actually becoming ’digitally rewired’ by these new pastimes.” (“Porn and video game addicts risk ‘masculinity crisis’, says Stanford Professor", RT Question More, May 10, 2015, https://www.rt.com/news/257269-porn-gaming-study-youth/)

“Zimbardo says that one of the consequences is the so-called ’porninduced erectile dysfunction,’ or PIED, where young men who should be sexually active are ’having a problem getting an erection.’” (“Porn and video game addicts risk ‘masculinity crisis’, says Stanford Professor", RT Question More, May 10, 2015, https://www.rt.com/news/257269-porn-gaming-study-youth/)

“The same process that rewired those rats’ preferences—connecting the pleasure they felt during sex to the stench of death—is triggered in our brains by porn. Porn consumers may think they’re just being entertained, but their brains are busy at work building connections between their feelings of arousal and whatever’s happening on their screen. [8] And since consumers of porn typically become accustomed to the porn they’ve already seen and have to constantly move on to more extreme forms of pornography to get aroused, [9] the kind of porn consumed usually changes over time. [10] (See Porn is an Escalating Behavior.)” (Site accessed 8.2.17; Article updated May 4, 2017, http://fightthenewdrug.org/how-porn-affectsyour-sexual-tastes/) [8] Berridge, K. C., & Robinson, T. E. (2016). Liking, Wanting, And The IncentiveSensitization Theory Of Addiction. American Psychologist, 71(8), 670-679. Doi:10.1037/Amp0000059; Love, T., Laier, C., Brand, M., Hatch, L., & Hajela, R. (2015). Neuroscience Of Internet Pornography Addiction: A Review And Update, Behavioral Sciences, 5(3), 388-433. Doi: 10.3390/Bs5030388; Pace, S. (2014). Acquiring Tastes Through Online Activity: Neuroplasticity And The Flow Experiences Of Web Users. M/C Journal, 17(1). Retrieved From Http://Journal.Media-

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

229

Culture.Org.Au/Index.Php/Mcjournal/Article/View/773; Doidge, N. (2007). The Brain That Changes Itself. New York: Penguin Books (95). [9] Park, B. Y., Et Al. (2016). Is Internet Pornography Causing Sexual Dysfunctions? A Review With Clinical Reports. Behavioral Sciences, 6, 17. Doi:10.3390/Bs6030017; Negash, S., Van Ness Sheppard, N., Lambert, N. M., & Fincham, F. D. (2016). Trading Later Rewards For Current Pleasure: Pornography Consumption And Delay Discounting. The Journal Of Sex Research, 53(6), 698-700. Doi:10.1080/00224499.2015.1025123; Pitchers, K. K., Et Al. (2013). Natural And Drug Rewards Act On Common Neural Plasticity Mechanisms With DeltaFosB As A Key Mediator. Journal Of Neuroscience, 33(8), 3434-3442. Doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4881-12.2013; Layden, M. A. (2010). Pornography And Violence: A New Look At The Research. In J. Stoner And D. Hughes (Eds.) The Social Costs Of Pornography: A Collection Of Papers (Pp. 57–68). Princeton, NJ: Witherspoon Institute; Angres, D. H., & Bettinardi-Angres, K. (2008). The Disease Of Addiction: Origins, Treatment, And Recovery. Disease-AMonth, 54, 696–721. Doi:10.1016/J.Disamonth.2008.07.002; Doidge, N. (2007). The Brain That Changes Itself. (105) New York: Penguin Books; Paul, P. (2007). Paul, P. (2007). Pornified: How Pornography Is Transforming Our Lives, Our Relationships, And Our Families. (75) New York: Henry Hold And Co. [10] Park, B. Y., Et Al. (2016). Is Internet Pornography Causing Sexual Dysfunctions? A Review With Clinical Reports. Behavioral Sciences, 6, 17. Doi:10.3390/Bs6030017; Kalman, T.P. (2008). Clinical Encounters With Internet Pornography. Journal Of The American Academy Of Psychoanalysis And Dynamic Psychiatry, 36(4) 593-618. Doi:10.1521/Jaap.2008.36.4.593; Doidge, N. (2007). The Brain That Changes Itself. New York: Penguin Books, (109); Cline, V. B. (2001). Pornography’s Effect On Adults And Children. New York: Morality In Media; Zillmann, D. (2000). Influence Of Unrestrained Access To Erotica On Adolescents’ And Young Adults’ Dispositions Toward Sexuality. Journal Of Adolescent Health, 27, 2: 41–44. Retrieved From Https://Www.Ncbi.Nlm.Nih.Gov/Pubmed/10904205)

“Many porn consumers eventually find themselves getting aroused by things that used to disgust them or things that they might have previously considered to be inappropriate or unethical. [12] In many cases, porn consumers find their tastes so changed that they can no longer respond sexually to their actual partners, though they can still respond to porn.” [13] (Site accessed 8.2.17; Article updated May 4, 2017, http://fightthenewdrug.org/how-porn-affects-your-sexual-tastes/) [12] Wery, A. & Billieux, J. (2016). Online Sexual Activities: An Exploratory Study Of Problematic And Non-Problematic Usage Patterns In A Sample Of Men. Computers In Human Behavior 56, 257-266. Doi:10.1016/J.Chb.2015.11.046; Park, B. Y., Et Al. (2016). Is Internet Pornography Causing Sexual Dysfunctions? A Review With Clinical Reports. Behavioral Sciences, 6, 17. Doi:10.3390/Bs6030017; Paul, P. (2010). From Pornography To Porno To Porn: How Porn Became The Norm. In J. Stoner And D. Hughes (Eds.) The Social Costs Of Pornography: A Collection Of Papers (Pp. 3–20). Princeton, N.J.: Witherspoon Institute. [13] Park, B. Y., Et Al. (2016). Is Internet Pornography Causing Sexual Dysfunctions? A Review With Clinical Reports. Behavioral Sciences, 6, 17. Doi:10.3390/Bs6030017; Voon, V., Et Al. (2014). Neural Correlates Of Sexual Cue Reactivity In Individuals With And Without Compulsive Sexual Behaviors, PLoS ONE, 9(7), E102419. Doi:10.1371/Journal.Pone.0102419; Hall, P. (2013). Sex Addiction—An Extraordinarily Contentious Problem. Sexual And Relationship Therapy, 29(1) 68-75. Doi:10.1080/14681994.2013.861898; Sun, C., Bridges, A., Johnason, J., & Ezzell, M. (2014) Pornography And The Male Sexua Script: An Analysis Of Consumption And Sexual Relations. Archives Of Sexual

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

230

Behavior. 45, 1-12. Doi:10.1007/S10508-014-0391-2. Doidge, N. (2007). The Brain That Changes Itself. New York: Penguin Books. (130).

“‘You have this paradox - they're watching exciting videos that should be turning them on, and they can't get turned on.’” (“Porn and video game addicts risk ‘masculinity crisis’, says Stanford Professor", RT Question More, May 10, 2015, https://www.rt.com/news/257269-porn-gaming-study-youth/)

“While playing video games and watching pornography are not necessarily bad activities, they can begin to have a negative effect on the social development of individuals if used in excess, the psychologist said.” (“Porn and video game addicts risk ‘masculinity crisis’, says Stanford Professor", RT Question More, May 10, 2015, https://www.rt.com/news/257269-porn-gamingstudy-youth/)

“‘We need to set standards of excellence, and be aware that there is a problem in the first place,’ Zimbardo said.” (“Porn and video game addicts risk ‘masculinity crisis’, says Stanford Professor", RT Question More, May 10, 2015, https://www.rt.com/news/257269-porn-gaming-study-youth/)

Porn Videos “The pornographers use a variety of methods to make female performers look much younger than 18. In place of the usually large-breasted, heavily made-up women that populate much of Internet porn, teen porn sites are filled with young-looking females with petite bodies, small breasts, makeupfree faces with hair in braids or pony tails, surrounded by such childhood props as stuffed animals, bed sheets with flowers, and backpacks with cartoon-character motifs. It is not uncommon for the females to wear school uniforms, have braces on their teeth, and knee-high socks as they engage in hardcore sex.” (Gail Dines, David Levey, “A Rare Defeat for Corporate Lobbyists”, Counter Punch, August 1, 2013, http://www.counterpunch.org/2013/08/01/a-rare-defeat-for-corporate-lobbyists/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

231

#18 HARMFUL “…a mass phenomenon that influences our society.” (Simone Kühn, PhD; Jürgen Gallinat, PhD, “Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity Associated with Pornography Consumption,” JAMA Psychiatry. 2014;71(7):827-834, http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1874574)

“The frequency of pornography consumption has been shown to predict various negative outcome measures in humans.” (Simone Kühn, PhD; Jürgen Gallinat, PhD, “Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity Associated with Pornography Consumption,” JAMA Psychiatry. 2014;71(7):827-834, http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1874574)

“…pornography has an impact on the behavior and social cognition of its consumers.” (Simone Kühn, PhD; Jürgen Gallinat, PhD, “Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity Associated with Pornography Consumption,” JAMA Psychiatry. 2014;71(7):827-834, http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1874574)

“…a research team in the Netherlands studied the relationship between adolescents looking at pornography and whether they believed women were objects, instead of people. They found that the more boys and girls viewed pornography, the more they believed that females are sex objects.” (Peter, J., & Valkenburg, P. M. (2007). Adolescents’ exposure to a sexualized media environment and notions of women as sex objects. Sex Roles, 56, 381–395.) (Peter, J., & Valkenburg, P. M. (2009). Adolescents’ exposure to sexually explicit Internet material and notions of women as sex objects: Assessing causality and underlying processes. Journal of Communication, 59, 407–433. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2009.01422.x) (John D. Foubert, “How Pornography Harms”, John Foubert.com, April 2016, http://www.johnfoubert.com/how-pornharms)

“A longitudinal study following Internet users has found that accessing pornography online was predictive of compulsive computer use after 1 year.” (Meerkerk G-J, Van Den Eijnden RJ, Garretsen HFL. Predicting compulsive Internet use: it’s all about sex! Cyberpsychol Behav. 2006;9(1):95-103) (Simone Kühn, PhD; Jürgen Gallinat, PhD, “Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity Associated with Pornography Consumption,” JAMA Psychiatry. 2014;71(7):827-834, http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1874574)

“…because men are exposed to pornography at a younger age, consume more pornography, and are more likely to encounter problems compared with women.” (Hald GM. Gender differences in pornography consumption among young heterosexual Danish adults. Arch Sex Behav. 2006;35(5):577-585. RossMW, Månsson S-A, Daneback K. Prevalence, severity, and correlates of problematic sexual Internet use in Swedish men and women. Arch Sex Behav. 2012;41(2):459-466) (Simone Kühn, PhD; Jürgen Gallinat, PhD, “Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity Associated with Pornography Consumption,” JAMA Psychiatry. 2014;71(7):827834, http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1874574)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

232

“Researchers Chyng Sun, Ana Bridges, Jennifer Johnson and Matt Ezzell explain in their abstract: ‘The more a user watches a particular media script, the more embedded those codes of behavior become in their worldview and the more likely they are to use those scripts to act upon real life experiences. We argue pornography creates a sexual script that then guides sexual experiences.’” (Lara Updike, “Research Confirms Pornography Harms”, Family Policy Institute, January 21, 2015, http://www.fpiw.org/blog/2015/01/21/research-confirms-pornographyharms/)

“Exposure to Pornography Frequently Results in Sexual Illnesses, Unplanned Pregnancies, and Sexual Addiction” “As more and more children are exposed not only to soft-core pornography, but also to explicit deviant sexual material, they are learning an extremely dangerous message from pornographers: Sex without responsibility is acceptable and desirable. Because pornography encourages sexual expression without responsibility, it endangers children's health.” (Donna Rice Hughes, “How Pornography Harms Children”, Protect Kids, 2001, http://www.protectkids.com/effects/harms.htm)

“5 Ways Pornography Devastates Lives” “Our culture is inundated with pornography.” (Meredith Curtis, “5 Ways Pornography Devastates Lives”, Charisma News, June 23, 2015, http://www.charismanews.com/opinion/50198-5ways-pornography-devastates-lives)

“Seventy-five years ago it was magazines with one nude centerfold. The magazines looked like the undergarment ads in the Sunday paper of today. Nowadays, it's photos, videos, blogs, gifs and more.” (Meredith Curtis, “5 Ways Pornography Devastates Lives”, Charisma News, June 23, 2015, http://www.charismanews.com/opinion/50198-5-ways-pornography-devastates-lives)

“So, was pornography OK in the past? Has the definition of pornography changed?” (Meredith Curtis, “5 Ways Pornography Devastates Lives”, Charisma News, June 23, 2015, http://www.charismanews.com/opinion/50198-5-wayspornography-devastates-lives)

“Pornography has always been evil. Whether it is just suggestive pictures of women in their underwear, or a graphic video, pornography stirs up lust in the viewer. That is its purpose. Pornography is addictive.” (Meredith Curtis, “5 Ways Pornography Devastates Lives”, Charisma News, June 23, 2015, http://www.charismanews.com/opinion/50198-5-wayspornography-devastates-lives)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

233

“God has a beautiful plan for nudity and sex—between a husband and wife. Sex outside marriage is sin and so is lust. God commands women to dress modestly so that they will not stir up lust in the men around them.” (Meredith Curtis, “5 Ways Pornography Devastates Lives”, Charisma News, June 23, 2015, http://www.charismanews.com/opinion/50198-5-ways-pornography-devastateslives)

“In contrast, we are surrounded with so much pornography that we do not even realize it as pornography. We watch opening scenes of favorite shows that show women dressed immodestly and pole dancing. Popular movies show nudity and sex scenes without shame. Does all of this harm us?” (Meredith Curtis, “5 Ways Pornography Devastates Lives”, Charisma News, June 23, 2015, http://www.charismanews.com/opinion/50198-5-wayspornography-devastates-lives)

“Yes, it does. Pornography harms its viewers, but it also harms our culture as well.” (Meredith Curtis, “5 Ways Pornography Devastates Lives”, Charisma News, June 23, 2015, http://www.charismanews.com/opinion/50198-5-ways-pornographydevastates-lives)

“Sex Is Removed from Love and Commitment” “Our Creator designed sex as an expression of love inside a committed relationship. Instead of desire stirring up toward his wife, a man is aroused by watching a girl he doesn't know. Sex is no longer something sacred and beautiful.” (Meredith Curtis, “5 Ways Pornography Devastates Lives”, Charisma News, June 23, 2015, http://www.charismanews.com/opinion/50198-5-ways-pornography-devastates-lives)

“God's plan involves a man cherishing and providing for his wife, not just having sex with her. He must put forth effort to win her heart and work hard to provide for his family. Pornography requires no effort or work.” (Meredith Curtis, “5 Ways Pornography Devastates Lives”, Charisma News, June 23, 2015, http://www.charismanews.com/opinion/50198-5-ways-pornography-devastates-lives)

“Women Lose Their Value” “Women Try to Be Pornography” “As women lose their value in our culture, the only way young girls believe they can get attention from boys is to be pornography. As a Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

234

result, young girls and older ladies wear skimpy, tight clothing designed to stir up lust in guys. However, God's word mentions modesty and propriety.” (Meredith Curtis, “5 Ways Pornography Devastates Lives”, Charisma News, June 23, 2015, http://www.charismanews.com/opinion/50198-5-wayspornography-devastates-lives)

“‘In like manner also, that women clothe themselves in modest clothing, with decency and self-control, not with braided hair, gold, pearls, or expensive clothing (1 Tim. 2:9).’” (Meredith Curtis, “5 Ways Pornography Devastates Lives”, Charisma News, June 23, 2015, http://www.charismanews.com/opinion/50198-5-ways-pornography-devastates-lives)

“Pornography Is Addiction” “Once you start looking at pornography, it is hard to stop because pornography is addictive. Like drugs, pornography gives temporary pleasure and, for many, freedom from the pain of their dismal life. Unfortunately, as all addicts know, it eventually takes more and more to achieve the same effect.” (Meredith Curtis, “5 Ways Pornography Devastates Lives”, Charisma News, June 23, 2015, http://www.charismanews.com/opinion/50198-5-wayspornography-devastates-lives)

“Ask anyone who is trying to stop indulging in pornography and he/she will tell you of his/her struggles. It seems that there is a force that tries to keep someone involved in this addiction. Well, that's because there is. Often times, pornography opens the addict up to demonic influence. Then, it is beyond just a matter of resisting temptation to a matter of fighting spiritual darkness too.” (Meredith Curtis, “5 Ways Pornography Devastates Lives”, Charisma News, June 23, 2015, http://www.charismanews.com/opinion/50198-5-ways-pornography-devastates-lives)

“Pornography Changes You” “Pornography is evil and the evil eventually resides in the watcher. A pornography viewer eventually becomes a different person.” (Meredith Curtis, “5 Ways Pornography Devastates Lives”, Charisma News, June 23, 2015, http://www.charismanews.com/opinion/50198-5-ways-pornography-devastates-lives)

“I have a friend who, after a long struggle, is finally free from pornography. Do you know what I noticed right away? He is so much nicer, more pleasant to be around. He cares more about other people and treats them with kindness. When he was addicted to

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

235

pornography, he was so selfish and mean. Was pornography the cause of his mean personality? I believe so. Freedom definitely brought a personality change; back to the person we used to know.” (Meredith Curtis, “5 Ways Pornography Devastates Lives”, Charisma News, June 23, 2015, http://www.charismanews.com/opinion/50198-5-ways-pornography-devastates-lives)

“Pornography stirs up selfishness, anger and all kinds of evil desires. Pornography addicts don't even realize the darkness that fills their life. If you are addicted to pornography, you may be keeping it a secret vice, but others notice the change in your personality.” (Meredith Curtis, “5 Ways Pornography Devastates Lives”, Charisma News, June 23, 2015, http://www.charismanews.com/opinion/50198-5-ways-pornography-devastates-lives)

“Good News About Pornography Addiction” “You can live free from pornography!” (Meredith Curtis, “5 Ways Pornography Devastates Lives”, Charisma News, June 23, 2015, http://www.charismanews.com/opinion/50198-5-ways-pornography-devastates-lives)

“Pornography is harmful to everyone. “Eighteen separate studies have shown pornography desensitizes all viewers, and may lead to extremely violent behavior.” (“Pornography: one of the greatest enemies of the family today,” These Last Days Ministries, April 2, 2012, http://www.tldm.org/News6/purity2.htm)

“Results from such research suggest a wide range of negative outcomes for individuals who frequently view online pornography, including depression, isolation and damaged relationships.” (Schneider, J. P. (2000). A qualitative study of cybersex participants: Gender differences, recovery issues, and implications for therapists. Sexual Addiction and Compulsivity, 7, 249–278) (Twohig, M. P., Crosby, J. M., & Cox, J. M. (2009). Viewing Internet pornography: For whom is it problematic, how, and why. Sexual Addiction and Compulsivity, 16, 253-266) (Patrick M. Markey, Charlotte N. Markey, “Online Pornography Seeking Behaviors,” accessed March 17, 2016, http://interpersonalresearch.weebly.com/uploads/1/0/4/0/10405979/online_pornography_seeking_behavio rs_-_markey__markey_4-11-11.pdf)

“Why is pornography so dangerous?” “While some people feel there is nothing wrong with pornography, evidence shows that there can be very real and dangerous effects on both individuals and society as a whole. Research indicates that pornography can be extremely addictive. Pornography conditions a person to respond Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

236

emotionally and sexually to a self-centered, artificial world. Many online relationships are similar to pornography in that they are not based in reality: what individuals ‘read and see about people, relationships, and sex is distorted.’” (“Safety Net – Resources to Protect Your Family from Pornography,” Healthy Sandy Partnership, www.healthysandy.org/fileadmin/downloads/healthy_sandy/Ecclesiastical_Packet.pdf)

“Research demonstrates that repeated exposure to pornography results in…” “Men who view pornography rate their partners as less attractive and they are less satisfied with their partner’s sexual performance.” (“Pornography: A Public Health Crisis”, National Center on Sexual Exploitation, July 14, 2015, http://shop.endsexualexploitation.org/collections/frontpage/products/pornography-a-public-health-crisishow-porn-fuels-sex-trafficking-child-exploitation-sexual-violence-booklet-and-freedownload?variant=8300519939)

“Today's porn users are regularly diagnosed with – and prescribed medication for – social anxiety, low self-esteem, concentration problems, lack of motivation, depression, performance anxiety (even when they also can't achieve an erection or climax on their own – unless they use porn), and so forth.” (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, p35) “‘We're being flooded by an immense amount of very hard-core pornography, and it's a question [what effect it has],’ Plaud said. ‘I think it may have very large implications in the future.’” (Tia Ghose, “5 Ways Porn Affects the Brain”, Live Science, October 13, 2015, http://www.livescience.com/52469-how-porn-affects-brains.html)

“Concentration problems” (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/howpornography-addiction-affects-the-teenage-brain-infographic/)

“Low motivation” (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/how-pornographyaddiction-affects-the-teenage-brain-infographic/)

“Depression” (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/how-pornography-addictionaffects-the-teenage-brain-infographic/)

“Social Anxiety” (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/how-pornographyaddiction-affects-the-teenage-brain-infographic/)

“Negative self-perceptions in terms of physical appearance and sexual functioning.” (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

237

Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/howpornography-addiction-affects-the-teenage-brain-infographic/)

“Erectile dysfunction (“How Pornography Addiction Affects the Teenage Brain – Infographic”, Help Your Teen Now, September 25, 2014, http://helpyourteennow.com/howpornography-addiction-affects-the-teenage-brain-infographic/) “Inability to control use and use that interferes with one's life are two cardinal signs of addiction. Priorities have shifted due to changes in the brain that we'll look at later. In effect, life's natural rewards, such as friendship, exercise and accomplishment, can no longer compete. Your brain now believes that IT – in this case internet porn use – is an important goal, and equates it with your survival.” (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, p39)

“Existing studies do find that frequency of porn viewing correlates with…” “Depression” (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, p34) “Anxiety” (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, p34) “Stress” (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, p34) “Social (mal)functioning” (Michael E. Levin, Jason Lillis, Steven C. Hayes, "When is Online Pornography Viewing Problematic Among College Males? Examining the Moderating Role of Experiential Avoidance," Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity 19/3 (2012): 168-180, doi: 10.1080/10720162.2012.657150.) (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, p34)

“Less sexual and relationship satisfaction”

(Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,”

Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, p34)

“Altered sexual tastes” (E.M. Morgan, "Associations between young adults' use of sexually explicit materials and their sexual preferences, behaviors, and satisfaction," J Sex Res 48/6 (2011): 520-530, doi: 10.1080/00224499.2010.543960) (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, p34)

“Poorer quality of life and health” (J.B. Weaver 3rd, et. al., " Mental- and physicalhealth indicators and sexually explicit media use behavior by adults," J Sex Med. 8/3 (2011): 76472, doi: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.02030.x) (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, p34)

“Real life intimacy problems” (Andreas G. Philaretou, Ahmed Y. Mahfouz, Katherine R. Allen, "Use of internet pornography and men's wellbeing," Men's Studies Press 4/2 (2005):

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

238

149-169, doi 10.3149/jmh.0402.149) (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, p34)

“… destructive consequences of porn use:” (“Top Pornography FAQ’s – What About Pornography”, Moral Revolution, Accessed November 13, 2015, http://moralrevolution.com/pornographyfaqs/)

“Within a couple’s intimate relationship, pornography can have negative impacts in the following ways:” “User faces difficulty becoming sexually aroused without pornography.” (“Top Pornography FAQ’s – What About Pornography”, Moral Revolution, Accessed November 13, 2015, http://moralrevolution.com/pornography-faqs/)

“User loses interest and engages in fewer sexual experiences with partner.” (“Top Pornography FAQ’s – What About Pornography”, Moral Revolution, Accessed November 13, 2015, http://moralrevolution.com/pornography-faqs/)

“Partner may view pornography use as infidelity and a betrayal to the relationship.” (“Top Pornography FAQ’s – What About Pornography”, Moral Revolution, Accessed November 13, 2015, http://moralrevolution.com/pornography-faqs/)

“Partner feels sexually inadequate and threatened by pornography use.” (“Top Pornography FAQ’s – What About Pornography”, Moral Revolution, Accessed November 13, 2015, http://moralrevolution.com/pornography-faqs/)

“Partner may feel that certain sexual activities desired by user are objectionable.” (“Top Pornography FAQ’s – What About Pornography”, Moral Revolution, Accessed November 13, 2015, http://moralrevolution.com/pornography-faqs/)

“Both user and partner experience a decrease in relationship sexual satisfaction and emotional closeness.” (“Top Pornography FAQ’s – What About Pornography”, Moral Revolution, Accessed November 13, 2015, http://moralrevolution.com/pornography-faqs/)

“Relationship trust decreases due to dishonesty and deception about pornography use.” (“Top Pornography FAQ’s – What About Pornography”, Moral Revolution, Accessed November 13, 2015, http://moralrevolution.com/pornography-faqs/)

One or both partners may be concerned about children’s exposure to pornographic materials.” (“Top Pornography FAQ’s – What About Pornography”, Moral Revolution, Accessed November 13, 2015, http://moralrevolution.com/pornography-faqs/)

“… they cause you to bond to whatever you orgasm to.” (“Top Pornography FAQ’s – What About Pornography”, Moral Revolution, Accessed November 13, 2015, http://moralrevolution.com/pornography-faqs/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

239

“The crimes that are connected to these Permission-Giving Beliefs which are spread in pornography are not just incest and child rape. They are adult rape, sexual harassment, adult and child prostitution, adult and child sex trafficking and domestic violence combined with sexual assault. All of these connections with pornography have been found in both clinical experience and in research.” (Dr. Mary Anne Layden, “Pornography and Crime, Reporting the presence of pornography connected to crime”, American Family Association of Kansas & Missouri, February, 2013, http://afa-ksmo.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/ML-Legislative-Testimony.Kansas.2.2013.pdf)

“My own research indicates that the earlier young males are exposed to pornography the more likely they are to engage in non-consensual sex and the more pornography females use the more likely they are to be victims of non-consensual sex. Pornography is an equal opportunity toxin for both males and females.” (Dr. Mary Anne Layden, “Pornography and Crime, Reporting the presence of pornography connected to crime”, American Family Association of Kansas & Missouri, February, 2013, http://afa-ksmo.net/wpcontent/uploads/2013/02/ML-Legislative-Testimony.Kansas.2.2013.pdf)

“What we're saying here is that an event which lasts half a second within five to ten minutes has produced a structural change that is in some ways as profound as the structural changes one sees in [brain] damage.” (Neuroscientist, Dr. Gary Lynch, University of California at Irvine, discussing the brain's processing of sensory communication. In, the award winning program series The Brain: Learning and Memory, The Annenberg/CPB Collection, WNET, 1984) (Judith A. Reisman, PhD, DRAFT - “The Psychopharmacology of Pornography: A Clear & Present Danger”, The Institute for Media Education, January 2000)

“Thus what has been free will increasingly move to being pay per view. And a single company is apparently moving to establish a monopoly on free pornography, in a seeming attempt to increase advertising rates on pornography sites – all for a profit that would make Bill Gates envious.” (John D. Foubert, “How Pornography Harms”, John Foubert.com, April 2016, http://www.johnfoubert.com/how-porn-harms)

Porn is about sex without human dignity—today, perversity knows no bounds when it comes to pornography.” “People who watch porn have consistently lower views of women” “In the Zillman-Bryant experiments, those who watched more porn showed a radical decrease in support of women’s rights, compared to a control group. Those who watched more porn were also more likely to believe that real women in society should fit the stereotypes of the women they see in porn.” (Matt Fradd, “5 Ways Watching Porn is Terrible for your

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

240

Romantic Relationships”, Life Site News, April 23, 2015, https://www.lifesitenews.com/blogs/5-wayswatching-porn-is-terrible-for-your-romantic-relationships)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

241

“What Does Porn Do To Us?...An Infographic…. – (Walt Mueller, CPYU, August 18, 2015, “What Does Porn Do To Us?...An Infographic…”, https://cpyu.org/2015/08/18/what-does-porn-doto-us-an-infographic/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

242

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

243

#19 CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR AND PORN “‘Finding the Criminal Who Fits the Crime,’ about the work of retired NYPD detective Ray Pierce that appeared in the New York Times (3/29/00). According to the Times article, Raymond Pierce founded the NYPD's Criminal Assessment and Profiling Unit and was trained in psychological profiling by the FBI.” (Robert Peters, “The Link Between Pornography and Violent Sex Crimes”, Free Republic, September 16, 2004, http:// http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/1218097/posts)

“Example: Ted Bundy killed as many as 75 women.” “Here are a few excerpts from the Dobson-Bundy interview – “I led a normal life except for this one small but very potent and very destructive segment of it that I kept very secret, very close to myself…I’ve met a lot of men who were motivated to commit violence just like me; without exception every single one of them was deeply involved in pornography, deeply influenced and consumed by an addiction to pornography…It reached out and snatched me 20 or 30 years ago…Certain feelings and ideas developed in me to the point where I began to act out on them; certain very violent and very destructive feelings.” (Nate Herbst, “Beating Pronography”, Sermon Central, February 4, 2009, http://www.sermoncentral.com/sermons/beating-pornography-nate-herbst-sermon-onpornography-131769?page=1)

“Since I was aware of an FBI study of 36 serial killers conducted in the 1980s, which revealed that 29 of these killers were attracted to pornography and incorporated it into their criminal sexual activity, including serial rape-murder…” (Robert Peters, “The Link Between Pornography and Violent Sex Crimes”, Free Republic, September 16, 2004, http:// http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/1218097/posts)

“…the perpetrator was a user of pornography? I've investigated somewhere between 750 and a thousand cases, but was I looking for it all the time? No, I wasn't. But my estimation would be that pornography is expected by the police in those cases. It's expected that they [the suspects] read pornographic literature and magazines. Anywhere between 60 and 80 percent of the cases, if I were looking for it, I would have found it. But realistically, well over 80 percent.” (Robert Peters, “The Link Between Pornography and Violent Sex Crimes”, Free Republic, September 16, 2004, http:// http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/1218097/posts)

“…observed a frequent connection between pornography (including stripping) and sexual crimes…” (Robert Peters, “The Link Between Pornography and Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

244

Violent Sex Crimes”, Free Public, March, 20014, http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/1218097/posts)

“For this paper, Zillman and Bryant’s (1984 and 1988) work is used to give a general overview of the kinds of effects with which pornography has been associated and those that have fueled debate. Zillman and Bryant found the effects of repeated exposure to standard, nonviolent, and commonly available pornography included:” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Pornography and Criminal Behavior and Attitudes Research Results” “Using simple logistic regression, they find that pornography users are less likely to attend church, more likely to involve themselves in other deviant sexual behavior such as adultery and prostitution, and less likely to be involved in self-described happy marriages. By contrast, Kendall (2007) uses state-level variation in availability of the Internet in its formative years to argue that accessibility of pornography via the Internet is associated with a decline in the incidence of rape.” (The effect is particularly strong for teenagers, who cannot easily access non web-based pornography) (Kendall, Todd D. (2007). Pornography, Rape and the Internet. Online. http://obu-investigators.com/xuk/porn/clemson/kendall.pdf) (Michael Malcolm, George Naufal, “Are Pornography and Marriage Substitutes for Young Men? IZA Discussion Paper No. 8679, November 2014, http://ftp.iza.org/dp8679.pdf)

“Pornography increases crime in dangerous offenders. More than 65 studies have shown that dangerous offenders (child molesters, killers, rapists, incest fathers) are not only more likely to commit their crimes if they employ pornography, they are likely to precede their violent acts with the extended use of deviant materials. Male sex offenders soon begin to display addictive and compulsive behavior when using porn. Their mechanisms for relieving stress soon all become related to deviant sex. They offend more and more often.” (“Pornography: one of the greatest enemies of the family today,” These Last Days Ministries, April 2, 2012, http://www.tldm.org/News6/purity2.htm)

“Sceptics sometimes claim that people who experiment with quitting must be motivated by religious reasons. Yet all of the forums named above are secular. The largest of these new forums, and likely youngest in terms of average age, conducted a self-poll a couple of years ago. Only 7% had joined for religious reasons.” (NoFap Survey, www.reddit.com/r/NoFap, March, 2014,

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

245

https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B7q3tr4EV02wbkpTTVk4R2VGbm8/edit?pli=1) (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, p33)

Results of Recovery “But many users see a wide range of diverse improvements. For example, this ex-user wrote:” (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, p37)

“Improvements since quitting:” (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, p37)

“Social anxiety improved drastically – includes confidence, eye contact, comfort interacting, smoothness, etc.” (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, p37)

“More energy in general” (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, p37)

“Clearer, sharper mind, more concentration” (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, p37)

“More vibrant looking face” (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, p37)

“Depression alleviated” (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, p37)

C757 “Desire to interact with women” (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, p37)

C758 “Boners are back!!” (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, p37)

“FBI findings. The Federal Bureau of Investigation found that eighty percent (29 of 36) of recent mass murderers used pornography extensively and used it as an integral part of their murderous sexual activity, which often included serial rape-murders.” (“Pornography: one of the greatest enemies of the family today”, April 2, 2012, http://www.tldm.org/News6/purity2.htm)

“Other researchers have confirmed that 64 percent of all homosexual child molesters and 86 percent of all rapists used pornography at or immediately before the time of their crimes.” Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

246

(“Pornography: one of the greatest enemies of the family today”, April 2, 2012, http://www.tldm.org/News6/purity2.htm)

“Depending on the level of graphic, hardcore porn the addict has viewed in order to spiral to the acting out level, some escalate to the deviant sexual behaviors and perversions of rape, child molestation, incest and even murder. Pornography could be considered a gateway drug to severe criminal behaviors.” (Susan Knight, The Five Stages of Pornography Addiction”, News OK, April 6, 2016, http://newsok.com/article/5407775)

“In Ted Bundy’s final interview on the day of his execution, James Dobson uncovered the knowledge that the impetus of this serial killer’s criminal rampage began with an addiction to pornography which escalated to acting out.” (Susan Knight, The Five Stages of Pornography Addiction”, News OK, April 6, 2016, http://newsok.com/article/5407775)

“Ted Bundy. Ted Bundy, an infamous serial killer responsible for the murder of as many as 36 to 50 young women and girls, granted an interview with Dr. James Dobson on January 24, 1988, the day before he was executed. Ted Bundy stated in this interview, ‘In the beginning, it [pornography] fuels this kind of thought process ... Like an addiction, you keep craving something that is harder, harder, something which gives you a greater sense of excitement--until you reach a point where the pornography only goes so far, you reach that jumping-off point where you begin to wonder if maybe actually doing it would give you that which is beyond just reading or looking at it.’” (“Pornography: one of the greatest enemies of the family today”, April 2, 2012, http://www.tldm.org/News6/purity2.htm)

“FBI findings. The Federal Bureau of Investigation found that eighty percent (29 of 36) of recent mass murderers used pornography extensively and used it as an integral part of their murderous sexual activity, which often included serial rape-murders.” (“Pornography: one of the greatest enemies of the family today”, April 2, 2012, http://www.tldm.org/News6/purity2.htm)

“Other researchers have confirmed that 64 percent of all homosexual child molesters and 86 percent of all rapists used pornography at or immediately before the time of their crimes.” (“Pornography: one of the greatest enemies of the family today”, April 2, 2012, http://www.tldm.org/News6/purity2.htm)

“FBI findings. The Federal Bureau of Investigation found that eighty percent (29 of 36) of recent mass murderers used pornography

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

247

extensively and used it as an integral part of their murderous sexual activity, which often included serial rape-murders.” (“Pornography: one of the greatest enemies of the family today”, April 2, 2012, http://www.tldm.org/News6/purity2.htm)

“Other researchers have confirmed that 64 percent of all homosexual child molesters and 86 percent of all rapists used pornography at or immediately before the time of their crimes.” (“Pornography: one of the greatest enemies of the family today”, April 2, 2012, http://www.tldm.org/News6/purity2.htm)

“‘The relationship between particularly sexually violent images in the media and subsequent aggression...is much stronger statistically than the relationship between smoking and lung cancer.’ Researcher Edward Donnerstein” (Chuck Derry, “The Sexualization of Harm in Contemporary Pornography”, Men as Peacemakers, July 17, 2009, http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:cgpdxrzlfMJ:www.menaspeacemakers.org/s/The-Sexualization-of-Harm-in-Contemporary-Pornography-7-1709.doc+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us)

“Further, many years before the creation of the Internet, J. Edgar Hoover, former director of the FBI, described pornography’s influence on sex crimes: “What we do know is that an overwhelmingly large number of cases of sex crimes is associated with pornography. We know that sex criminals read it and are clearly influenced by it … I believe pornography is a major source of sex violence…” (Kenneth Artz and Peter J. Smyczek, “Sexual Assaults in the Military: Porn is Part of the Problem”, Public Discourse, June 14, 2013, http://www.thepublicdiscourse.com/2013/06/10360/)

“The frequency of pornography consumption has been shown to predict various negative outcome measures in humans. A representative Swedish study on adolescent boys has shown that boys with daily consumption showed more interest in deviant and illegal types of pornography and more frequently reported the wish to actualize what was seen in real life.” (Gunter B. Media Sex: What Are the Issues? London, United Kingdom: Routledge; 2001.; Svedin CG, Åkerman I, Priebe G. Frequent users of pornography: a population based epidemiological study of Swedish male adolescents. J Adolesc. 2011; 34(4):779-788.; Fattore L, Melis M, Fadda P, Pistis M, FrattaW. The endocannabinoid system and nondrug rewarding behaviours. Exp Neurol. 2010;224(1):23-36.; Müller CP, Schumann G. To use or not to use: expanding the view on non-addictive psychoactive drug consumption and its implications. Behav Brain Sci. 2011;34(6):328-347.) (Simone Kuhn, Jurgen Gallinat, “Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity Associated with Pornography Consumption”, JAMA Psychiatry, Volume 71, Number 7, July, 2014, http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1874574)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

248

“…pornography has an impact on the behavior and social cognition of its consumers.” (Simone Kuhn, Jurgen Gallinat, “Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity Associated with Pornography Consumption”, JAMA Psychiatry, Volume 71, Number 7, July, 2014, http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1874574)

“Porn users are 400% more likely to visit a prostitute.” (The Daily Reporter, November 7, 2011)

“Those who view more porn are more likely to trivialize sex crimes, such as rape.” (Luke Gilkerson, “When Your Child is Looking at Porn”, Covenant Eyes, 2013, http://www.covenanteyes.com/when-your-child-is-looking-at-porn/)

“Since the 50s, as pornography became mainstreamed and pushed the envelope of normal sexual conduct, law enforcement reported that sex crimes mimicking comparable acts were being inflicted on women and children.” (See OJJDP study) (Hearing on the Brain Science Behind Pornography Addiction and the Effects of Addiction on Families and Communities, Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. Witness List: Dr. Judith Reisman, Dr. Jeffrey Satinover, Dr. Mary Anne Layden, Dr. James B. Weaver, November 18,2004, http://www.ccv.org/wpcontent/uploads/2010/04/Judith_Reisman_Senate_Testimony-2004.11.18.pdf)

“It stimulates within the porn addict a distorted view of sexuality that can lead to the desire for riskier, perverse and even criminal sexual behaviors.” (Gerald Korson, “Overcoming Obstacles, Pornography”, For Your Marriage, Accessed December 22, 2015, http://www.foryourmarriage.org/everymarriage/overcoming-obstacles/pornography/)

“From University of Virginia’s Assistant Dean, Michael Morris downloading infant anal rape to Kirk Nesset, creative writing professor at Allegheny College with over 500,000videos/images including’ rape of infants. Professors and staff are involved in child sex trafficking….Since 2015 August, at least two professors per week have been arrested, arraigned or sentenced.’” (Judith Reisman and Mary E. McAlister, “‘The Sexual Revolution’ Gave Us ‘The Rape Culture’”, Breitbart, January 1, 2016, http://www.breitbart.com/big-government/2016/01/01/the-sexualrevolution-gave-us-the-rape-culture/)

“Depicts rape and abuse as if it were harmless” (Ana Bridges, Robert Wosnitzer, Erica Scharrer, Chyng Sun & Rachel Liberman, Aggression and Sexual Behavior in Best-Selling Pornography Videos: Content Analysis Update, 16 VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN 1065–1085 (2010) (“S.C.R. 009 Resolution on the Public Health Crisis, Sponsored by Senator Todd Weiler, written by the National Center on Sexual Exploitation, February 2016, http://utahcoalition.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/UtahResolution-Updated-and-Revised-1-5-2016.pdf)

“Equates violence towards women and children with sex and pain with pleasure” (Catherine A. Simmons, Peter Lehmann, & Shannon Collier-Tennison, Linking Male Use of the Sex Industry to Controlling Behaviors in Violent Relationships: An Exploratory Analysis, 14

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

249

VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN 406 (2008); D. L. Wheeler, The relationship between pornography usage and child molesting. 57(8-A), Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences 3691 (1997); Kathy Smiljanich & John Briere, Self-reported sexual interest in children: Sex differences and psychosocial correlates in a university sample, 11 VIOLENCE AND VICTIMS 39 (1996); Charlene Y. Senn, The research on women and pornography: The many faces of harm, MAKING VIOLENCE SEXY: FEMINIST VIEWS ON PORNOGRAPHY 179–193 (Diane E. H. Russell 1993). Cordelia Anderson, lecture at the Pornography: A Public Health Crisis U.S. Capitol Symposium: Why Pornography is a Public Health Issue (July 14, 2015); Cicely Marston & Ruth Lewis, Anal Heterosex among Young People and Implications for Health Promotion: A Qualitative Study in the UK, 4 SEXUAL HEALTH 1–6 (2014); Gary Wilson, The Great Porn Experiment, TED TALKS (May 17, 2012), http://tedxtalks.ted.com/video/TEDxGlasgow-Gary-Wilson-The-G-2) (“S.C.R. 009 Resolution on the Public Health Crisis, Sponsored by Senator Todd Weiler, written by the National Center on Sexual Exploitation, February 2016, http://utahcoalition.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Utah-Resolution-Updated-andRevised-1-5-2016.pdf)

“Increases the demand for sex trafficking, prostitution, and child sexual abuse images / child pornography.” (Cordelia Anderson, lecture at the Pornography: A Public Health Crisis U.S. Capitol Symposium: Why Pornography is a Public Health Issue (July 14, 2015); Robert Peters, Laura Lederer & Shane Kelly, The Slave and the Porn Star: Sexual Trafficking and Pornography, THE PROTECTION PROJECT JOURNAL OF HUMAN RIGHTS & CIVIL SOCIETY, Fall 2012; Melissa Farley, Emily Schuckman, Jacqueline Golding, Kristen Houser, Laura Jarett, Peter Qualliotine & Michelle Decker, Paper presented at Psychologists for Social Responsibility Annual Meeting: Comparing Sex Buyers with Men who Don’t Buy Sex: ”You can have a good time with the servitude” vs. “You’re supporting a system of degradation” (July 15, 2011); John D. Foubert, Matthew W. Brosi & R. Sean Bannon, Pornography Viewing among Fraternity Men: Effects on Bystander Intervention, Rape Myth Acceptance and Behavioral Intent to Commit Sexual Assault, 18 SEXUAL ADDICTION & COMPULSIVITY: THE JOURNAL OF TREATMENT AND PREVENTION 212–231 (2011); Marty Machia & Sharon Lamb, Sexualized Innocence: Effects of Magazine Ads Portraying Adult Women as Sexy Little Girls, 21 JOURNAL OF MEDIA PSYCHOLOGY, 15-24 (2009); Drew A. Kingston, Paul Fedoroff, Philip Firestone, Susan Curry, John M. Bradford, Pornography Use and Sexual Aggression: The Impact of Frequency and Type of Pornography Use on Recidivism Among Sexual Offenders 34 AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR 341 (2008); Dennis Howitt & Kerry Sheldon, The Role of Cognitive Distortions in Paedophilic Offending: Internet and Contact Offenders Compared 13 PSYCHOLOGY, CRIME & LAW 467 (2007); Catherine Mackinnon, Talk given at Pornography: Driving the Demand in International Sex Trafficking Conference: Pornography as Trafficking (May 14, 2005); Evelina Giobbe, Mary Harrigan & Jayme Ryan, A FACILITATOR’S GUIDE TO PROSTITUTION: A MATTER OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN (Denise Gamache, WHISPER, Inc. 1990) (“S.C.R. 009 Resolution on the Public Health Crisis, Sponsored by Senator Todd Weiler, written by the National Center on Sexual Exploitation, February 2016, http://utahcoalition.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Utah-Resolution-Updated-and-Revised-1-5-2016.pdf)

“Considerable numbers of boys and girls had seen images of paraphilic or criminal sexual activity, including child pornography and sexual violence, at least once before the age of 18. Girls were significantly more likely than boys (42.3% of girls; 6.8% of boys, p 0.001) to report never looking for pornography on purpose, indicating they were involuntarily exposed.” (Chiara Sabrina, Janis Wolak, David Finkelhor, “The Nature and Dynamics of Internet Pornography Exposure for Youth”, University of New Hampshire, 2008, http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/pdf/CV169.pdf)

“According to Jean Rosenberg [Rosenberg, Jean. 1989. Two New Books on Pornography Effects. 2(2) Sexual Assault Report, p. 31.], 65% of Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

250

rapists in one study used pornography and often mimicked it in their crimes.” (Christopher Carmouche, “The Scope and Detrimental Effects of worldwide Pornography”, The World Congress of Families, June 2, 2010, http://worldcongress.org/wcfreg.spkrs/wcf.reg.uk.carmouche.htm)

“CATALYST (CRIME RATE)” “And there is most definitely appears to be a correlation between the availability of pornography and crime.” (Christopher Carmouche, “The Scope and Detrimental Effects of worldwide Pornography”, The World Congress of Families, June 2, 2010, http://worldcongress.org/wcfreg.spkrs/wcf.reg.uk.carmouche.htm)

“Austin, TX - 1986 - in four study areas with sexually orientated businesses, sexually related crimes were 177% to 482% higher than the city’s average. [National Law Center for Children and Families (1997). NLC summary of ‘SOB land use’ studies.]” (Christopher Carmouche, “The Scope and Detrimental Effects of worldwide Pornography”, The World Congress of Families, June 2, 2010, http://worldcongress.org/wcfreg.spkrs/wcf.reg.uk.carmouche.htm)

“Indianapolis, IN - 1984-1986 - Between 1978-1982, crime in study areas was 46% higher than for the city as a whole. Sex related crimes were four times greater when sexually orientated businesses were located near residential areas vs. commercial areas. [National Law Center for Children and Families (1997). NLC summary of ‘SOB land use’ studies.]” (Christopher Carmouche, “The Scope and Detrimental Effects of worldwide Pornography”, The World Congress of Families, June 2, 2010, http://worldcongress.org/wcfreg.spkrs/wcf.reg.uk.carmouche.htm)

“Phoenix, AZ - 1978 - Sex offenses, including indecent exposure, were 506% greater in neighborhoods with sexually orientated businesses. [National Law Center for Children and Families (1997). NLC summary of ‘SOB land use’ studies.]” (Christopher Carmouche, “The Scope and Detrimental Effects of worldwide Pornography”, The World Congress of Families, June 2, 2010, http://worldcongress.org/wcfreg.spkrs/wcf.reg.uk.carmouche.htm)

“Whittier, CA - Two residential areas were compared between 19701973 before sexually orientated businesses, and 1974-1977 after sexually orientated businesses, malicious mischief increased 700%, assault increased 387%, prostitution increased 300%, and all theft increased 120%. [National Law Center for Children and Families (1997). NLC summary of ‘SOB land use’ studies.]” (Christopher Carmouche, “The Scope and Detrimental Effects of worldwide Pornography”, The World Congress of Families, June 2, 2010, http://worldcongress.org/wcfreg.spkrs/wcf.reg.uk.carmouche.htm)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

251

“Oklahoma City: During the years 1984 to 1989, Oklahoma City closed 150 out of 163 sexually oriented businesses. During the same period, reported rapes declined 27% in Oklahoma City while rising 19% in the remainder of the state. Law officers were aware of no other likely cause of the difference.” (Christopher Carmouche, “The Scope and Detrimental Effects of worldwide Pornography”, The World Congress of Families, June 2, 2010, http://worldcongress.org/wcfreg.spkrs/wcf.reg.uk.carmouche.htm)

“Numerous studies have found strong evidence of a direct relationship between the circulation rates of sex magazines and rape rates within the given state.” (Christopher Carmouche, “The Scope and Detrimental Effects of worldwide Pornography”, The World Congress of Families, June 2, 2010, http://worldcongress.org/wcfreg.spkrs/wcf.reg.uk.carmouche.htm)

“Various studies by a researcher, John Court, led him to the following conclusion of what happens on a national level when constraints against the distribution of pornography are lifted: ‘As the constraints on the availability of pornography were lifted... the rates of rape in those countries increased. For example, in two Australian states between 1964 and 1977, when South Australia liberalized its laws on pornography and Queensland maintained its conservative policy... over the thirteen-year period, the number of rapes in Queensland remained at the same low level while South Australia’s showed a six-fold increase.’” (John Court, Criminal Neglect: Why Sex Offenders Go Free (Toronto: Doubleday, p.141) (Christopher Carmouche, “The Scope and Detrimental Effects of worldwide Pornography”, The World Congress of Families, June 2, 2010, http://worldcongress.org/wcfreg.spkrs/wcf.reg.uk.carmouche.htm)

“In 1969, Denmark lifted restrictions against pornography and although many reported that rape went down, according to Court: ‘The trend since 1969 indicates that there has been a new level higher than anything in the previous decade.’” (International Journal of Criminology & Penology, 5, p. 129, John H. Court) (Christopher Carmouche, “The Scope and Detrimental Effects of worldwide Pornography”, The World Congress of Families, June 2, 2010, http://worldcongress.org/wcfreg.spkrs/wcf.reg.uk.carmouche.htm)

“Prolonged exposure to pornography trivializes rape as a criminal offense. [Rape trivialization was ascertained in the lenient sentencing of convicted rapists. After prolonged exposure to pornography, men and unexpectedly also women, deemed rape a lesser offense.]” (James B. Weaver III, “Effects of Pornography Addiction on Families and Communities”, Dr. Judith Reisman, November 18, 2014, http://www.drjudithreisman.com/archives/Senate-Testimony-20041118_Weaver.pdf)

“Prolonged exposure to pornography trivializes nonviolent forms of the sexual abuse of children. [Effects were again measured in the lenient treatment of convicted perpetrators. Whereas all minor abuses, such as Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

252

genital fondling and sexual cooperation in the absence of vigorous objection, were met with greater leniency, the brutal rape of children was not.]” (James B. Weaver III, “Effects of Pornography Addiction on Families and Communities”, Dr. Judith Reisman, November 18, 2014, http://www.drjudithreisman.com/archives/Senate-Testimony20041118_Weaver.pdf)

“While an extreme example, Ariel Castro, who imprisoned and sexually abused three women in his house in Cleveland for more than a decade, said this at his sentencing: ‘I believe I’m addicted to porn... to the point where I am impulsive, and I just don’t realize that what I am doing is wrong.’” (James D. Conley, “Ariel Castro’s Addiction,” First Things, August 2013, http://www.firstthings.com/web-exclusives/2013/08/ariel-castros-addiction) (Nicholas Black, “Pornography and Injustice: The Social Impact of Sexual Sin”, Harvest USA, June 4, 2014, https://truthandmercy.wordpress.com/2014/06/04/pornography-and-injustice-the-social-impact-ofsexual-sin/)

“The frequency of pornography consumption has been shown to predict various negative outcome measures in humans. A representative Swedish study on adolescent boys has shown that boys with daily consumption showed more interest in deviant and illegal types of pornography and more frequently reported the wish to actualize what was seen in real life. 1,6-8 In partnerships a decrease in sexual satisfaction and a tendency to adopt pornographic scripts have been associated with frequent Internet pornography consumption.9 A longitudinal study following Internet users has found that accessing pornography online was predictive of compulsive computer use after 1 year.10 Taken together, the aforementioned findings support the assumption that pornography has an impact on the behavior and social cognition of its consumers. Therefore, we assume that pornography consumption, even on a nonaddicted level, may have an impact on brain structure and function. However, to our knowledge, the brain correlates associated with frequent pornography consumption have not been investigated so far.”

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

253

“Previous studies on Internet addiction have reported decreased in prefrontal cortical thickness;55 decreases in functional,56 as well as structural, connectivity57 of the frontostriatal network; and decreased striatal dopamine transporter levels in the striatum measured with single photon emission -computed tomography.” 1. Gunter B. Media Sex: What Are the Issues? London, United Kingdom: Routledge; 2001. 6. Svedin CG, Åkerman I, Priebe G. Frequent users of pornography: a population based epidemiological study of Swedish male adolescents. J Adolesc. 2011;34(4):779-788.PubMedArticle 7. Fattore L, Melis M, Fadda P, Pistis M, Fratta W. The endocannabinoid system and nondrug rewarding behaviours. Exp Neurol. 2010;224(1):23-36.PubMedArticle

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

254

8. Müller CP, Schumann G. To use or not to use: expanding the view on non-addictive psychoactive drug consumption and its implications. Behav Brain Sci. 2011;34(6):328-347.PubMedArticle

(Simone Kühn, PhD; Jürgen Gallinat, PhD., May 28, 2014, The JAMA Network, “Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity Associated with Pornography Consumption”, http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapsychiatry/fullarticle/1874574?utm_source=Silverchair%20Informati on%20Systems&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=JAMAPsychiatry:OnlineFirst05/28/2014#Discussio n)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

255

#20 PIED: PORN INDUCED ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION According to a PLOS ONE study, 58% of subjects with compulsive sexual behavior had a problem achieving erections with a real partner. Those same subjects had no problem achieving erections with porn.” (Luke Gibbons, “6 things the porn industry doesn’t want you to find out”, Premier Christianity, September 13, 2017, https://www.premierchristianity.com/Blog/6-things-the-porn-industry-doesn-t-want-you-to-find-out)

“In 2014, a Canadian sexologists' study showed that problems in sexual functioning are curiously higher in adolescent males than in adult males (which are already rising). Said researchers:” “53.5% [of male teens] were classified as reporting symptoms indicative of a sexual problem. Erectile dysfunction and low desire were the most common.” (Lucia F. O'Sullivan, et al., "Prevalence and Characteristics of Sexual Functioning among Sexually Experienced Middle to Late Adolescents," J Sex Med 11/3 (2014): 630-641, doi: 10.1111/jsm.12419) (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, p44)

“The recent Cambridge study by addiction neuroscientists found that almost 60% of the addicts they examined, ‘experienced diminished libido or erectile function specifically in physical relationships with women (although not in relationship to the sexually explicit material)’ as a result of excessive porn use.” (Valerie Voon, et al., "Neural Correlates of Sexual Cue Reactivity in Individuals with and without Compulsive Sexual Behaviours", PLOS One (2014): DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102419) (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, pp44-45)

“‘Young Japanese men are growing indifferent or even averse to sex, while married couples are starting to have it even less,’ reported the Japan Times, citing a 2010 poll that revealed a striking trend. More than 36% of men aged 16 to 19 had no interest in sex, more than double the 17.5 % from 2008. Men between 20 and 24 showed a similar trend, jumping from 11.8 % to 21.5 %, while men between 45 and 49 leaped from 8.7 % to 22.1 %.” (Yuri Tomikawa, "No Sex, Please, We're Young Japanese Men," The Wall Street Journal, January 13, 2011) (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, p58)

“Japan isn't alone. In France, a 2008 survey found that 20 percent of younger French men had no interest in sex. Something peculiar is afoot.” (Henry Samuel, "French women 'are the sexual predators now'," The Telegraph, March 7, 2008) (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, p58)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

256

“Research in humans also suggests that too much stimulation weakens pair bonds. According to a 2007 study, mere exposure to numerous sexy female images causes a man to devalue his real-life partner.” (Jennifer Viegas, "Flirty strangers sway how men see partners," Discovery News/ABC Science, March 26, 2007, http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2007/03/26/1881621.htm) (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, pp61-62)

“He rates her lower not only on attractiveness, but also on warmth and intelligence. Also, after pornography consumption, subjects of both sexes report less satisfaction with their intimate partner – including the partner's affection, appearance, sexual curiosity and performance.” (Dolf Zillmann and Jennings Bryant, "Pornography's Impact on Sexual Satisfaction," Journal of Applied Social Psychology 18/5 (1988): 438–453, doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.1988.tb00027.x) (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, pp61-62)

“And both men and women assign increased importance to sex without emotional involvement.” (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, pp61-62)

“‘The problem isn’t below the belt’” “Wilson said he’s heard similar sentiments echoed by people struggling with porn addiction ‘thousands of times over the years.’ Erectile dysfunction and low libido rates in men under 40 have skyrocketed. There are few studies looking at ED in younger men before 2000. A 1999 cross-sectional study found that only 5 percent of men ages 18-59 were affected by ED, concluding that it was mostly an issue for older men. Since 2012, studies looking at ED in younger men have said the rates are between 27 and 33 percent for men under 40, according to Wilson’s site. Of all recent studies, only the Cambridge study published last year linked porn as a potential cause for ED, finding that more than half of the participants with compulsive sexual behavior reported such problems. When the sexual enhancement drugs aren’t working for the younger guys, the problem could be addictionrelated, Wilson said.” (Heather Schroering, “The Porn Problem,” Chicago Tribune, July 14, 2015, www.chicagotribune.com/news/redeye-porn-addiction-20150714-story.html#page=1)

“‘...The problem isn’t below the belt, where Viagra works, nor is the problem really psychological,’ he said in his TEDx Talk. ‘It’s due to physical changes in the brain, those addiction-related changes. Their numb brains are sending weaker and weaker signals to their [penises].’” (Heather Schroering, “The Porn Problem,” Chicago Tribune, July 14,

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

257

2015, www.chicagotribune.com/news/redeye-porn-addiction-20150714story.html#page=1)

“Mike Middleton’s problem, however, wasn’t getting an erection, it was finishing. The 30-year-old Wicker Park resident was ensnared in a failing marriage, and his addictive tendencies didn’t help. Rather than therapy, he turned to alcohol, pot, cocaine, hash, pills. He had no sex drive, and he and his wife only had sex twice in the last year and a half of their two-and-a-half year marriage. Eventually porn became another vice, with him watching once or twice a day. Even after his wife left him, he was afraid of getting intimate with anyone else, nervous he couldn’t perform. ‘I would find myself going crazy in my mind trying to find something to think of that could trigger me,’ Middleton said in an email.” (Heather Schroering, “The Porn Problem,” Chicago Tribune, July 14, 2015, www.chicagotribune.com/news/redeye-porn-addiction-20150714story.html#page=1)

“The 1999 study also found that low sexual desire affected about 5 percent of men ages 18-59, and most were older. However, researchers around the world are making shocking discoveries. The Cambridge study found that more than half of the guys with compulsive sexual behavior said they’ve had issues getting turned on in physical relationships but not by watching porn. These men also first started watching porn at an earlier age (about 14) than the guys without compulsive sexual behavior did (about 17). A Canadian study published last year in the Journal of Sexual Medicine reported that 53.5 percent of males 16-21 have some symptom related to sexual problems, including ED (26 percent), low sexual desire (24 percent) and issues orgasming (11 percent). These rates were much higher in males than in females, unlike in earlier studies.” (Heather Schroering, “The Porn Problem,” Chicago Tribune, July 14, 2015, www.chicagotribune.com/news/redeye-pornaddiction-20150714-story.html#page=1)

“As Middleton fell deeper down the porn rabbit hole, he said, he started exploring fetishes. Wilson said it’s common for heavy porn users to escalate to more shocking stimulation to get aroused. Middleton said he grew critical of his wife’s ‘lack of sexual curiosity/exploration’ toward the end of their marriage.” (Heather Schroering, “The Porn Problem,” Chicago Tribune, July 14, 2015, www.chicagotribune.com/news/redeye-porn-addiction-20150714-story.html#page=1)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

258

“But Wilson said porn addicts can recover from ED and a low libido, although it might take some time.” (Heather Schroering, “The Porn Problem,” Chicago Tribune, July 14, 2015, www.chicagotribune.com/news/redeye-porn-addiction20150714-story.html#page=1)

“This is a concern, says Stone because studies have shown that seeing a vast amount of pornography long before becoming sexually active can have damaging effects due to the amount of sexual conditioning that occurs in adolescence.” (Peter Kenny, “Study finds adult concern at US teens and young adults use of porn, Barna finds”, Ecumenical News, January 29, 2016, http://www.ecumenicalnews.com/article/study-finds-adult-concern-at-us-teens-and-young-adults-use-ofporn-barna-finds/37867.htm)

“‘Ill-timed exposure to explicit material could cause lifelong problems with relationships and personal sexual health, and create unrealistic beliefs about sex and sexuality,’ she says.” (Peter Kenny, “Study finds adult concern at US teens and young adults use of porn, Barna finds”, Ecumenical News, January 29, 2016, http://www.ecumenicalnews.com/article/study-finds-adult-concern-at-us-teens-and-young-adults-use-ofporn-barna-finds/37867.htm)

“Erectile dysfunction (or lack of orgasmic responsiveness in both sexes) is powerful motivation to change one’s habits. But only if one clearly understands how over-stimulation can desensitize the brain. Without this information, most users chart their course by short-term results, and conclude that the solution to erectile dysfunction is hotter and hotter porn, and then sexual enhancement drugs, or both.” (Marnia Robinson, “Pornography and Addiction: Brain Chemistry Research and Porn”, Scribd, April 28, 2010, http://www.scribd.com/doc/32712148/Pornography-and-Addiction-Brain-Chemistry-Research-and-Pornby-Marnia-Robinson#scribd)

“‘Erotic and non-erotic’ films were shown to healthy and impotent male volunteers. Testosterone supplements restored erections to erotica. It appears to be a major discovery that low testosterone levels contribute to impotence. However, pornography arousal would eventually increase impotence by reducing access to reality, cognitive power and thus informed consent.” (Judith A Reisman, PhD, The Institute for Media Education & California Protective Parents, Assoc., “Restructuring the Immature Brain1 http://www.drjudithreisman.com/archives/Restructuring_the_Immature_Brain.pdf)

-----------

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

259

“For Gabe Deem, 28, porn was as much a part of adolescence as homework or acne. "It was normal and it was everywhere," he says. He grew up in an era when what used to be considered X-rated was becoming mainstream, and he and his friends used to watch explicit videos constantly, he says, even during class, on their school-issued laptops. "It wasn't something we were ashamed of." Deem, who lives in Irving, Texas, is the founder of Reboot Nation, a forum and online video channel that offers advice and support for young people who believe they are addicted to pornography, have sexual dysfunctions as a result and wish to quit.” “He's a little different from many of the porn activists, because he was sexually active at a young age and consumed porn only as a side dish. But it came to dominate his diet, and some years after high school, "I got with a gorgeous girl and we went to have sex and my body had no response at all," he says. "I was freaked because I was young and fit and I was super attracted to the girl." He went to his doctor. "I said, I might have low T," Deem says, using slang for a testosterone deficiency. "He laughed." “In April 2015, Alexander Rhodes left a good job with Google to develop counseling and community-support sites for those who are struggling with a porn habit. He had started the NoFap subreddit--a list of posts on one subject--on the popular website Reddit and a companion website called NoFap.com in 2011, but it's now a full-time endeavor. (The name derives from fap, Internet-speak for masturbation.) The 26-year-old says his first exposure to porn was a pop-up ad--no, really, he swears!--when he was about 11. His father was a software engineer in Pennsylvania, and he had been encouraged to play with computers since he was a 3-year-old. "For as long as there had been an Internet, I had relatively unfiltered access," says Rhodes. The ad was for a site that showed rape, but he says he only understood there was a naked lady. Pretty soon he was printing out thumbnails of his image-search results for "women's tummies" or "pretty girls' boobies." By the time he was 14, he says, he was pleasuring himself to porn 10 times a day. "That's not an exaggeration," he insists. "That, and play video games, was all I did."

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

260

“In his late teens, when he got a girlfriend, things did not go well. "I really hurt her [emotionally]," says Rhodes. "I thought it was normal to fantasize about porn while having sex with another person." If he stopped thinking about porn to focus on the girl, his body lost interest, he says. He quit porn a couple of times before finally swearing off it for good in late 2013. His two sites have about 200,000 members, and he says they get about a million unique users a month.” “Do their claims of porn-induced ED have any merit? Recent statistics suggest some correlation. In 1992, about 5% of men experienced ED at age 40, according to the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH). A study in the July 2013 Journal of Sexual Medicine found that 26% of adult men seeking help for ED were under 40. In a 2014 study of 367 U.S. military personnel younger than 40, a third reported ED. And a 2012 Swiss study found the condition among a third of even younger men: 18 to 25.” (Belinda Luscombe, March 31, 2016, Time, “Porn and the Threat to Virility”, http://time.com/4277510/porn-and-thethreat-to-virility/)

Porn Induced Erectile Dysfunction (PIED) “Young Porn Users Need Longer To Recover Their Mojo). Here's a typical scenario:” (Gary Wilson, “Why Do I Find Porn More Exciting than a Partner?”, Your Brain on Porn, January 17, 2012, http://www.yourbrainonporn.com/why-do-i-find-porn-more-exciting-partner)

“Erectile Dysfunction - This rewiring of the brain leads to several other ill effects. The most disturbing to many men is erectile dysfunction, specifically, the inability to obtain and maintain an erection. Many men who become addicted to pornography experience both erectile dysfunction and decreased attraction to live partners. In fact over half of porn addicts have one or the other of these two experiences. (Wilson, G. (2014). Your brain on porn: Internet pornography and the emerging science of addiction. Commonwealth Publishing, United

Building on this research, another set of neurologists found that if a man’s use of porn is ‘compulsive,’ there is a greater than 50% chance he will have difficulty achieving an erection with a real partner, but will have no trouble having erections with porn.” (Voon V, Mole TB, Banca P, Porter L, Morris L, et Kingdom.)

al. (2014). Neural Correlates of Sexual Cue Reactivity in Individuals with and without Compulsive Sexual Behaviors. PLoS ONE 9(7): e102419. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0102419)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

261

(John D. Foubert, “How Pornography Harms”, John Foubert.com, April 2016, http://www.johnfoubert.com/how-porn-harms)

“A study of heterosexual men addicted to pornography found that over 60% had erectile dysfunction with a woman, but not when they used pornography.” (Voon V, Mole TB, Banca P, Porter L, Morris L, et al. (2014) Neural Correlates of Sexual Cue Reactivity in Individuals with and without Compulsive Sexual Behaviors. PLoS ONE 9(7): e102419. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102419) (John D. Foubert, “How Pornography Harms”, John Foubert.com, April 2016, http://www.johnfoubert.com/how-porn-harms)

“Data on erectile dysfunction over time shows a dramatic pattern, with a massive increase after Internet pornography became widely available. The earliest data, from the late 1940s, found that less than 1% of men under 30 and less than 3% of men between 30 and 45 experienced erectile dysfunction (ED). (Kinsey, A.C., Pomeroy, W.B., & Martin, C.E. (1948). Sexual behavior in the human male. Philadelphia: WB Saunders.) The next large-scale study was published in 1999 based on data from 1992, when print pornography was more widely available than before, but Internet pornography did not yet exist. In 1992, 7% of men age 18-29 and 9% of men age 30-39 experienced ED. (Laumann, E.O., Paik, A., & Rosen, R.C. (1999). Sexual dysfunction in the United States: Prevalence and predictors. Journal of the American Medical Association, 281(6), 537-544.)) An

important part of that study to note is the finding that men age 50-59 were over three times more likely to experience ED than men 18-29. Thus, older men experienced much more ED than younger men. Then the Internet was invented; with it came affordable and anonymous access to pornography on smaller and increasingly more portable screens. Several recent studies now show that between 26% and 33% of young men experience ED.” (O’Sullivan, L.F., Brotto, L.A., Byers, E.S., Majerovich, J.A., Weust, J.A. (2014). Prevalence and characteristics of sexual functioning among sexually experienced mid to late adolescents. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 11, 630-641.) (Mialon, A., Berchtold, A., Michaud, P.A., Gmel, G. & Suris, J.C. (2012). Sexual dysfunctions among young men: Prevalence and associated factors. Journal of Adolescent Health, 51(1), 25-31.) (John D. Foubert, “How Pornography Harms”, John Foubert.com, April 2016, http://www.johnfoubert.com/how-porn-harms)

“For example, a study of adolescents found that 26% had experienced erectile dysfunction. (O’Sullivan, L.F., Brotto, L.A., Byers, E.S., Majerovich, J.A., Weust, J.A. (2014). Prevalence and characteristics of sexual

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

262

functioning among sexually experienced mid to late adolescents. The Journal of Sexual

… a study in 2012 of sexually active men between age 18 and 25 found that 30% had experienced ED. (Mialon, A., Medicine, 11, 630-641.)

Berchtold, A., Michaud, P.A., Gmel, G. & Suris, J.C. (2012). Sexual dysfunctions among young men: Prevalence and associated factors. Journal of Adolescent Health, 51(1), 25-31.)

In the same timeframe, in a study of men age 21-40 who were in the military, 33% had experienced erectile dysfunction. (Wilcox, S.L., Redmond, S., and Hassan, A.M. (2014). Sexual functioning in military personnel: Preliminary estimates and

In the military study, researchers noted that the rate of ED more than doubled in the military from 2004-2013. (Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center (2014). Erectile dysfunction predictors. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 11 (10), 2537-2545.)

among male active component service members, U.S. Armed Forces, 2004-2013. Monthly

Thus, over time, ED for young men went from about 2%, to about 8%, to about 30%. This has all coincided with increased access to pornography.” (John D. Foubert, “How Pornography Harms”, Surveillance Monthly Report, 21(9), 13-16.)

John Foubert.com, April 2016, http://www.johnfoubert.com/how-porn-harms)

“When I lost my virginity it really did not feel that good. I was bored actually. I lost the erection after maybe ten minutes. She wanted more sex, but I was done. The next time I tried to have sex with a woman was a disaster. I had an erection at first, but I lost it before I ever penetrated. Condom use was out of the question—not a hard enough erection.” (Gary Wilson, “Why Do I Find Porn More Exciting than a Partner?”, Your Brain on Porn, January 17, 2012, http://www.yourbrainonporn.com/why-do-i-find-porn-moreexciting-partner)

“Usually guys like him started with heavy Internet porn use at age 11 or so, and didn't try to have sex with a partner for another decade. They've wired to super-high octane fuel in the form of ever-novel Internet porn, and it's possible that their brains pruned back some of their under-used ‘mating’ circuitry as they reached adulthood.” (Gary Wilson, “Why Do I Find Porn More Exciting than a Partner?”, Your Brain on Porn, January 17, 2012, http://www.yourbrainonporn.com/why-do-i-find-porn-more-exciting-partner)

“For a while after they switch to real mates (regular fuel), they ping along and occasionally stall out. Some have to make a concerted effort to spend time around real potential mates, and be patient as their brains catch up with their new direction. They sometimes need 4 months or more to respond normally to potential partners. A cuddle Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

263

buddy helps.” (Gary Wilson, “Why Do I Find Porn More Exciting than a Partner?”, Your Brain on Porn, January 17, 2012, http://www.yourbrainonporn.com/why-do-i-find-porn-more-excitingpartner)

“In contrast, guys who wired to real mates before highspeed Internet still have those well-developed ‘real-partner pathways’ in place. Most didn't notice performance problems until they overwhelmed their brains with synthetic via broadband. When they lay off the porn, their reward circuitry bounces back. Potential mates automatically start to look hot again. Most need about two months, but one 50-year old recently reported that, after three years of porn-related erectile dysfunction, he needed only 8 days porn-free to get back in the saddle.” (Gary Wilson, “Why Do I Find Porn More Exciting than a Partner?”, Your Brain on Porn, January 17, 2012, http://www.yourbrainonporn.com/why-do-i-find-porn-more-excitingpartner)

“If porn is the only way you can climax, it means you've wired your brain to the wrong target. It's not that real giggles and wiggles aren't appealing. They are. But while your reward circuitry is desensitized to normal pleasures, your gut-level (actually, brain-level) response to real potential mates is...meh. The only reason the porn signals still do the job is because you've created a neural sledgehammer powerful enough to get a rise out of your numbed reward circuitry—at least while you're actually viewing porn.” (Gary Wilson, “Why Do I Find Porn More Exciting than a Partner?”, Your Brain on Porn, January 17, 2012, http://www.yourbrainonporn.com/why-do-i-find-porn-more-exciting-partner)

“Real sex is flirting, touching, being touched, smells, pheromones, connecting and interacting with a person. Internet porn is 2D voyeurism, clicking a mouse, searching, multiple tabs, isolation, constant novelty, a harem, and interacting only with your hand.” (Gary Wilson, “Why Do I Find Porn More Exciting than a Partner?”, Your Brain on Porn, January 17, 2012, http://www.yourbrainonporn.com/why-do-i-find-porn-more-exciting-partner)

“To use a sports analogy, which event has your brain been training for? If you want to shoot hoops like a pro, you don't spend your time swinging a golf club. Have years of Internet porn use created a mismatch between what your brain expects and what actually happens during real mating? Time to rewire.” (Gary Wilson, “Why Do I Find Porn More Exciting than a Partner?”, Your Brain on Porn, January 17, 2012, http://www.yourbrainonporn.com/why-do-i-find-porn-more-exciting-partner)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

264

“If we compare recent research to earlier studies, young men today are experiencing anywhere from a 600% to 3000% increase in ED since the advent of the internet. No, that is not a misprint. Erectile dysfunction rates ranged from 27 to 33%, while rates for low libido (hypo-sexuality) ranged from 24% to 37%. The lower ranges are taken from studies involving men 25 and under, while the higher ranges are from studies involving men 40 and under.” (Gary Wilson, “Why Do I Find Porn More Exciting than a Partner?”, Your Brain on Porn, January 17, 2012, http://www.yourbrainonporn.com/why-do-i-find-porn-more-exciting-partner)

“In the 1940s, the Kinsey report concluded that the prevalence of ED was less than 1% in men younger than 30 years, less than 3% in those 30–45.” (Gary Wilson, “Why Do I Find Porn More Exciting than a Partner?”, Your Brain on Porn, January 17, 2012, http://www.yourbrainonporn.com/why-do-i-find-porn-moreexciting-partner)

“A 1999 cross-sectional study published by the Journal of the American Medical Association reported erectile dysfunction rates of only 5%, and low sexual desire in 5%. In that study, the ages of the men surveyed ranged from 18 to 59, so a third of them were over 40.” (Gary Wilson, “Why Do I Find Porn More Exciting than a Partner?”, Your Brain on Porn, January 17, 2012, http://www.yourbrainonporn.com/why-do-i-find-porn-more-exciting-partner)

“ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION & PORN (PART 1) “No longer aroused by static porn, or previously seen porn. Often guys need to escalate to more extreme material just to get aroused – which is a sign of addiction.” (“Erectile Dysfunction & Porn (Part 1),” Your Brain on Porn, accessed November 8, 2013, http://yourbrainonporn.com/print/book/export/html/539)

Decreased penile sensitivity – an indication that the brain is actually somewhat numbed to pleasure.” (“Erectile Dysfunction & Porn (Part 1),” Your Brain on Porn, accessed November 8, 2013, http://yourbrainonporn.com/print/book/export/html/539)

“Your problem isn’t in your penis. It’s in your brain.”

(“Erectile Dysfunction & Porn (Part 1),” Your Brain on Porn, accessed November 8, 2013, http://yourbrainonporn.com/print/book/export/html/539)

“Zimbardo says that one of the consequences is the so-called ’porninduced erectile dysfunction,’ or PIED, where young men who should be sexually active are ’having a problem getting an erection.’” (“Porn and video game Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

265

addicts risk ‘masculinity crisis’, says Stanford Professor", RT Question More, May 10, 2015, https://www.rt.com/news/257269-porn-gaming-study-youth/)

“Zimbardo says that one of the consequences is the so-called ’porninduced erectile dysfunction,’ or PIED, where young men who should be sexually active are ’having a problem getting an erection.’” (“Porn and video game addicts risk ‘masculinity crisis’, says Stanford Professor", RT Question More, May 10, 2015, https://www.rt.com/news/257269-porn-gaming-study-youth/)

“In the 1940s, the Kinsey report concluded that the prevalence of ED was less than 1% in men younger than 30 years, less than 3% in those 30–45.” (Gary Wilson, “Why Do I Find Porn More Exciting than a Partner”, Your Brain on Porn, January 17, 2012, http://www.yourbrainonporn.com/why-do-i-find-porn-more-excitingpartner)

“A 1999 cross-sectional study published by the Journal of the American Medical Association reported erectile dysfunction rates of only 5%, and low sexual desire in 5%. In that study, the ages of the men surveyed ranged from 18 to 59, so a third of them were over 40.” (Gary Wilson, “Why Do I Find Porn More Exciting than a Partner”, Your Brain on Porn, January 17, 2012, http://www.yourbrainonporn.com/why-do-i-find-porn-more-exciting-partner)

“Erectile dysfunction rates ranged from 27% to 30%, low libido (hyposexuality) ranged from 24% to 37%” (Gary Wilson, “Why Do I Find Porn More Exciting than a Partner”, Your Brain on Porn, January 17, 2012, http://www.yourbrainonporn.com/why-do-i-find-porn-more-exciting-partner)

“… as a result of excessive use of sexually explicit materials.....experienced diminished libido or erectile function specifically in physical relationships with women (although not in relationship to the sexually explicit material)...” (Gary Wilson, “Why Do I Find Porn More Exciting than a Partner”, Your Brain on Porn, January 17, 2012, http://www.yourbrainonporn.com/why-do-i-find-porn-more-exciting-partner)

“The average age was 25, yet 11 out of the 19 subjects experienced erectile dysfunction and diminished libido with partners, but not with porn.” (Gary Wilson, “Why Do I Find Porn More Exciting than a Partner”, Your Brain on Porn, January 17, 2012, http://www.yourbrainonporn.com/why-do-i-find-porn-moreexciting-partner)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

266

“58% of male pornography users (average age twenty-five) had erectile dysfunction with women but not with pornography.” (“Pornography: A Public Health Crisis”, National Center on Sexual Exploitation, July 14, 2015, http://shop.endsexualexploitation.org/collections/frontpage/products/pornography-a-public-healthcrisis-how-porn-fuels-sex-trafficking-child-exploitation-sexual-violence-booklet-and-freedownload?variant=8300519939)

“It is almost certainly the cause of the widespread sexual dysfunction found in recent studies of late adolescence.” (Sherry Pagoto, PhD, "What Do Porn and Snickers Have in Common?" Psychology Today blogs, August 7, 2012, http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/shrink/201208/what-do-porn-and-snickers-have-in-common) (Dr. Anthony Jack, Western Reserve University – forward to Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, p9)

“…her forum on sexual relationships had been overrun by men seeking clues about their porn-related problems: loss of attraction to real partners, delayed ejaculation or complete inability to orgasm during sex, alarming new sexual tastes as they escalated through porn fetishes, even unaccustomed premature ejaculation.” (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, p28)

“Any of the following may precede or accompany delayed ejaculation and erectile dysfunction:” “Earlier genres of porn are no longer exciting” (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, pp41-42)

“Uncharacteristic fetishes develop” (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, pp41-42)

“Porn use is more sexually exciting than a partner” (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, pp41-42)

“Sensitivity of penis decreases” (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, pp41-42)

“Sexual arousal with sexual partners declines” (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, pp41-42)

“Erections fade when attempting penetration or shortly thereafter” (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, pp41-42)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

267

“Penetrative sex is not stimulating” (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, pp41-42)

“Porn fantasy is necessary to maintain erection or interest with partner” (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, pp41-42)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

268

#21 SEXUAL ORIENTATION AND PORN “Men have long believed that what arouses them to orgasm is ironclad evidence of their sexual orientation. Therefore, it can be especially distressing to escalate through shifting porn fetishes that ultimately cast doubt on sexual orientation. Yet such escalation to unexpected tastes is surprisingly common today, especially among young people who grew up dabbling in ‘anything-goes’ tube sites from an early age.” (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, p55)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

269

#22 A PUBLIC HEALTH CRISIS AND PORN “Public Health Approach” “Dr. Gail Dines, the unofficial leader of the secular anti-porn movement, now believes that,” (John D. Foubert, “How Pornography Harms”, John Foubert.com, April 2016, http://www.johnfoubert.com/how-porn-harms)

“The greatest hope in the U.S. for stemming the porn industry is the public health approach. I would like to see violent porn basically restricted to such a degree that it would be very difficult to get ahold of. I’d like to see restrictions to the production side as well because there is terrible violence toward women in it. In the USA, the best model we’ve come up with is the public health model. It gets traction, it makes sense, it gets to the root of the problem.” (John D. Foubert, “How Pornography Harms”, John Foubert.com, April 2016, http://www.johnfoubert.com/howporn-harms)

“According to the American Public Health Association, public health “promotes and protects the health of people and the communities where they live, learn, work and play.” (https://www.apha.org/what-is-publichealth retrieved January 2, 2016.) This approach seems both logical and promising for addressing the dangers of pornography in the years to come.” (John D. Foubert, “How Pornography Harms”, John Foubert.com, April 2016, http://www.johnfoubert.com/how-porn-harms)

“Pornography is contributing to: “The hyper-sexualization of teens…” (Gail Dines, lecture at the Pornography: A Public Health Crisis U.S. Capitol Symposium: Today’s Pornography and the Crisis of Violence Against Women and Children (July 14, 2015); Marty Machia & Sharon Lamb, Sexualized Innocence: Effects of Magazine Ads Portraying Adult Women as Sexy Little Girls, 21 JOURNAL OF MEDIA PSYCHOLOGY, 15-24 (2009). (“S.C.R. 009 Resolution on the Public Health Crisis, Sponsored by Senator Todd Weiler, written by the National Center on Sexual Exploitation, February 2016, http://utahcoalition.org/wpcontent/uploads/2016/02/Utah-Resolution-Updated-and-Revised-1-5-2016.pdf)

“…27% of older millennials (age 25-30) reporting that they first viewed pornography before puberty.” (Barna Group, The Porn Phenomenon: A Comprehensive New Survey on Americans, the Church, and Pornography, (forthcoming April 2016), https://www.barna.org/blog/culture-media/barna-group/porn-press-conference#.VrS9OrSJndl) (“S.C.R. 009 Resolution on the Public Health Crisis, Sponsored by Senator Todd Weiler, written by the National Center on Sexual Exploitation, February 2016, http://utahcoalition.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/UtahResolution-Updated-and-Revised-1-5-2016.pdf)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

270

“Low self-esteem and eating disorders” (Amy E. Bonomi, Julianna M. Nemeth, Lauren E. Attenburger, Melissa Anderson, Anastasia Snyder & Irma Dotto, Fiction or Not? Fifty Shades is Associated with Health Risks in Adolescent and Young Adult Females, 23 JOURNAL OF WOMEN’S HEALTH 720–728 (2014) (“S.C.R. 009 Resolution on the Public Health Crisis, Sponsored by Senator Todd Weiler, written by the National Center on Sexual Exploitation, February 2016, http://utahcoalition.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Utah-Resolution-Updated-and-Revised-1-5-2016.pdf)

“Increase in problematic sexual activity at younger ages” (Gail Dines, lecture at the Pornography: A Public Health Crisis U.S. Capitol Symposium: Today’s Pornography and the Crisis of Violence Against Women and Children (July 14, 2015); Joris Van Ouystel, Koen Ponnet, & Michael Walrave, The Associations between Adolescents’ Consumption of Pornography and Music videos and Their Sexting Behavior, 17 CYBERPSYCHOLOGY, BEHAVIOR, AND SOCIAL NETWORKING 772–778 (December 9, 2014); Cicely Marston & Ruth Lewis, Anal Heterosex among Young People and Implications for Health Promotion: A Qualitative Study in the UK, 4 SEXUAL HEALTH 1–6 (2014); Eileen M. Alexy, Ann W. Burgess, & Robert A. Prentky, Pornography Use as a Risk Marker for an Aggressive Pattern of Behavior among Sexually Reactive Children and Adolescents, 14 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN PSYCHIATRIC NURSES ASSOCIATION 442–456 (2009); Carol J. Pardun, Kelly Ladin L’Engle & Jane D. Brown, Linking Exposure to Outcomes: Early Adolescents’ Consumption of Sexual Content in Six Media, 8 MASS COMMUNICATION AND SOCIETY 75–91 (2005) (“S.C.R. 009 Resolution on the Public Health Crisis, Sponsored by Senator Todd Weiler, written by the National Center on Sexual Exploitation, February 2016, http://utahcoalition.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Utah-ResolutionUpdated-and-Revised-1-5-2016.pdf)

“Increased desire to engage in risky sexual behavior as young adolescents” (Gail Dines, lecture at the Pornography: A Public Health Crisis U.S. Capitol Symposium: Today’s Pornography and the Crisis of Violence Against Women and Children (July 14, 2015); Cicely Marston & Ruth Lewis, Anal Heterosex among Young People and Implications for Health Promotion: A Qualitative Study in the UK, 4 SEXUAL HEALTH 1–6 (2014); Joris Van Ouystel, Koen Ponnet, & Michael Walrave, The Associations between Adolescents’ Consumption of Pornography and Music videos and Their Sexting Behavior, 17 CYBERPSYCHOLOGY, BEHAVIOR, AND SOCIAL NETWORKING 772–778 (December 9, 2014); Eric W. Owens, Richard J. Behun, Jill C. Manning & Roy C. Reid, The Impact of Internet Pornography on Adolescents: A Review of the Research, 19 SEXUAL ADDICTION & COMPULSIVITY 1–2 (2012); Carol J. Pardun, Kelly Ladin L’Engle, & Jane D. Brown, Linking Exposure to Outcomes: Early Adolescents’ Consumption of Sexual Content in Six Media, 8 MASS COMMUNICATION AND SOCIETY 75–91 (2005) (“S.C.R. 009 Resolution on the Public Health Crisis, Sponsored by Senator Todd Weiler, written by the National Center on Sexual Exploitation, February 2016, http://utahcoalition.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Utah-Resolution-Updated-and-Revised-1-5-2016.pdf)

Pornography “often times:” “Serves as their sex education and shapes their sexual templates”

(Cordelia Anderson, lecture at the Pornography: A Public Health Crisis U.S. Capitol Symposium: Why Pornography is a Public Health Issue (July 14, 2015); Eileen M. Alexy, Ann W. Burgess & Robert A. Prentky, Pornography Use as a Risk Marker for an Aggressive Pattern of Behavior among Sexually Reactive Children and Adolescents, 14 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN PSYCHIATRIC NURSES ASSOCIATION 442–456 (2009); (2009); Jane Brown & Kelly L. L'Engle, X-Rated: Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors Associated with U.S. Early Adolescents’ Exposure to Sexually Explicit Media, 36 COMMUNICATION RESEARCH 129–151 (2009); Tori DeAngelis, Web Pornography’s Effect on Children, 38 AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 50 (2007); Carol J. Pardun, Kelly Ladin L’Engle & Jane D. Brown, Linking Exposure to Outcomes: Early Adolescents’ Consumption of Sexual Content in Six Media, 8 MASS COMMUNICATION AND SOCIETY 75–91 (2005) (“S.C.R. 009 Resolution on the Public Health Crisis,

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

271

Sponsored by Senator Todd Weiler, written by the National Center on Sexual Exploitation, February 2016, http://utahcoalition.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Utah-Resolution-Updated-and-Revised-1-52016.pdf)

“Treats women as objects” (Tori DeAngelis, Web Pornography’s Effect on Children, 38 AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 50 (2007); Jochen Peter & Patti Valkenburg, Adolescents’ Exposure to a Sexualized Media Environment and Their Notions of Women as Sex Objects, 56 SEX ROLES 381–395 (2007) (“S.C.R. 009 Resolution on the Public Health Crisis, Sponsored by Senator Todd Weiler, written by the National Center on Sexual Exploitation, February 2016, http://utahcoalition.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Utah-Resolution-Updated-and-Revised-1-5-2016.pdf)

“Teaches girls they are to be used and boys to be users” (Amy E. Bonomi, Julianna M. Nemeth, Lauren E. Attenburger, Melissa L. Anderson, Anastasia Snyder & Irma Dotto, Fiction or Not? Fifty Shades is Associated with Health Risks in Adolescent and Young Adult Females, 23 JOURNAL OF WOMEN’S HEALTH 720–728 (2014); David Horsey, Internet Porn Is an Experiment in Dehumanization, THE LOS ANGELES TIMES (December 15, 2014), http://www.latimes.com/opinion/topoftheticket/la-na-tt-internet-porn-20141215-story.html; Neil Malamuth, Pornography’s Impact on Male Adolescents, 4 ADOLESCENT MEDICINE 563 (2010); Kevin M. Williams, Barry S. Cooper, Teresa M. Howel, John C. Yuille, & Delroy L. Paulhus, Inferring Sexually Deviant Behavior from Corresponding Fantasies: The Role of Personality and Pornography Consumption, 36 CRIMINAL JUSTICE & BEHAVIOR 198 (2008); Tori DeAngelis, Web Pornography’s Effect on Children, 38 AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 50 (2007); Jochen Peter & Patti Valkenburg, Adolescents’ Exposure to a Sexualized Media Environment and Their Notions of Women as Sex Objects, 56 SEX ROLES 381–395 (2007); Silvio Bonino, Silvia Ciairanoa, Emanuela Rabagliettia, Elana Cattelino, Use of Pornography and Self-Reported Engagement in Sexual Violence Among Adolescents, 3 EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 265 (2006) (“S.C.R. 009 Resolution on the Public Health Crisis, Sponsored by Senator Todd Weiler, written by the National Center on Sexual Exploitation, February 2016, http://utahcoalition.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Utah-ResolutionUpdated-and-Revised-1-5-2016.pdf)

“Normalizes violence and abuse of women and children” (John D. Foubert, Matthew W. Brosi & R. Sean Bannon, Pornography Viewing among Fraternity Men: Effects on Bystander Intervention, Rape Myth Acceptance and Behavioral Intent to Commit Sexual Assault, 18 SEXUAL ADDICTION & COMPULSIVITY: THE JOURNAL OF TREATMENT AND PREVENTION 212–231 (2011); Neil Malamuth, Pornography’s Impact on Male Adolescents, 4 ADOLESCENT MEDICINE 563 (2010); Gert Martin Hald, Neil M. Malamuth & Carlin Yuen, Pornography and Attitudes Supporting Violence Against Women: Revisiting the Relationship in Non-experimental Studies 36 AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR 14–20 (2009); Marty Machia & Sharon Lamb, Sexualized Innocence: Effects of Magazine Ads Portraying Adult Women as Sexy Little Girls, 21 JOURNAL OF MEDIA PSYCHOLOGY 15–24 (2009); Drew A. Kingston, Paul Fedoroff, Philip Firestone, Susan Curry, John M. Bradford, Pornography Use and Sexual Aggression: The Impact of Frequency and Type of Pornography Use on Recidivism Among Sexual Offenders 34 AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR 341 (2008); Janet Hinson Shope, When Words Are Not Enough: The Search for the Effect of Pornography on Abused Women VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN 56 (2004); Josetta L. Carr & Karen M. VanDeusen, Risk Factors for Male Sexual Aggression on College Campuses 15 JOURNAL OF FAMILY VIOLENCE 279 (2000) (“S.C.R. 009 Resolution on the Public Health Crisis, Sponsored by Senator Todd Weiler, written by the National Center on Sexual Exploitation, February 2016, http://utahcoalition.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Utah-Resolution-Updated-and-Revised-1-52016.pdf)

“Treats women and children as objects” (APA Report, THE SEXUALIZATION OF GIRLS, (2010); Jochen Peter & Patti Valkenburg, Adolescents’ Exposure to a Sexualized Media Environment and Their Notions of Women as Sex Objects, 56 SEX ROLES 381–395 (2007); Elizabeth Oddone Paolucci, Mark Genuis & Claudio Violato, A Meta-Analysis of the Published Research on the Effects of

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

272

Pornography, NATIONAL FOUNDATION FOR FAMILY RESEARCH AND EDUCATION (Calgary, Alberta, University of Calgary, 2000); Doug McKenzie-Mohr and Mark P. Zanna, Treating Women as Sexual Objects: Look to the (Gender Schematic) Male Who Has Viewed Pornography, 16 PERSONALITY & SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN 296–308 (1990) (“S.C.R. 009 Resolution on the Public Health Crisis, Sponsored by Senator Todd Weiler, written by the National Center on Sexual Exploitation, February 2016, http://utahcoalition.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Utah-Resolution-Updated-andRevised-1-5-2016.pdf)

Pornography “has potential detrimental effect on the user such as:” “Emotional, mental and medical illnesses” (

Thomas Edward Kaspera, Mary Beth Shorta & Alex Clinton Milam, Narcissim and Internet Pornography Use 41 JOURNAL OF SEX & MARITAL THERAPY 481 (2015); Valerie Voon, Thomas B. Mole, Paula Banca, Laura Porter, Laurel Morris, Simon Mitchell, Tatyana R. Lapa, Judy Karr, Neil A. Harrison, Marc N. Potenza & Michael Irvine, Neural Correlates of Sexual Cue Reactivity in Individuals with and without Compulsive Sexual Behaviors, 9 PLOS ONE, July, 2014; Thomas M. Mick & Eric Hollander, Impulsive-Compulsive Sexual Behavior, 11 CNS SPECTRUMS 944 (2006). Mary Anne Layden, lecture at the Pornography: A Public Health Crisis U.S. Capitol Symposium: Sexual Obesity: Research on the Public Health Crisis of Pornography (July 14, 2015); Valerie Voon, Thomas B. Mole, Paula Banca, Laura Porter, Laurel Morris, Simon Mitchell, Tatyana R. Lapa, Judy Karr, Neil A. Harrison, Marc N. Potenza & Michael Irvine, Neural Correlates of Sexual Cue Reactivity in Individuals with and without Compulsive Sexual Behaviors, 9 PLOS ONE, July, 2014) (“S.C.R. 009 Resolution on the Public Health Crisis, Sponsored by Senator Todd Weiler, written by the National Center on Sexual Exploitation, February 2016, http://utahcoalition.org/wpcontent/uploads/2016/02/Utah-Resolution-Updated-and-Revised-1-5-2016.pdf)

“Shaping deviant sexual arousal” (Melissa Farley, Emily Schuckman, Jacqueline Golding, Kristen Houser, Laura Jarett, Peter Qualliotine & Michelle Decker, Paper presented at Psychologists for Social Responsibility Annual Meeting: Comparing Sex Buyers with Men who Don’t Buy Sex: ”You can have a good time with the servitude” vs. “You’re supporting a system of degradation” (July 15, 2011); Kevin M. Williams, Barry S. Cooper, Teresa M. Howel, John C. Yuille, & Delroy L. Paulhus, Inferring Sexually Deviant Behavior from Corresponding Fantasies: The Role of Personality and Pornography Consumption, 36 CRIMINAL JUSTICE & BEHAVIOR 198 (2008) (“S.C.R. 009 Resolution on the Public Health Crisis, Sponsored by Senator Todd Weiler, written by the National Center on Sexual Exploitation, February 2016, http://utahcoalition.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Utah-Resolution-Updated-andRevised-1-5-2016.pdf)

“Difficulty forming or maintaining intimate relationships” (Thomas Edward Kaspera, Mary Beth Shorta & Alex Clinton Milam, Narcissim and Internet Pornography Use 41 JOURNAL OF SEX & MARITAL THERAPY 481 (2015); Malcolm & Naufal, 2014; Chyng Sun, Ana Bridges, Jennifer Johnson & Matt Ezzell, Pornography and the Male Sexual Script: An Analysis of Consumption and Sexual Relations ARCHIVES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR, December, 2014; Paul Wright, Robert Tokunaga & Soyoung Bae, More than a Dalliance? Pornography Consumption and Extramarital Sex Attitudes among Married U.S. Adults 3 PSYCHOLOGY OF POPULAR MEDIA & CULTURE 97 (2014); Amanda Maddox, Galena Rhoades & Howard Markman, Viewing Sexually-Explicit Materials Alone or Together: Associations with Relationship Quality 40 ARCHHIVES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR 441 (2009); PAMELA PAUL, PORNIFIED: HOW PORNOGRAPHY IS DAMAGING OUR LIVES, OUR RELATIONSHIPS, AND OUR FAMILIES (New York Times Books, 2005); Steven Stack, Ira Wasserman & Roger Kern, Adult Social Bonds and Use of Internet Pornography 85 SOCIAL SCIENCE QUARTERLY 75 (2004) (“S.C.R. 009 Resolution on the Public Health Crisis, Sponsored by Senator Todd Weiler, written by the National Center on Sexual Exploitation, February 2016, http://utahcoalition.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/UtahResolution-Updated-and-Revised-1-5-2016.pdf)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

273

“Brain development and functioning” (Simon Kuhn & Jurgen Gallinat, Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity Associated With Pornography Consumption: The Brain on Porn 71 JAMA PSYCHIATRY 827 (2014); Valerie Voon, Thomas B. Mole, Paula Banca, Laura Porter, Laurel Morris, Simon Mitchell, Tatyana R. Lapa, Judy Karr, Neil A. Harrison, Marc N. Potenza & Michael Irvine, Neural Correlates of Sexual Cue Reactivity in Individuals with and without Compulsive Sexual Behaviors, 9 PLOS ONE, July, 2014; Kyle Pitchers, Vincent Vialou, Eric Nestler, Steven Laviolette, Michael Lehman, & Lique Coolen, Natural and Drug Rewards Act on Common Neural Plasticity Mechanisms with FosB as a Key Mediator
33 THE JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE 3434 (2013); Donald L. Hilton, Pornography Addiction – A Supranormal Stimulus Considered in the Context of Neuroplasticity 3 SOCIOEFFECTIVE NEUROSCIENCE & PSYCHOLOGY 20767 (2013) (“S.C.R. 009 Resolution on the Public Health Crisis, Sponsored by Senator Todd Weiler, written by the National Center on Sexual Exploitation, February 2016, http://utahcoalition.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Utah-Resolution-Updated-and-Revised-1-52016.pdf)

“Problematic or harmful sexual behaviors” (Chyng Sun, Ana Bridges, Jennifer Johnson & Matt Ezzell, Pornography and the Male Sexual Script: An Analysis of Consumption and Sexual Relations ARCHIVES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR, December, 2014; Kevin M. Williams, Barry S. Cooper, Teresa M. Howel, John C. Yuille, & Delroy L. Paulhus, Inferring Sexually Deviant Behavior from Corresponding Fantasies: The Role of Personality and Pornography Consumption, 36 CRIMINAL JUSTICE & BEHAVIOR 198 (2008); Kelly Cue Davis, Jeanette Noris, William George, Joel Martell & Julia Heiman, Men’s Likelihood of Sexual Aggression: The Influence of Alcohol, Sexual Arousal, and Violent Pornography, 2006; Malamuth, Centini, Repeated Exposure to Violent and Nonviolent Pornography: Likelihood of Raping Ratings and Laboratory Aggression Against Women, 2006; Mick & Hollander, Impulsive-Compulsive Sexual Behavior 32 AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR 581 (2006); Venessa Vega & Neil M. Malamuth, Predicting Sexual Agression: The Role of Pornography in the Context of General and Specific Risk Factors, 33 AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR 104 (2006); Janet Hinson Shope, When Words Are Not Enough: The Search for the Effect of Pornography on Abused Women 10 VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN 56 (2004); Raquel Bergen & Kathleen Bogle, Exploring the Connection between Pornography and Sexual Violence 15 VIOLENCE AND VICTIMS 227 (2000); Azy Barak, William Fisher, Sandra Belfry & Darrel Lashambe, Sex, Guys, and Cyberspace: Effects of Internet Pornography and Individual Differences on Men’s Attitudes toward Women 11 JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY & HUMAN SEXUALITY 63 (1999) (“S.C.R. 009 Resolution on the Public Health Crisis, Sponsored by Senator Todd Weiler, written by the National Center on Sexual Exploitation, February 2016, http://utahcoalition.org/wpcontent/uploads/2016/02/Utah-Resolution-Updated-and-Revised-1-5-2016.pdf)

“Addiction” (Donald L. Hilton, Pornography Addcition – A Supranormal Stimulus Considered in the Context of Neuroplasticity 3 SOCIOEFFECTIVE NEUROSCIENCE & PSYCHOLOGY 20767 (2013); Valerie Voon, Thomas B. Mole, Paula Banca, Laura Porter, Laurel Morris, Simon Mitchell, Tatyana R. Lapa, Judy Karr, Neil A. Harrison, Marc N. Potenza & Michael Irvine, Neural Correlates of Sexual Cue Reactivity in Individuals with and without Compulsive Sexual Behaviors, 9 PLOS ONE, July, 2014; Kyle Pitchers, Vincent Vialou, Eric Nestler, Steven Laviolette, Michael Lehman, & Lique Coolen, Natural and Drug Rewards Act on Common Neural Plasticity Mechanisms with FosB as a Key Mediator
33 THE JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE 3434 (2013); Donald L. Hilton & Clark Watts, Pornography Addiction; A Neuroscience Perspective 2 SURGICAL NEUROLOGY INTERNATIONAL 2:19 2011; NORMAN DOIGE, Chapter 4: Acquiring Tastes and Loves: What Neuroplasticity Teaches About Sexual Attraction and Love, in THE BRAIN THAT CHANGES ITSELF (December 18, 2007). (“S.C.R. 009 Resolution on the Public Health Crisis, Sponsored by Senator Todd Weiler, written by the National Center on Sexual Exploitation, February 2016, http://utahcoalition.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Utah-Resolution-Updated-andRevised-1-5-2016.pdf)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

274

“Is potentially biologically addictive which means the user requires more novelty, which is often more shocking material, in order to be satisfied.” (Donald L. Hilton, Pornography Addcition – A Supranormal Stimulus Considered in the Context of Neuroplasticity 3 SOCIOEFFECTIVE NEUROSCIENCE & PSYCHOLOGY 20767 (2013); Valerie Voon, Thomas B. Mole, Paula Banca, Laura Porter, Laurel Morris, Simon Mitchell, Tatyana R. Lapa, Judy Karr, Neil A. Harrison, Marc N. Potenza & Michael Irvine, Neural Correlates of Sexual Cue Reactivity in Individuals with and without Compulsive Sexual Behaviors, 9 PLOS ONE, July, 2014; Kyle Pitchers, Vincent Vialou, Eric Nestler, Steven Laviolette, Michael Lehman, & Lique Coolen, Natural and Drug Rewards Act on Common Neural Plasticity Mechanisms with FosB as a Key Mediator
33 THE JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE 3434 (2013); Donald L. Hilton & Clark Watts, Pornography Addiction; A Neuroscience Perspective 2 SURGICAL NEUROLOGY INTERNATIONAL 2:19 2011; NORMAN DOIGE, Chapter 4: Acquiring Tastes and Loves: What Neuroplasticity Teaches About Sexual Attraction and Love, in THE BRAIN THAT CHANGES ITSELF (December 18, 2007). (“S.C.R. 009 Resolution on the Public Health Crisis, Sponsored by Senator Todd Weiler, written by the National Center on Sexual Exploitation, February 2016, http://utahcoalition.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Utah-Resolution-Updated-andRevised-1-5-2016.pdf)

“Pornography has led to:” “Increasing themes of risky sexual behaviors” “Extreme degradation” “Violence” “Child sexual abuse image / child pornography” (Melissa Farley, Emily Schuckman, Jacqueline Golding, Kristen Houser, Laura Jarett, Peter Qualliotine & Michelle Decker, Paper presented at Psychologists for Social Responsibility Annual Meeting: Comparing Sex Buyers with Men who Don’t Buy Sex: ”You can have a good time with the servitude” vs. “You’re supporting a system of degradation” (July 15, 2011); Ana Bridges, Robert Wosnitzer, Erica Scharrer, Chyng Sun & Rachel Liberman, Aggression and Sexual Behavior in Best-Selling Pornography Videos: Content Analysis Update, 16 VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN 1065–1085 (2010) (“S.C.R. 009 Resolution on the Public Health Crisis, Sponsored by Senator Todd Weiler, written by the National Center on Sexual Exploitation, February 2016, http://utahcoalition.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Utah-Resolution-Updated-and-Revised-1-52016.pdf)

“Pornography use has a detrimental effect on the family as it is linked to:” “Lessening desire in young men to marry” (Michael Malcolm & George Naufal, Are Pornography and Marriage Substitutes for Young Men? INSTITUTE OF THE STUDY OF LABOR (November 2014). (“S.C.R. 009 Resolution on the Public Health Crisis, Sponsored by Senator Todd Weiler, written by the National Center on Sexual Exploitation, February 2016, http://utahcoalition.org/wpcontent/uploads/2016/02/Utah-Resolution-Updated-and-Revised-1-5-2016.pdf)

“Dissatisfaction in marriage”( PAMELA PAUL, PORNIFIED: HOW PORNOGRAPHY IS DAMAGING OUR LIVES, OUR RELATIONSHIPS, AND OUR FAMILIES (New York Times Books, 2005); Steven Stack, Ira Wasserman & Roger Kern, Adult Social Bonds and Use of Internet Pornography 85 SOCIAL SCIENCE QUARTERLY 75 (2004) (“S.C.R. 009 Resolution on the Public Health Crisis, Sponsored by Senator Todd Weiler, written by the National Center on Sexual Exploitation, February 2016, http://utahcoalition.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Utah-Resolution-Updated-and-Revised-1-52016.pdf)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

275

“Infidelity” (Amanda Maddox, Galena Rhoades & Howard Markman, Viewing Sexually-Explicit Materials Alone or Together: Associations with Relationship Quality 40 ARCHHIVES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR 441 (2009); Paul Wright, Robert Tokunaga & Soyoung Bae, More than a Dalliance? Pornography Consumption and Extramarital Sex Attitudes among Married U.S. Adults 3 PSYCHOLOGY OF POPULAR MEDIA & CULTURE 97 (2014) (“S.C.R. 009 Resolution on the Public Health Crisis, Sponsored by Senator Todd Weiler, written by the National Center on Sexual Exploitation, February 2016, http://utahcoalition.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Utah-Resolution-Updated-and-Revised-1-52016.pdf)

“Those who claim pornography is harmless entertainment, benign sexual expression or a marital aid, have clearly never sat in a therapist’s office with individual, couples or families who are reeling from the devastating effects of this material.” (Jill C. Manning, Ph.D., July 2008, “The Impact of Pornography on Women: Social Science Findings and Clinical Observation”, http://afaofpa.org/wp-content/uploads/TheImpact-of-Pornography-on-Women.pdf)

“No mass social disorder has ever come under control just by treating the individual.” (John Stonestreet, Life Site News, August 7, 2015, “We need to treat porn like what it is: a public health hazard”, https://www.lifesitenews.com/opinion/we-need-to-treat-porn-like-what-it-is-apublic-health-hazard)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

276

“Pornography & Public Health Research Summary – Prepared by the National Center on Sexual Exploitation”

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

277

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

278

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

279

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

280

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

281

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

282

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

283

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

284

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

285

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

286

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

287

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

288

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

289

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

290

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

291

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

292

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

293

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

294

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

295

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

296

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

297

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

298

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

299

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

300

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

301

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

302

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

303

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

304

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

305

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

306

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

307

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

308

(“Pornography & Public Health Research Summary”, National Center on Sexual /Exploitation, August 2, 2017, http://endsexualexploitation.org/wp-content/uploads/NCOSE_PornographyPublicHealth_ResearchSummary_8-2_17_FINAL-with-logo.pdf)

----------“As a psychiatrist specializing in teens and young adults, I bear witness to an alarming and insidious toxin that has increased in potency over the 15 years of my practice: online pornography. Though often dismissed as harmless, pornography has had a devastating impact on the well – being of many of my patients, and it can affect a person’s mental, physical and social health.” (Shimi Kang, M.D., Contributor, January 16, 2017, U.S. News, “Why Parents Need to Talk to Their Kids About Porn”, http://www.drshimikang.com/2017/01/16/why-parents-need-to-talk-totheir-kids-about-porn-2/)

“Physical, Mental and Social Consequences of Porn” “Learning about sex from pornography, including potentially degrading and violent depictions, is reason for concern. Viewing pornography is not just a moral issue, but has been shown to be harmful to physical and sexual

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

309

health and mental well-being and can influence how viewers believe they should behave in a relationship.” (Shimi Kang, M.D., Contributor, January 16, 2017, U.S. News, “Why Parents Need to Talk to Their Kids About Porn”, http://www.drshimikang.com/2017/01/16/why-parents-need-to-talk-to-their-kids-about-porn-2/)

“Multiple studies have linked porn use or porn addiction to erectile dysfunction, delayed ejaculation, anorgasmia – which a person has difficulty achieving an orgasm – low libido and less brain activation in response to sexual stimuli. In a 2014 brain – scan study, researchers at Germany’s Max Plack Institute for Human Development found several brain changes that correlated with the amount of porn consumed. More time spent viewing porn correlated with a reduction in gray matter in sections of the brain’s reward circuitry, or dorsal striatum, involved in motivation and decision – making. Porn use was also found to be associated with weakened connections at the frontal cortex, suggesting porn may impair willpower.” (Shimi Kang, M.D., Contributor, January 16, 2017, U.S. News, “Why Parents Need to Talk to Their Kids About Porn”, http://www.drshimikang.com/2017/01/16/why-parents-need-to-talk-to-their-kidsabout-porn-2/)

“In the Middlesex study, those who had viewed porn reported a mixture of emotions, including curiosity, shock and confusion. Younger children were more likely to report feeling disturbed and depressed by what they had seen. If a person is consuming more and more pornography, the brain connects being aroused with porn’s graphic and fanciful content. It then becomes more difficult for that individual to be aroused by a real person or a real relationship. These addiction-related brain changes result in many users feeling like something’s wrong with them; they are left feeling empty and depressed.” (Shimi Kang, M.D., Contributor, January 16, 2017, U.S. News, “Why Parents Need to Talk to Their Kids About Porn”, http://www.drshimikang.com/2017/01/16/why-parents-need-totalk-to-their-kids-about-porn-2/)

“Exposure to pornography has implications for adolescent sexual relationships, including an increase in having multiple partners and substance use during sex. Adolescents who frequently visit erotic and sexually explicit websites are more likely to hold sexually permissive attitudes and accepting views on casual sex. In addition, some youth use pornography as an instructional resource – or a way to learn how to have

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

310

sex – imitate what they view, or ask a partner to perform what they saw.” (Shimi Kang, M.D., Contributor, January 16, 2017, U.S. News, “Why Parents Need to Talk to Their Kids About Porn”, http://www.drshimikang.com/2017/01/16/why-parents-need-to-talk-to-their-kids-about-porn2/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

311

#23 WOMEN AND PORN “The Internet era, however, has fostered a level-playing field of sorts and more and more women are producing, viewing and interacting with the sex industry than ever before. Some greet this cultural shift enthusiastically, claiming that it helps women own and express their sexuality. In my office, and the offices of many of my colleagues, however, there appears to be increased insecurity, body image issues, sexual anxieties and relationship difficulties for female consumers of pornography.” (Jill C. Manning, Ph.D., July 2008, “The Impact of Pornography on Women: Social Science Findings and Clinical Observation”, http://afaofpa.org/wp-content/uploads/The-Impact-of-Pornography-on-Women.pdf)

“A committed Christian, she first came across porn at the age of 11 in a magazine that belonged to her brother, and was addicted for eight years before she got her wake-up call when she arranged an anonymous hookup with a man she met over the net. Renaud recalls: ‘I had no friends. No passions. I had one mission and purpose in my life: pornography. Any way I could find it, I would. It didn't matter where I was or what I was doing. Home, school, my friend's houses, summer camp and yes, even church: my addiction came too.’” “Almost half of the women (49 percent) agreed that viewing pornography is acceptable (vs. 67 percent for men) (Carroll et al., 2008) The findings regarding female acceptance are of particular importance because they reveal that the females surveyed were more accepting of pornography than their fathers were just one generation ago (Carroll et al., 2008).” “Generally speaking, North American women are socialized to seek after, if not expect, marital and intimate relationships that foster equality between partners and which are founded upon mutual respect, honesty, shared power and romantic love. In start contrast, pornography promotes and eroticizes power imbalances, discrimination, disrespect, abuse, voyeurism, objectification, and detachment – all of which represent antitheses of relational and marital ideals for Western women. Consequently, when a North American, married woman discovers her husband has been secretly consuming pornography, it is not only devastating to her sense of self and trust, but it often threatens the very foundation upon which she has

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

312

constructed and framed her relational world. She is suddenly confronted with how psychologically, spiritually and sexually split her supposedly ‘modern man’ really is. It is not uncommon for women in this situation to say things like, ‘I have no idea who he really is anymore,’ ‘I feel like I have lived a lie the entire time I have been married,’ or ‘I thought we had a good marriage until this was revealed.’ To add insult to injury, many wives are directly or indirectly blamed for their partner’s pornography use with stinging insinuations that: (a) the marriage relationship must be dissatisfying, (b) she has ‘let herself go’ and is no longer as physically attractive as she once was, (c) she is closed minded to new sexual experiences, or (d) she is overly focused on her children and not attending to her husband’s needs. Too often the woman’s experience of the marital relationship and the historical context of his pornography habit become conveniently dismissed as irrelevant. Consequently, the husband’s pornography use is justified and the effects of pornography use are unchallenged.” “Over and above the intense emotional distress and upheaval, it is critical to acknowledge that women who are married to a pornography consumer can experience a range of very serious risks and impacts that often get dismissed amidst the minimizing, cultural mantra that ‘porn is harmless entertainment’ or ‘just something guys do’. Some of the most significant impacts o women (and society) include: (a) increased risk of marital distress, separation and divorce, (b) increased risk for contacting a sexually transmitted disease from their spouse, (c) increased isolation, and (d) increased risk for abuse.” (Jill C. Manning, Ph.D., July 2008, “The Impact of Pornography on Women: Social Science Findings and Clinical Observation”, http://afaofpa.org/wp-content/uploads/The-Impact-of-Pornography-on-Women.pdf)

----------“In a study of self-identified female ‘cybersex’ addicts, women reported that they preferred engaging in ‘cybersex’ within the context of a relationship (via email or chat room) rather than accessing pornographic images.”

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

313

“The significant difference one study found in the proportion of women who have real-life sexual encounters with their online companions compared to men. It found that 80 percent of women who engaged in these online sexual activities also had real-life sexual encounters with their online partners, compared to the much lower proportion of 33 percent for men. In another study, this time of men who flirted in Internet chat rooms, 78 percent reported they had at least one face-to-face sexual experience with someone they had met through a chat room in the past year.” Self reports also reveal that the tendency to explore new behaviors in ‘offline’ relationships increases with increased online sexual activity.” (Patrick F. Fagan, Ph.D. “The Effects of Pornography on Individuals, Marriage, Family, and Community,https://www.movieguide.org/news-articles/the-effects-of-pornography-on-individualsmarriage-family-and-community.html )

Pornography’s Impact on Marriage and Relationships “Research has shown that men’s use of pornography poses a particular threat to women who are either married to or are in committed relationships with men. For women who seek relationships with men that are respectful, honest, monogamous, and based in romantic love, research on Internet pornography shows that what is depicted is the opposite: lack of respect, abuse, multiple partners, and sexual contact without emotional attachment (Eberstadt & Layden, 2010). Married individuals who report seeing a pornographic movie in the last year are significantly more likely to divorce, to have an affair, and to be less satisfied with their marriage and with life in general (Eberstatdt & Layden). (John D. Foubert, Matthew W. Brosi and Sean Bannon, “Pornography Viewing among Fraternity Men: Effects on Bystander Intervention, Rape Myth Acceptance and Behavioral Intent to Commit Sexual Assault”, Sexual Addiction and Compulsivity, November 28, 2011, https://media.wix.com/ugd/9e4c55_334edae0a4e64f078b8b0479f7c9cb56.pdf)

“In the Zillman- Bryant experiment, the Massive Exposure Group was far more likely to believe women in society really fit the stereotype of the women they saw in pornographic films. They were more likely to believe all women are really ‘as hysterically euphoric in response to just about any sexual or pseudosexual stimulation, and as eager to accommodate seemingly any and every sexual request’ as the porn girls.” (Dolf Zillmann, Jennings Bryant, “Pornography’s Impact on Sexual Satisfaction”, Journal of Applied Scoial

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

314

Psychology, April 1988, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1111/j.15591816.1988.tb00027.x/abstract) (Luke Gilkerson, “Your Brain on Porn”, Covenant Eyes, Accessed July 29, 2016, http://www.covenanteyes.com/brain-ebook/)

RESULT “Participants in the experiment were asked to rate their overall support for women’s rights. Men in the Massive Exposure Group showed a 46% drop in support compared to the No Exposure Group. And among women participants, this drop was an alarming 30%.” (Dolf Zillmann, Jennings Bryant, “Pornography’s Impact on Sexual Satisfaction”, Journal of Applied Scoial Psychology, April 1988, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1988.tb00027.x/abstract) (Luke Gilkerson, “Your Brain on Porn”, Covenant Eyes, Accessed July 29, 2016, http://www.covenanteyes.com/brain-ebook/)

“Women in the pornography industry tend to be survivors of child sexual abuse – three times as many women in the porn industry were sexually abused than in the general population. (Waltman, M. (2014). The politics of legal challenges to pornography. Doctoral Dissertation.) Many women in pornography see their only worth as providing sexual gratification to men. Women in the porn industry are 50% more likely to be living in poverty and twice as likely as the general public to have grown up in poverty.” (DeKeseredy, W. S. & Corsianos, M. (2016). Violence Against Women in Pornography. New York: Routledge.”) (John D. Foubert, “How Pornography Harms”, John Foubert.com, April 2016, http://www.johnfoubert.com/how-porn-harms)

“…sexually transmitted infections (STIs) like chlamydia and gonorrhea are very common among performers, at a rate 64 times higher than in the general population.” (Klausner, J.D., & Katz, K (2011). Occupational health and the adult film industry: Time for a happy ending. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 38 (7), 649-650) (John D. Foubert, “How Pornography Harms”, John Foubert.com, April 2016, http://www.johnfoubert.com/how-porn-harms)

“As a trained counsellor, Renaud now calls women's addiction to pornography ‘widespread and silent’. In almost every case, the women she meets believe they are the only ones ever to have struggled with the issue. ‘Porn and sexual addiction has always been referred to as a man's problem,’ says Renaud. ‘But for women it's an unspoken struggle. We have to give them the opportunity to say: 'Me too.'” (Tanith Carey, “Why More and More Women are Using Pornography”, The Guardian, April 7, 2011, http://www.theguardian.com/culture/2011/apr/07/women-addicted-internet-pornography)

‘“On campuses, one in four women are victims of rape or attempted rape, the film maintains. In another study, reported in the Commonwealth Fund Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

315

Survey of Women's Health, 31 percent of American women said they had been physically or sexually abused by a husband or boyfriend sometime in their lives.’” (Robert Peters, “The Link Between Pornography and Violent Sex Crimes”, Free Public, March, 20014, http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/1218097/posts)

“Why more and more women are using pornography” (Tanith Carey, “Why more and more women are using pornography”, The Guardian, April 7, 2011, http://www.theguardian.com/culture/2011/apr/07/women-addicted-internet-pornography)

“It was an ordinary weekday morning when Caroline first noticed how much pornography was taking over her life. With 15 minutes to go before she was due to leave for a job interview, she opened up her laptop to print off an extra copy of her CV and there, onscreen, was a grab she'd saved from pornhub.com.” (Tanith Carey, “Why more and more women are using pornography”, The Guardian, April 7, 2011, http://www.theguardian.com/culture/2011/apr/07/women-addicted-internet-pornography)

“‘I remember the feeling of being sucked in, really wanting that twominute fix, that numbness I got when I used porn,’ says Caroline. ‘I was stressed out, and I risked being late for my interview, but I pressed play anyway and fast-forwarded it to the bit I wanted. It took two minutes.’ But the relief was to be short-lived. ‘Afterwards I just hated myself for giving in and getting off on images that treated women like pieces of meat. But I kept going back.’” (Tanith Carey, “Why more and more women are using pornography”, The Guardian, April 7, 2011, http://www.theguardian.com/culture/2011/apr/07/women-addicted-internet-pornography)

“Although there is much debate about whether ‘porn addiction’ even exists, Caroline, a 21-year-old English graduate, has just finished seeing a sex addiction therapist to help get her porn habit under control. Having started watching porn out of curiosity when it became available over the internet in her mid-teens, she and her mates used it as a graphic form of sex education. She saw nothing wrong with it, particularly as she was raised in a generation of girls for whom it was seen as hip and liberated to enjoy watching sex.” (Tanith Carey, “Why more and more women are using pornography”, The Guardian, April 7, 2011, http://www.theguardian.com/culture/2011/apr/07/women-addicted-internet-pornography)

“Then, as she entered a depressed job market after university, it became a form of escape, a default she turned to whenever she felt anxious or bored. ‘I'd be stuck at home in front of my laptop on my own all day. I'd wake up with all these ideas for the day – and end up

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

316

surfing for porn, trying to distract myself, eating and then going back for more porn. No one would ever have known. But I didn't get much done. It was like a constant battle between my sexual urges and my self-control. I'd think to myself: 'It's not doing any harm.' But then I started to loathe myself for giving in and wasting so much time on it.’” (Tanith Carey, “Why more and more women are using pornography”, The Guardian, April 7, 2011, http://www.theguardian.com/culture/2011/apr/07/women-addicted-internetpornography)

“Caroline is not alone. While it's accepted that women are watching – and enjoying – porn more and more, it's less recognised that some are also finding it hard to stop. At Quit Porn Addiction, the UK's main porn counselling service, almost one in three clients are women struggling with their own porn use, says founder and counsellor Jason Dean. Two years ago, there were none. While more than six out of 10 women say they view web porn, one study in 2006 by the Internet Filter Review found that 17% of women describe themselves as ‘addicted’.” (Tanith Carey, “Why more and more women are using pornography”, The Guardian, April 7, 2011, http://www.theguardian.com/culture/2011/apr/07/women-addicted-internet-pornography)

“Dean says: ‘I remember getting my first woman contacts about two years ago and thinking that was fairly unusual. Now I'm hearing from about 70 women a year who are coming for their own reasons, not because their male partners have a problem.’” (Tanith Carey, “Why more and more women are using pornography”, The Guardian, April 7, 2011, http://www.theguardian.com/culture/2011/apr/07/women-addicted-internet-pornography)

“There is little difference in the way the genders become hooked, says Jason. There is the same pattern of exposure, addiction, and desensitisation to increasingly hardcore images. The main contrast between male and female porn addicts is how much more guilty women feel. ‘Porn addiction is seen as a man's problem – and therefore not acceptable for women,’ says Dean. ‘There's a real sense among women that it's bad, dirty, wrong and they're often unable to get beyond that.’” (Tanith Carey, “Why more and more women are using pornography”, The Guardian, April 7, 2011, http://www.theguardian.com/culture/2011/apr/07/women-addicted-internet-pornography)

“Orgasm releases a dopamine-oxytocin high that has been compared to a heroin hit, and many regular users of internet porn report experiencing an almost trance-like effect that not only makes them Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

317

feel oblivious to the world, but also gives them a sense of power that they don't have in real life. ‘The PC becomes an erogenous zone. The more you keep trying to put porn out of your mind, the more it keeps popping back in. The brain then learns that porn is the only way to cope with anxiety.’” (Tanith Carey, “Why more and more women are using pornography”, The Guardian, April 7, 2011, http://www.theguardian.com/culture/2011/apr/07/women-addicted-internet-pornography)

“Yet, what strikes you on the porn addiction websites is the real sense of despair and loneliness for the women who get caught up in it – and how early it starts. Many talk of a problem dating back to their early teens, before they've even had a relationship.” (Tanith Carey, “Why more and more women are using pornography”, The Guardian, April 7, 2011, http://www.theguardian.com/culture/2011/apr/07/women-addicted-internet-pornography)

“Psychotherapist Phillip Hodson, of the British Association of Counselling and Psychotherapy, says that in consulting rooms, the issue of woman habitually using porn ‘is something that has not been aired before. It's something new that's just beginning to surface . . . Traditionally women's voices have been against porn. It's seen as more of a male thing, because it's men who are supposed to be visually stimulated. But that doesn't mean that women aren't. Men are just maybe more so.’” (Tanith Carey, “Why more and more women are using pornography”, The Guardian, April 7, 2011, http://www.theguardian.com/culture/2011/apr/07/women-addicted-internet-pornography)

“Women who become regular users can suffer depression and low self-esteem because it can be hard to reconcile their enjoyment of porn with their intellectual dislike of seeing women used as sex objects. ‘Porn has an instant effect on the human body and mind and the psyche, even if you disapprove of what you are seeing . . . So women may find their body is saying yes, even though their mind may be saying no – and that can be upsetting.’” (Tanith Carey, “Why more and more women are using pornography”, The Guardian, April 7, 2011, http://www.theguardian.com/culture/2011/apr/07/women-addicted-internet-pornography)

“But as porn becomes more pervasive, Hodson observes that women are now also using it as a quick way to have sex without emotional investment, just as men traditionally have. ‘For women, just as for men, the internet is able to satisfy that need in rather a raw, crude sense, quickly and easily. Why serenade someone and go through all

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

318

the courtship rituals with another person when you have Google?’” (Tanith Carey, “Why more and more women are using pornography”, The Guardian, April 7, 2011, http://www.theguardian.com/culture/2011/apr/07/women-addicted-internetpornography)

“But it's important not to turn lone use of porn into a catastrophe, adds Hodson. For many women, it's a phase that will pass – either because they take stock, they realise it's becoming a problem, it becomes boring – or their life fills up again with better alternatives.” (Tanith Carey, “Why more and more women are using pornography”, The Guardian, April 7, 2011, http://www.theguardian.com/culture/2011/apr/07/women-addicted-internetpornography)

“‘I have a problem with the word addiction,’ he says. ‘Sex is a very natural function – and what is an abnormal level of sex to have or to want? If a woman is taking two minutes to orgasm to porn, and she's doing it, say, 10 times a day, that's still only 20 minutes a day.” (Tanith Carey, “Why more and more women are using pornography”, The Guardian, April 7, 2011, http://www.theguardian.com/culture/2011/apr/07/women-addicted-internetpornography)

“‘But if porn does become a habit that interferes in other areas, it might be an opportunity to take stock and realise there's not enough happening in your life. Forgive yourself for being tempted and having a few orgasms. If it goes beyond that, there are people outside who can help.’” (Tanith Carey, “Why more and more women are using pornography”, The Guardian, April 7, 2011, http://www.theguardian.com/culture/2011/apr/07/womenaddicted-internet-pornography)

“The first support group in the US run for women by women was founded by Crystal Renaud, who also wrote a new book on women's addiction to porn, called Dirty Girls Come Clean.” (Tanith Carey, “Why more and more women are using pornography”, The Guardian, April 7, 2011, http://www.theguardian.com/culture/2011/apr/07/women-addicted-internet-pornography)

“A committed Christian, she first came across porn at the age of 11 in a magazine that belonged to her brother, and was addicted for eight years before she got her wake-up call when she arranged an anonymous hook-up with a man she met over the net. Renaud recalls: ‘I had no friends. No passions. I had one mission and purpose in my life: pornography. Any way I could find it, I would. It didn't matter where I was or what I was doing. Home, school, my friend's houses, summer camp and yes, even church: my addiction came Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

319

too.’ (Tanith Carey, “Why more and more women are using pornography”, The Guardian, April 7, 2011, http://www.theguardian.com/culture/2011/apr/07/womenaddicted-internet-pornography)

“‘Porn. Masturbation. Cybersex. Webcam sex. Phone sex. Anything you could think up, I watched, experienced and enjoyed. No matter how many times I said I would stop, I would just keep doing it.’” (Tanith Carey, “Why more and more women are using pornography”, The Guardian, April 7, 2011, http://www.theguardian.com/culture/2011/apr/07/women-addicted-internetpornography)

“As a trained counsellor, Renaud now calls women's addiction to pornography ‘widespread and silent’. In almost every case, the women she meets believe they are the only ones ever to have struggled with the issue. ‘Porn and sexual addiction has always been referred to as a man's problem,’ says Renaud. ‘But for women it's an unspoken struggle. We have to give them the opportunity to say: 'Me too.'” (Tanith Carey, “Why more and more women are using pornography”, The Guardian, April 7, 2011, http://www.theguardian.com/culture/2011/apr/07/womenaddicted-internet-pornography)

“The Nature and Dynamics Of Internet Pornography Exposure For Youth” “Considerable numbers of boys and girls had seen images of paraphilic or criminal sexual activity, including child pornography and sexual violence, at least once before the age of 18. Girls were significantly more likely than boys (42.3% of girls; 6.8% of boys, p 0.001) to report never looking for pornography on purpose, indicating they were involuntarily exposed.” (Chiara Sabrina, Janis Wolak, David Finkelhor, “The Nature and Dynamics of Internet Pornography Exposure for Youth”, University of New Hampshire, 2008, http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/pdf/CV169.pdf)

“…boys were significantly more likely to report feeling sexual excitement (80% of boys, 27% of girls).” (Chiara Sabrina, Janis Wolak, David Finkelhor, “The Nature and Dynamics of Internet Pornography Exposure for Youth”, University of New Hampshire, 2008, http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/pdf/CV169.pdf)

“Bridges and Patricia Morokoff, PhD, reported similar findings: When men used porn, they tended to report lower levels of sexual intimacy in their real-life relationships. When women used porn, however, Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

320

intimacy increased (Personal Relationships, 2011).” (Kirsten Weir, “Is Pornography Addictive”, American Psychological Association, April 2014, http://www.apa.org/monitor/2014/04/pornography.aspx)

“Bridges points to two possible explanations for the finding. First, she says, while men tend to view pornography solo, women are more likely to watch it with their partners in a shared sexual experience. ‘This was something that they incorporated into their lovemaking ritual,’ she says.” (Kirsten Weir, “Is Pornography Addictive”, American Psychological Association, April 2014, http://www.apa.org/monitor/2014/04/pornography.aspx)

“Also, men and women typically use different types of porn. Men are more often drawn to videos showing sex acts absent of context. ‘You might not even see anybody's face,’ she says. Women, though, tend to watch ‘couples porn,’ with story lines and softer angles. ‘When partners use porn together, they tend to watch things where both people are more egalitarian participants in a sexual act,’ Bridges says.” (Kirsten Weir, “Is Pornography Addictive”, American Psychological Association, April 2014, http://www.apa.org/monitor/2014/04/pornography.aspx)

“Women Lose Their Value” “‘Husbands, love your wives, just as Christ also loved the church and gave Himself for it, that He might sanctify and cleanse it with the washing of water by the word, and that He might present to Himself a glorious church, not having spot, or wrinkle, or any such thing, but that it should be holy and without blemish. In this way men ought to love their wives as their own bodies. He who loves his wife loves himself. For no one ever hated his own flesh, but nourishes and cherishes it, just as the Lord cares for the church’ (Eph. 5:25-29).” (Meredith Curtis, “5 Ways Pornography Devastates Lives”, Charisma News, June 23, 2015, http://www.charismanews.com/opinion/50198-5-ways-pornography-devastates-lives)

“Women Try to Be Pornography” “As women lose their value in our culture, the only way young girls believe they can get attention from boys is to be pornography. As a result, young girls and older ladies wear skimpy, tight clothing designed to stir up lust in guys. However, God's word mentions modesty and propriety.” (Meredith Curtis, “5 Ways Pornography Devastates Lives”, Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

321

Charisma News, June 23, 2015, http://www.charismanews.com/opinion/50198-5-wayspornography-devastates-lives)

“‘In like manner also, that women clothe themselves in modest clothing, with decency and self-control, not with braided hair, gold, pearls, or expensive clothing (1 Tim. 2:9).’” (Meredith Curtis, “5 Ways Pornography Devastates Lives”, Charisma News, June 23, 2015, http://www.charismanews.com/opinion/50198-5-ways-pornography-devastates-lives)

“Why More And More Women Are Using Pornography” “A committed Christian, she first came across porn at the age of 11 in a magazine that belonged to her brother, and was addicted for eight years before she got her wake-up call when she arranged an anonymous hookup with a man she met over the net. Renaud recalls: ‘I had no friends. No passions. I had one mission and purpose in my life: pornography. Any way I could find it, I would. It didn't matter where I was or what I was doing. Home, school, my friend's houses, summer camp and yes, even church: my addiction came too.’”

“The Effects of Pornography on the Spouse and Marriage” “When a wife discovers her husband’s pornography use, the emotions experienced are similar to the grieving process associated with the death of a loved one: shock, disbelief or denial, anger, depression and, finally, acceptance. Acknowledging, accepting and allowing those feelings to take their course are important. Pornography frequently changes the addict’s personality, influences the way he treats others and causes an emotional distance from those around him. The spouse often feels betrayed, rejected, abandoned and unimportant. Feelings of deep loneliness and responsibility for the addiction are almost universal. Anger at the addicted spouse and even toward God is common. ‘I did everything I was supposed to do. Is this what I get for it?’ They may feel abandoned not only physically and emotionally, but also spiritually.” (“Safety Net – Resources to Protect Your Family from Pornography,” Healthy Sandy Partnership, www.healthysandy.org/fileadmin/downloads/healthy_sandy/Ecclesiastical_Packet.pdf)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

322

“Pornography addicts frequently pressure their spouses to keep the issue private. This isolation compounds the downward spiral of unhealthy feelings and counter-productive behavior. Without appropriate help and counseling, the emotional, physical and spiritual health of the spouse will deteriorate.” (“Safety Net – Resources to Protect Your Family from Pornography,” Healthy Sandy Partnership, www.healthysandy.org/fileadmin/downloads/healthy_sandy/Ecclesiastical_Packet.pdf)

“Pornography use may eventually lead to divorce. Statistically, fiftyfive percent of divorces are related to pornography. Nevertheless, a large number of couples are able to find recovery and healing through recognition of this addiction and by seeking appropriate help. Several factors influence the probability of healing the relationship:” (“Safety Net – Resources to Protect Your Family from Pornography,” Healthy Sandy Partnership, www.healthysandy.org/fileadmin/downloads/healthy_sandy/Ecclesiastical_Packet.pdf)

“Is pornography a problem for women?” “While pornography use is currently not as common among women as it is for men, the number of women who view pornography is rapidly increasing. Seventy percent of new pornography websites are geared towards women. Pornography addiction in women frequently takes different forms than for men. For example, men tend to respond to visual images, while women initially tend to be more drawn to verbal and written forms of pornography such as graphic romance novels, explicit chat rooms, or online romantic role playing. Many women are drawn into social media relationships that can lead to the production of self-pornography for dissemination to individuals they meet online. Some women agree to watch pornography with their boyfriend or husband as a way to “spice up” the relationship or in an ineffective attempt to keep him from viewing it alone. In many cases, women can become addicted to the pornographic material. The same dangers of addiction and the same process of recovery that apply to men also apply to women.” (“Safety Net – Resources to Protect Your Family from Pornography,” Healthy Sandy Partnership, www.healthysandy.org/fileadmin/downloads/healthy_sandy/Ecclesiastical_Packet.pdf)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

323

“The Battle Plan” “Stimulus or Trigger. One encounters something which activates the sequence. (Internet ad, mindlessly searching on YouTube)” (Matt Fradd, “The Battle Plan”, Covenant Eyes, 2015, http://www.covenanteyes.com/five-step-battle-plan-to-fighting-porn/)

“Emotional Response. One has an emotional response (instant excitement, interest or curiosity)” (Matt Fradd, “The Battle Plan”, Covenant Eyes, 2015, http://www.covenanteyes.com/five-step-battle-plan-to-fighting-porn/)

“Thought. Almost simultaneously with the emotion is a thought. (‘What will I see;’ ‘ can look at pornography;’ ‘no one has to know’).” (Matt Fradd, “The Battle Plan”, Covenant Eyes, 2015, http://www.covenanteyes.com/five-stepbattle-plan-to-fighting-porn/)

Women and Porn “THE IMPACT OF PORNOGRAPHY ON MARITAL RELATIONSHIPS” “Women who watch pornography do not necessarily have more sex; however, they tend to have higher rates of depression and lower self-worth, and they are less engaged with their university than women who avoid pornography. That these sex differences exist is logical, given that the content of pornography features male violence toward women with little to no violence by women toward men (Bridges et al., 2010).” (John D. Foubert and Ana J. Bridges, “Predicting Bystander Efficacy and Willingness to Intervene in College Men and Women: The Role of Exposure to Varying Levels of Violence in Pornography”, Sage Publishing, 2016, http://media.wix.com/ugd/9e4c55_3005afc5635d414188270d248dc9bac4.pdf)

“Men viewed both violent/degrading and explicit but non-degrading pornography more frequently than women (ps < .001). When examining bystander variables, men and women reported statistically equivalent levels of perceived bystander efficacy (p > .05), but women self-reported greater willingness to intervene than did men (p < .001).” (John D. Foubert and Ana J. Bridges, “Predicting Bystander Efficacy and Willingness to Intervene in College Men and Women: The Role of Exposure to Varying Levels of Violence in Pornography”, Sage Publishing, 2016, http://media.wix.com/ugd/9e4c55_3005afc5635d414188270d248dc9bac4.pdf)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

324

“When women discover that they are in a relationship with a man who views pornography, they often report feelings of emotional infidelity, perceptions of their partner as a liar, pervert, sex addict, or selfish, and in marriages they often consider or file for divorce (Bergen & Bridges; 2002; Manning, 2006; Whitty, 2003). Women report sexual inadequacy, insecurity about their appearance, worthlessness, loss, depression, and betrayal (Manning, 2006; Schneider, 2000).” (John D. Foubert, Matthew W. Brosi and Sean Bannon, “Pornography Viewing among Fraternity Men: Effects on Bystander Intervention, Rape Myth Acceptance and Behavioral Intent to Commit Sexual Assault”, Sexual Addiction and Compulsivity, November 28, 2011, https://media.wix.com/ugd/9e4c55_334edae0a4e64f078b8b0479f7c9cb56.pdf)

“Research has shown a positive correlation between women’s acceptance of pornography and their psychological well-being (Carroll et al., 2008). Still, more research is needed on women as direct consumers of por nography, particularly regarding the effects on women’s intra- and interpersonal development.” (Matthew W. Brosi, John D. Foubert, R. Sean Bannon, and Gabe Yandell, “Effects of women’s pornography use on bystander intervention in a sexual assault situation and rape myth acceptance”, The Research Journal of the Association of Fraternity/Sorority Advisors, 2011, https://works.bepress.com/john_foubert/8/)

“…what are the markers of the pornographic genre that identifies as “feminist porn?” Dr. Whisnant reports,” (John D. Foubert, “How Pornography Harms”, John Foubert.com, April 2016, http://www.johnfoubert.com/how-porn-harms)

“What makes the difference to them, what makes material ‘feminist’ in their view, is authenticity. That is, it’s not scripted, it is not fake, it represents the real desires of the people who are performing, particularly the women. Another element that is supposed to make ‘feminist porn’ different is mixing up roles and representations, so that it is not always men shown being dominant and women in a submissive role.” (John D. Foubert, “How Pornography Harms”, John Foubert.com, April 2016, http://www.johnfoubert.com/how-porn-harms)

“But it's not always that simple. In a 2013 study, researchers at Brigham Young University and the University of Missouri surveyed heterosexual couples who were married or living together and found that men's use of porn was associated with lower sexual quality for both men and their partners. Female use of porn, however, was associated with improved

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

325

sexual quality for women (Journal of Sex Research, 2013).” (Kirsten Weir, “Is Pornography Addictive”, American Psychological Association, April 2014, http://www.apa.org/monitor/2014/04/pornography.aspx)

“Bridges and Patricia Morokoff, PhD, reported similar findings: When men used porn, they tended to report lower levels of sexual intimacy in their real-life relationships. When women used porn, however, intimacy increased (Personal Relationships, 2011).” (Kirsten Weir, “Is Pornography Addictive”, American Psychological Association, April 2014, http://www.apa.org/monitor/2014/04/pornography.aspx)

“Woman Dating Or Engaged To Man Addicted To Pornography” “If you decide to marry this man, don't expect his addiction to go away on its own once you've said your wedding vows. To be more specific, don't assume that normal marital sexual relations will take the place of porn in his life. No living, breathing, thinking woman can possibly fill that role without doing untold damage to herself as a person. That's because pornography addiction is not about sex. It's a symptom of an intimacy disorder - a comprehensive psychological illness that compels an individual to avoid deep, meaningful interaction with a real human being and to replace it with impersonal sensual imagery. Unless this disorder is addressed and resolved, your relationship cannot move forward on a healthy footing. Marriage will not fix the problem. It will only complicate matters and increase your pain.” (“Woman Dating or Engaged to Man Addicted to Pornography”, Focus on the Family, July 22, 2015, http://family.custhelp.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/26042/~/woman-dating-or-engaged-to-man-addictedto-pornography)

“PORN, NOVELTY AND THE COOLIDGE EFFECT” “He rates her lower not only on attractiveness, but also on warmth and intelligence.” (Gary Wilson, “Porn Novelty and the Coolidge Effect”, Your Brain on Porn, August 8, 2011, http://www.yourbrainonporn.com/porn-novelty-and-the-coolidge-effect)

“That may be the case, but women in relationship with porn spectators reported being less happy in those relationships than gals paired up with men who didn’t view pornography, found research published in 2012 in the journal Sex Roles.” (Tia Ghose, “5 Ways Porn Affects the Brain”, Fox News Health, October 14, 2015, http://www.foxnews.com/health/2015/10/14/5-ways-porn-affects-brain.html) (Tia Ghose, “5 Ways

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

326

Porn Affects the Brain”, Live Science, October 13, 2015, http://www.livescience.com/52469-how-pornaffects-brains.html)

“Over the past few decades, experimental and correlational research has focused on variables associated with pornography exposure. The most prominent of these is sexual aggression. In their review of more than 50 experimental studies and meta-analyses, Malamuth, Addison, and Koss (2000) conclude pornography exposure has a causal but complicated relationship with aggressive behavior; the link between pornography and sexual aggression is much stronger in men with predisposing risk factors such as high rape myth acceptance and low empathy. The associations between pornography and sexual aggression are also present in women. In experimental studies with women, violent pornography exposure, especially in combination with alcohol intoxication, is associated with increased ratings of blame for rape victims, decreased assignment of responsibility to male sexual assault perpetrators, and the belief that victims should accept sexual victimization (Davis, Norris, George, Martell, & Heiman, 2006; Norris, Davis, George, Martell, & Heiman, 2004). Moreover, both men’s and women’s use of pornography has been associated with a decreased selfreported likelihood that they will intervene to prevent sexual assault (Brosi, Foubert, Bannon, & Yandell, 2011; Foubert, Brosi, & Bannon, 2011). Taken together, results support decades-old assertions that pornographic media contribute to a culture of sexual callousness, especially toward violence against women (Zillmann & Bryant, 1982).” (John D. Foubert and Ana J. Bridges, “What is the Attraction? Porngraphy Use Motives in Relation to Bystander Intervention”, Oklahoma State University, 2015, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26209307)

“Some people attribute increased use by women to widespread accessibility and greater anonymity permitted through the Internet (W. A. Fisher & Barak, 2001). Like in men, greater pornography use in women is associated with increased assignment of responsibility to victims and less responsibility to male perpetrators of rape (Davis et al., 2006; Norris et al., 2004) In addition, pornography use in women is associated with greater acceptance of personal sexual victimization (Davis et al., 2006; Norris et al., 2004).” (John D. Foubert and Ana J. Bridges, “What is the Attraction? Porngraphy Use Motives in Relation to Bystander

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

327

Intervention”, Oklahoma State University, 2015, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26209307)

“Notably, research has shown that when actresses in popular mainstream pornographic movies experience physical aggression, 95% of the time they provide either a response of pleasure or no response at all (Bridges et al., 2010). Given that the content of pornography today reinforces the script that women do not resist when hit during a sexual encounter (Bridges et al., 2010), it stands to reason that exposure to pornography sends the message that women enjoy physical aggression during sex. If women internalize the messages that women enjoy violence, it raises a barrier for potential intervention to help another woman who is at current risk of sexual assault (McMahon & Banyard, 2012). It also raises a barrier for men to help women if they internalize the script that women enjoy being aggressed against.” (John D. Foubert and Ana J. Bridges, “What is the Attraction? Porngraphy Use Motives in Relation to Bystander Intervention”, Oklahoma State University, 2015, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26209307)

“Frequent porn users view powerful women, working women and women who have had abortions more favorably than do other men, a study published in August in the Journal of Sex Research found.” (Tia Ghose, “5 Ways Porn Affects the Brain”, Fox News Health, October 14, 2015, http://www.foxnews.com/health/2015/10/14/5-ways-porn-affects-brain.html)

“Even “women’s porn,” porn made by women for women, is produced to arouse and to be sensual” (Dustin Murphy, thefederalist.com, “12 Ways Pornography Just Doesn’t Show Enough,” April 4, 2017, http://thefederalist.com/2017/04/04/12-wayspornography-just-doesnt-show-enough/)

“The first theme these women voiced was that of decreased sexual desire by their partners. As one participant stated, “I am no longer sexually attractive or desirable to him. He’s more attracted to the women depicted in his movies, magazines, and websites than he is to me, and I feel completely unable to compete with these women.” (Bergner, R. M., & Bridges, A. J. (2002). The significance of heavy pornography involvement for romantic partners: Research and clinical implications. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 28, 193–206.) (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

328

“The Impact of Pornography on Women: Social Science Findings and Clinical Observations by Jill C. Manning, Ph.D., LMFT, July 2008” A. “On a recent out -of-state business trip, I encountered a young teenage woman who was wearing a pink tank tip that read, ‘Future Porn Star’ across the chest.” (Jill C. Manning, Ph.D., July 2008, “The Impact of Pornography on Women: Social Science Findings and Clinical Observation”, http://afaofpa.org/wp-content/uploads/The-Impact-of-Pornography-on-Women.pdf)

B. “The pink tank top symbolically underscored the fact that the impact of pornography in today’s social milieu, and on women in particular, is complex, multifaceted and unprecedented.” (Jill C. Manning, Ph.D., July 2008, “The Impact of Pornography on Women: Social Science Findings and Clinical Observation”, http://afaofpa.org/wp-content/uploads/The-Impact-of-Pornography-onWomen.pdf)

C. “Pornography has long since left the seedy back alley world of the pre-Hugh Hefner era to take a socially and economically legitimized place in mainstream popular culture and the global economy (Morais, 1999).” (Jill C. Manning, Ph.D., July 2008, “The Impact of Pornography on Women: Social Science Findings and Clinical Observation”, http://afaofpa.org/wpcontent/uploads/The-Impact-of-Pornography-on-Women.pdf)

D. “Pornography, it could be argued, is altering the cultural zeitgeist in ways we may not come to appreciate or identify until society has paid significant social costs.” (Jill C. Manning, Ph.D., July 2008, “The Impact of Pornography on Women: Social Science Findings and Clinical Observation”, http://afaofpa.org/wp-content/uploads/The-Impact-of-Pornography-on-Women.pdf)

“Those who claim pornography is harmless entertainment, benign sexual expression or a marital aid, have clearly never sat in a therapist’s office with individual, couples or families who are reeling from the devastating effects of this material.” (Jill C. Manning, Ph.D., July 2008, “The Impact of Pornography on Women: Social Science Findings and Clinical Observation”, http://afaofpa.org/wpcontent/uploads/The-Impact-of-Pornography-on-Women.pdf)

“According to Dr. Janice Crouse, a researcher for Concerned Women for America, it is estimated that 600,000-800,000 women, men and children are trafficked internationally each year with another 2 to 4 million trafficked within countries. Women make up 80 percent of humans trafficked and 70

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

329

percent of these women are used for sexual purposes (e.g., prostitution). The U.S. government estimates that 14,500 – 17,500 people are trafficked into the U.S. each year.” (Jill C. Manning, Ph.D., July 2008, “The Impact of Pornography on Women: Social Science Findings and Clinical Observation”, http://afaofpa.org/wpcontent/uploads/The-Impact-of-Pornography-on-Women.pdf)

“A 2002 Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation Report found that 70 percent of youth ages 15 to 17 reported accidentally coming across pornography online, and 23 percent of those youth said this happens ‘very’ or ‘somewhat’ often.” (Jill C. Manning, Ph.D., July 2008, “The Impact of Pornography on Women: Social Science Findings and Clinical Observation”, http://afaofpa.org/wpcontent/uploads/The-Impact-of-Pornography-on-Women.pdf)

“Considering cable television and the Internet are the most common ways adolescents access sexual content (Häggström-Nordin et al., 2005).” (Jill C. Manning, Ph.D., July 2008, “The Impact of Pornography on Women: Social Science Findings and Clinical Observation”, http://afaofpa.org/wp-content/uploads/The-Impact-of-Pornographyon-Women.pdf)

“Zillman (2000) found that frequent exposure to pornography was associated with the following attitudes and dynamics: • “Normalization of adverse reactions to offensive material” • “Increased tolerance toward sexually explicit material, thereby requiring more novel or bizarre material to achieve the same level of arousal or interest” • “Misperceptions about exaggerated sexual activity in the general populace and the prevalence of less common sexual practices (e.g., group sex, bestiality, and sadomasochistic activity)” • “Diminished trust in intimate partners” • “Decreased desire to achieve sexual exclusivity with a partner” • “Increased risk of developing a negative body image, especially for women (Siegel, 1997)” • “Acceptance of promiscuity as a normal state of interaction” • “View sexual inactivity or abstinence constitute a health risk” • “Begin to view love in a cynical manner”

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

330

• “Believe superior sexual satisfaction is attainable without having affection for one’s partner” • “Believe marriage is sexually confining” • “Believe raising children and having a family is as an unattractive prospect” (Jill C. Manning, Ph.D., July 2008, “The Impact of Pornography on Women: Social Science Findings and Clinical Observation”, http://afaofpa.org/wp-content/uploads/The-Impact-ofPornography-on-Women.pdf)

“Three separate studies that focused on adolescents and pornography use specifically found that for males and females there was a strong association between pornography consumption and engaging in oral and anal sex (Rogala & Tydén, 2003; Tydén & Rogala, 2004; Häggström & Nordin, et al, 2005) even though the majority of females described anal intercourse as a negative experience (Rogala & Tydén, 2003).” (Jill C. Manning, Ph.D., July 2008, “The Impact of Pornography on Women: Social Science Findings and Clinical Observation”, http://afaofpa.org/wp-content/uploads/The-Impact-of-Pornographyon-Women.pdf)

“The Internet era, however, has fostered a level-playing field of sorts and more and more women are producing, viewing and interacting with the sex industry than ever before. Some greet this cultural shift enthusiastically, claiming that it helps women own and express their sexuality. In my office, and the offices of many of my colleagues, however, there appears to be increased insecurity, body image issues, sexual anxieties and relationship difficulties for female consumers of pornography.” (Jill C. Manning, Ph.D., July 2008, “The Impact of Pornography on Women: Social Science Findings and Clinical Observation”, http://afaofpa.org/wp-content/uploads/The-Impact-of-Pornography-onWomen.pdf)

“Almost half of the women (49 percent) agreed that viewing pornography is acceptable (vs. 67 percent for men) (Carroll et al., 2008) The findings regarding female acceptance are of particular importance because they reveal that the females surveyed were more accepting of pornography than their fathers were just one generation ago (Carroll et al., 2008).” (Jill C. Manning, Ph.D., July 2008, “The Impact of Pornography on Women: Social Science Findings

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

331

and Clinical Observation”, http://afaofpa.org/wp-content/uploads/The-Impact-of-Pornographyon-Women.pdf)

“For men, ‘pornography use is as common as drinking is among collegeage men’, and a significant number report ‘binging’ on pornography with a similar frequency and intensity than those who binge drink (Carroll et al., 2008, pe.23).” (Jill C. Manning, Ph.D., July 2008, “The Impact of Pornography on Women: Social Science Findings and Clinical Observation”, http://afaofpa.org/wp-content/uploads/TheImpact-of-Pornography-on-Women.pdf)

“Generally speaking, North American women are socialized to seek after, if not expect, marital and intimate relationships that foster equality between partners and which are founded upon mutual respect, honesty, shared power and romantic love. In start contrast, pornography promotes and eroticizes power imbalances, discrimination, disrespect, abuse, voyeurism, objectification, and detachment – all of which represent antitheses of relational and marital ideals for Western women. Consequently, when a North American, married woman discovers her husband has been secretly consuming pornography, it is not only devastating to her sense of self and trust, but it often threatens the very foundation upon which she has constructed and framed her relational world. She is suddenly confronted with how psychologically, spiritually and sexually split her supposedly ‘modern man’ really is. It is not uncommon for women in this situation to say things like, ‘I have no idea who he really is anymore,’ ‘I feel like I have lived a lie the entire time I have been married,’ or ‘I thought we had a good marriage until this was revealed.’ To add insult to injury, many wives are directly or indirectly blamed for their partner’s pornography use with stinging insinuations that: (a) the marriage relationship must be dissatisfying, (b) she has ‘let herself go’ and is no longer as physically attractive as she once was, (c) she is closed minded to new sexual experiences, or (d) she is overly focused on her children and not attending to her husband’s needs. Too often the woman’s experience of the marital relationship and the historical context of his pornography habit become conveniently dismissed as irrelevant. Consequently, the husband’s pornography use is justified and the effects of pornography use are unchallenged.” (Jill C. Manning, Ph.D., July 2008, “The Impact of Pornography on Women:

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

332

Social Science Findings and Clinical Observation”, http://afaofpa.org/wp-content/uploads/TheImpact-of-Pornography-on-Women.pdf)

“Several researchers have found that it is common for women to report feelings of betrayal, loss, mistrust, devastation and anger as responses to the discovery or disclosure of a partner’s pornography use and/or online sexual activity (Bridges, Bergner * Hesson-McInnis, 2003; Manning, 2006; Schneider, 2000a). Some researchers have even suggested that individuals in committed relationships who discover their partner is engaged in compulsive pornography use or other sexually addictive behaviors can manifest symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (Steffens & Rennie, 2006). Additionally, many women experience physiological effects such as fatigue, changes in appetite and libido, and other signs and symptoms of anxiety and depression, including suicidality (Manning, 2006; Wldmon-White & Young, 2002).” (Jill C. Manning, Ph.D., July 2008, “The Impact of Pornography on Women: Social Science Findings and Clinical Observation”, http://afaofpa.org/wp-content/uploads/The-Impact-of-Pornography-onWomen.pdf)

“Over and above the intense emotional distress and upheaval, it is critical to acknowledge that women who are married to a pornography consumer can experience a range of very serious risks and impacts that often get dismissed amidst the minimizing, cultural mantra that ‘porn is harmless entertainment’ or ‘just something guys do’. Some of the most significant impacts o women (and society) include: (a) increased risk of marital distress, separation and divorce, (b) increased risk for contacting a sexually transmitted disease from their spouse, (c) increased isolation, and (d) increased risk for abuse.” (Jill C. Manning, Ph.D., July 2008, “The Impact of Pornography on Women: Social Science Findings and Clinical Observation”, http://afaofpa.org/wpcontent/uploads/The-Impact-of-Pornography-on-Women.pdf)

“At the November 2002 meeting of the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers in Chicago, Illinois regarding the impact of Internet usage on marriages (Dedmon, 2002). This professional organization comprises the nation’s top 1600 divorce and matrimonial law attorneys who specialize in matrimonial law, including divorce and legal separation. At this meeting, 62 percent of the 350 attendees said the Internet had played a role in divorces

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

333

they had handled during the last year, and 56 percent of the divorce cases involved one party having an obsessive interest in pornographic websites (Dedmon, 2002).” (Jill C. Manning, Ph.D., July 2008, “The Impact of Pornography on Women: Social Science Findings and Clinical Observation”, http://afaofpa.org/wpcontent/uploads/The-Impact-of-Pornography-on-Women.pdf)

“In my qualitative, doctoral research with wives of sex addicts (n=25; 100 percent of which had reported pornography being an issue in their marriage), the majority of participants (68.18 percent) had experienced some form of isolation while dealing with this problem (e.g., emotional, spiritual, physical or social) (Manning, 2006).” (Jill C. Manning, Ph.D., July 2008, “The Impact of Pornography on Women: Social Science Findings and Clinical Observation”, http://afaofpa.org/wp-content/uploads/The-Impact-of-Pornography-on-Women.pdf)

“A growing number of researchers and clinicians are beginning to recognize a connection between pornography use and abuse in marriage (Laaser, 1996; Wildmon-White & Young, 2002; Ryu, 2004; Hinson Shope, 2004). It is not uncommon for wives of pornography users to report being asked to reenact pornographic scenes, consume pornography with their partner, or be pressured or coerced into sexual acts they find uncomfortable or demeaning (Laaser, 1996; Ryu, 2004; Hinson Shope, 2004). While conducting my own doctoral research (Manning, 2006), I was surprised to learn how many women had experienced marital rape when asked about how pornography had impacted their marriage. Unfortunately, my experience as a researcher was not unique. For example, Bergen (1998) found in her research on marital rape that one third of the females in her sample reported that their partner consumed pornography and that there was a correlation between pornography use and the most sadistic rapes. Boeringer (1994) found that men exposed to violent pornography were 6 times more likely to report rape behavior than a low-exposure sample, and Crossman (1995) found pornography use was the strongest correlate of sexual aggression. Furthermore, Cramer and McFarlane (1994) surveyed a sample of women who had been battered and found that: (a) 75 percent of the women had been shown pornography and sked or forced to perform similar sex acts; (b) 64 percent had had pornography described to them and sked or forced to perform similar sex acts; (c) 31 percent had

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

334

been asked to participate in pornographic photographs; and (d) 81 percent had reported rape.” (Jill C. Manning, Ph.D., July 2008, “The Impact of Pornography on Women: Social Science Findings and Clinical Observation”, http://afaofpa.org/wpcontent/uploads/The-Impact-of-Pornography-on-Women.pdf)

“2016 analytics, never-ending attempt to normalize porn in society and make it mainstream. The fact that the site’s global traffic is 26% female.” (“World’s Largest Porn Site Reveals How Women are Watching Porn Like Never Before”, Fight the New Drug, January 17, 2017, http://fightthenewdrug.org/worlds-largest-porn-site-revealswhat-women-are-watching/)

“The country with the highest proportion of female visitors, regardless of population size, was Jamaica with a whopping 46%. This was closely followed by Micronesia and the Bahamas who both chimed in at 42% of their country’s viewers being women.” (“World’s Largest Porn Site Reveals How Women are Watching Porn Like Never Before”, Fight the New Drug, January 17, 2017, http://fightthenewdrug.org/worlds-largest-porn-site-reveals-what-women-are-watching/)

“Women are much more likely to search out videos containing the words “lesbian,” as well as hardcore content such as ‘extreme gangbang.’ Women are also seeking out explicit and even violent depictions of sex.” (“World’s Largest Porn Site Reveals How Women are Watching Porn Like Never Before”, Fight the New Drug, January 17, 2017, http://fightthenewdrug.org/worlds-largest-porn-site-reveals-whatwomen-are-watching/)

“Sexualizing child and parent relationships are some one of the most popular genres of porn means that there is a massive interest in sexually explicit videos of men/women who look and act like fathers/mothers, having sex with a male or female they are supposed to be related to. And if that’s not bad enough, it’s important to note that the search term ‘step sister’ has risen overall from last year to become the third most popular category of porn, with step-dad categories increasing in popularity for women.” (“World’s Largest Porn Site Reveals How Women are Watching Porn Like Never Before”, Fight the New Drug, January 17, 2017, http://fightthenewdrug.org/worlds-largest-porn-site-reveals-whatwomen-are-watching/)

“An in-depth study with fifty-five female prostitution survivors in Portland, Oregon, reported that 53 percent were sexually tortured on average fiftyfour times a year, often while made to participate in pornography (Hunter

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

335

1993, 93-94) (Dworkin and MacKinnon 1997, 265) (Attorney General’s Commission on Pornography 1986, 787-88, n799) (Rimm 1995; Bjornebekk and Evjen 2000, 198).” (Max Waltman, Stockholm University, Sweden, Political Research Quarterly 63, no.1 (2010): 218-37 (contributor-created version), http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1065912909349627)

“Seventy-eight percent of the Portland survivors were also reaped an average of 49 times a year, and 84 percent were victimized through aggravated assault an average of 103 times a year (Hunter 1993, 92-93).” (Max Waltman, Stockholm University, Sweden, Political Research Quarterly 63, no.1 (2010): 218-37 (contributor-created version), http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1065912909349627)

“Linda Boreman was forced to have intercourse or perform fellatio every time she was made to perform in pornography (Lovelace 1980; Dworkin and MacKinnon 1997, 60-65; Linda Marchiano testimony, lie-detector test, 205-13) and hence was raped countless times.” (Max Waltman, Stockholm University, Sweden, Political Research Quarterly 63, no.1 (2010): 218-37 (contributor-created version), http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1065912909349627)

“When look at prostituted women’s childhood sexual abuse prevalence rates range from 50 percent to 90 percent in various studies (see, e.g., Farley et al.2003; citing studies, 43; original data; see also MacKinnon 2007, 1251-52; citing studies). Abused children may become runaways and sexually exploited to survive. In a San Francisco study with 200 prostituted females, 70 percent explicitly reported sexual abuse as affecting entry, while more indicated this strongly, and 96 percent of all participating juveniles were runaways (Silbert and Pines 1981b, 410). The median age of entry was thirteen, and several other studies conservatively suggest an average of thirteen to fourteen (Farley et al. 2003, 35; citing studies; Leidholdt 1993, 136n3; citing Silbert and Pines 1981a, 397; see also American Psychological Association 2007, 17). (The average woman is estimated to serve five men per day, hence an eighteen year old has been used over 9,000 times if entering at thirteen (Carter and Giobbe 1999, 46).

In a society in which it is virtually imp0ossible for some girls and women to escape homelessness and obtain professional skills, this industry will continue preying on them to make materials, exploiting existing subordination. Considering clients who define prostitution as ‘paid rape’ (Farley 2006, 131) raises the question of why any women would stay. The reason is that they do not have a choice to leave in Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

336

most instances. In nine countries, 89 percent (n=785) explicitly stated that they wished to leave but could not, irrespective of whether prostitution was legalized or not (Farley et al. 2003, 48,51). Most are destitute. Despite the reality of this production, pornography often present women as secretly wanting abuse and hence choosing it freely (see generally Dworkin 1981, 128-98). With all this force need to make women in pornography perform, will consumers use force on other women to experience what has been used through mediation?” (Max Waltman, Stockholm University, Sweden, Political Research Quarterly 63, no.1 (2010): 218-37 (contributor-created version), http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1065912909349627)

“Subsequently, in 2004, the harm standard moved further beyond reach when British Columbia Judge Low, citing Butler and Hawkins among others, acquitted a man accused of producing and distributing (alternatively possessing for this purpose) eleven violent pornography movies, mostly involving bondage, discipline, and sadomasochism (BDSM). R. v. Price, 2004 BCPC 103, [2004] B.C.J. No. 814. The materials presented, among other things, a man verbally abusing a woman and then forcing her to bend backward over a toilet while urinating into her mouth. When her mouth overflows, he ‘punishes’ her by scrubbing the toilet bowl with her head. Judge Low observed that the woman was ‘obviously’ not consenting, Id. 59, and that there was ‘strong evidence simply from the content of the Eleven Videos themselves by which [one] may infer a risk of harm. Id. 88. However, an expert testimony implied ‘consensual BDSM’ to be ‘normal’ sexual behavior, said to be regularly carried out in public. Id. 34-3. Additionally, Judge Low argued that materials presenting men’s violence against women were readily available on the Internet.” (Max Waltman, Stockholm University, Sweden, Political Research Quarterly 63, no.1 (2010): 218-37 (contributor-created version), http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1065912909349627)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

337

#24 MEN AND PORN “Trained to need porn” C997 “David watched his first porn video at age 13 and started using it regularly at 26. When he was in his 20s, his parents began pressuring him to get married. A closeted gay man, the prospect of marrying a woman triggered his compulsive behavior, he said. At 29, he came out, hoping to begin dating and living a ‘normal life,’ but he wasn’t interested in meeting people—it made him uncomfortable. The more he tried to stop watching porn, the deeper and deeper he’d fall into it.” (Heather Schroering, “The Porn Problem,” Chicago Tribune, July 14, 2015, www.chicagotribune.com/news/redeye-porn-addiction-20150714story.html#page=1)

“‘I can't describe obsession with the Internet, that unlimited supply,’ he said. ‘It was like there was a drug dealer living in my laptop.’” (Heather Schroering, “The Porn Problem,” Chicago Tribune, July 14, 2015, www.chicagotribune.com/news/redeye-porn-addiction-20150714-story.html#page=1)

“Internet porn poses a significant risk of addiction:” “It induces a state of hyper-stimulation” (“The Nofap Experiement: A Voyage Through Porn Addiction, Support, and Recovery”, Project Know, September 30, 2013, http://www.projectknow.com/discover/taking-a-whack-at-porn-addiction/#.VcppB_lVhBc)

“Provides constant novelty” (“The Nofap Experiement: A Voyage Through Porn Addiction, Support, and Recovery”, Project Know, September 30, 2013, http://www.projectknow.com/discover/taking-a-whack-at-porn-addiction/#.VcppB_lVhBc)

“Is highly accessible” (“The Nofap Experiement: A Voyage Through Porn Addiction, Support, and Recovery”, Project Know, September 30, 2013, http://www.projectknow.com/discover/taking-a-whack-at-porn-addiction/#.VcppB_lVhBc)

“Costs nothing” (“The Nofap Experiement: A Voyage Through Porn Addiction, Support, and Recovery”, Project Know, September 30, 2013, http://www.projectknow.com/discover/taking-awhack-at-porn-addiction/#.VcppB_lVhBc)

“Can be used in the privacy of one’s own home” (“The Nofap Experiement: A Voyage Through Porn Addiction, Support, and Recovery”, Project Know, September 30, 2013, http://www.projectknow.com/discover/taking-a-whack-at-porn-addiction/#.VcppB_lVhBc)

“Unlike porn in other media, net porn doesn't come in physical formats that must be acquired (and concealed), carry a high cost of ownership, and offer little in the way of variety before becoming ‘stale’. Online porn is Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

338

potentially endless, and often free … most internet porn is fully legal to view. The barriers to accessing net porn anytime, anywhere, are largely nonexistent: it's always just a click away.” (“The Nofap Experiement: A Voyage Through Porn Addiction, Support, and Recovery”, Project Know, September 30, 2013, http://www.projectknow.com/discover/taking-a-whack-at-porn-addiction/#.VcppB_lVhBc)

“…internet porn allows its viewers to remain safely anonymous…100 million page views a day and serves 4,000 VIDEOS a second during its peak hours…2% of the internet’s totally traffic.” (“The Nofap Experiement: A Voyage Through Porn Addiction, Support, and Recovery”, Project Know, September 30, 2013, http://www.projectknow.com/discover/taking-a-whack-at-porn-addiction/#.VcppB_lVhBc)

“Porn viewers have the opportunity to browse through as much new porn – ‘new mates’ – as they wish, for as long as they wish. This provides a constant source of novelty.” (“The Nofap Experiement: A Voyage Through Porn Addiction, Support, and Recovery”, Project Know, September 30, 2013, http://www.projectknow.com/discover/taking-a-whack-at-porn-addiction/#.VcppB_lVhBc)

“For more information and to read complete article, please visit The Nofap Experiment: A Voyage Through Porn Addiction, Support and Recovery.” “Research indicates that 70% of the hits on Internet sex sites occur between 9-5 on business computers…my clinical experience supports that 40% of sex addicts will lose their spouse, 58% will suffer severe financial losses, and 27-40% will lose their job or profession. (Dr.Judith Reisman, Dr. Jeffrey Stainover, Dr. Mary Anne Layden & Dr. James B. Weaver, III, “Hearing on the Brain Science Behind Pornography Addition and the Effects of Addiction on Families and Communities”, CCV.org, November 11, 2004, http://www.ccv.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/Judith_Reisman_Senate_Testimony2004.11.18.pdf)

“…one in five high school girls has been physically or sexually abused by her boyfriend.” (Robert Peters, “The Link Between Pornography and Violent Sex Crimes”, Free Public, March, 20014, http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/1218097/posts)

“Nearly half of the 304 scenes analyzed contained verbal aggression, while over 88% showed physical aggression. Seventy percent of aggressive acts were perpetrated by men, and 87% of the acts were committed against women. By far the victims’ most common responses were pleasure or neutrality. Fewer than 5% of the aggressive acts provoked a negative response from the victim, including flinching and requests to stop. This pornographic ‘reality’ was further highlighted by the relative infrequency of more positive behaviors, such as verbal compliments, embracing, kissing, or laughter.” (Ana J. Bridges, “Pornography’s Effects on Interpersonal Relationships,”[on the wife],

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

339

Porn Harms Research, accessed November 19, 2015, http://pornharmsresearch.com/wpcontent/uploads/Bridges_Pornographys_Effect_on_Interpersonal_Relationships.pdf)

“GREY MATTER: 50 SHADES, PORNOGRAPHY AND THE SHAPING OF OUR BRAINS” “Recognise the nature of the issue” “Males who watch porn regularly have a higher tolerance for abnormal sexual behaviors, including rape and aggression. (1) (“Is It Bad To Watch Porn? – The Impact of Pornography Addiction”, http://www.socialcostsofpornography.org, Accessed 4.27.17) (1) http://www.roadtograce.net/current-porn-statistics/

“The longer men watch porn, the more likely they are to begin viewing women as sexual objects instead of people. (1) (“Is It Bad To Watch Porn? – The Impact of Pornography Addiction”, http://www.socialcostsofpornography.org, Accessed 4.27.17) (1) http://www.roadtograce.net/current-porn-statistics/

“Approximately 58% of addicts suffer significant financial losses as the result of their addiction. (2) (“Is It Bad To Watch Porn? – The Impact of Pornography Addiction”, http://www.socialcostsofpornography.org, Accessed 4.27.17) (2) http://www.frc.org/onepagers/the-effects-of-pornography-on-individuals-marriagefamily-and-community

“Over time, men who are addicted to porn become incapable of getting sexual satisfied by real women. This leads to depression, loneliness, and unhappiness. (4) (“Is It Bad To Watch Porn? – The Impact of Pornography Addiction”, http://www.socialcostsofpornography.org, Accessed 4.27.17) (4) http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/may/may_43pornographycost.html)

“A porn addiction often leads to desensitization, distorted views of reality, and a desire to pursue more deviant forms of pornography to fulfill their sexual desires. (2) (“Is It Bad To Watch Porn? – The Impact of Pornography Addiction”, http://www.socialcostsofpornography.org, Accessed 4.27.17) (2) http://www.frc.org/onepagers/the-effects-of-pornography-on-individuals-marriagefamily-and-community)

“Addicts often report they feel ashamed and disgusted with themselves because they start to become stimulated by images that would have repulsed them in the past. This may include violent sexual acts and child, particularly teen, pornography. (6) (“Is It Bad To Watch Porn? – The Impact of Pornography Addiction”, http://www.socialcostsofpornography.org, Accessed 4.27.17) 6) http://www.conversantlife.com/morality/the-social-costs-of-pornography) Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

340

“Those who view more porn are far more likely to stereotype women as sex fiends, eager to meet any man’s sexual demands.” (Luke Gilkerson, “When Your Child is Looking at Porn”, Covenant Eyes, 2013, http://www.covenanteyes.com/when-your-childis-looking-at-porn/)

“…because men are exposed to pornography at a younger age, consume more pornography, and are more likely to encounter problems compared with women.” (Hald GM. Gender differences in pornography consumption among young heterosexual Danish adults. Arch Sex Behav. 2006;35(5):577-585. RossMW, Månsson S-A, Daneback K. Prevalence, severity, and correlates of problematic sexual Internet use in Swedish men and women. Arch Sex Behav. 2012;41(2):459-466) (Simone Kühn, PhD; Jürgen Gallinat, PhD, “Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity Associated with Pornography Consumption,” JAMA Psychiatry. 2014;71(7):827834, http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1874574)

“Watching porn may also make people value immediate payoffs over delayed gratification, a study published in September in the Journal of Sex Research found.” (Tia Ghose, “5 Ways Porn Affects the Brain”, Live Science, October 13, 2015, http://www.livescience.com/52469-how-porn-affects-brains.html)

“And contrary to the notion that pornography fuels misogyny, men who viewed porn tended to hold more egalitarian views about women than did non-porn-using men. Frequent porn users view powerful women, working women and women who have had abortions more favorably than do other men, a study published in August in the Journal of Sex Research found.” (Tia Ghose, “5 Ways Porn Affects the Brain”, Live Science, October 13, 2015, http://www.livescience.com/52469-how-porn-affects-brains.html)

“Research has shown that men’s use of pornography poses a particular threat to women who are either married to or are in committed relationships with men. (Eberstadt & Layden, 2010).” (John D. Foubert, Matthew W. Brosi and Sean Bannon, “Pornography Viewing among Fraternity Men: Effects on Bystander Intervention, Rape Myth Acceptance and Behavioral Intent to Commit Sexual Assault”, Sexual Addiction and Compulsivity, November 28, 2011, https://media.wix.com/ugd/9e4c55_334edae0a4e64f078b8b0479f7c9cb56.pdf)

“In the Zillman- Bryant experiment, the Massive Exposure Group was far more likely to believe women in society really fit the stereotype of the women they saw in pornographic films. They were more likely to believe all women are really ‘as hysterically euphoric in response to just about any sexual or pseudosexual stimulation, and as eager to accommodate seemingly any and every sexual request’ as the porn girls.” (Dolf Zillmann, Jennings Bryant, “Pornography’s Impact on Sexual Satisfaction”, Journal of Applied Scoial

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

341

Psychology, April 1988, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1111/j.15591816.1988.tb00027.x/abstract) (Luke Gilkerson, “Your Brain on Porn”, Covenant Eyes, Accessed July 29, 2016, http://www.covenanteyes.com/brain-ebook/)

“A recent University of Sydney study, in which two professors surveyed more than 800 men, found that excessive porn consumption was reported by almost half the respondents (85 per cent of whom were married or in a relationship), and was harming their professional success and relationships.” (Naomi Wolf, “How Porn is Destroying Modern Sex Lives, Feminist Writer Naomi Wolf has an Unsettling Explanation for why Britons are Having Less Sex,” Your Brain on Porn.com, December 12, 2013, http://www.yourbrainonporn.com/how-porn-destroying-modern-sex-lives-feministwriter-naomi-wolf-has-unsettling-explanation-why)

“…because men are exposed to pornography at a younger age, consume more pornography, and are more likely to encounter problems compared with women.” (Hald GM. Gender differences in pornography consumption among young heterosexual Danish adults. Arch Sex Behav. 2006;35(5):577-585. RossMW, Månsson S-A, Daneback K. Prevalence, severity, and correlates of problematic sexual Internet use in Swedish men and women. Arch Sex Behav. 2012;41(2):459-466) (Simone Kühn, PhD; Jürgen Gallinat, PhD, “Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity Associated with Pornography Consumption,” JAMA Psychiatry. 2014;71(7):827834, http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1874574)

“Men have long believed that what arouses them to orgasm is ironclad evidence of their sexual orientation. Therefore, it can be especially distressing to escalate through shifting porn fetishes that ultimately cast doubt on sexual orientation. Yet such escalation to unexpected tastes is surprisingly common today, especially among young people who grew up dabbling in ‘anything-goes’ tube sites from an early age.” (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, p55)

“Over the past few decades, experimental and correlational research has focused on variables associated with pornography exposure. The most prominent of these is sexual aggression. In their review of more than 50 experimental studies and meta-analyses, Malamuth, Addison, and Koss (2000) conclude pornography exposure has a causal but complicated relationship with aggressive behavior; the link between pornography and sexual aggression is much stronger in men with predisposing risk factors such as high rape myth acceptance and low empathy. The associations between pornography and sexual aggression are also present in women. In experimental studies with women, violent pornography exposure, especially

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

342

in combination with alcohol intoxication, is associated with increased ratings of blame for rape victims, decreased assignment of responsibility to male sexual assault perpetrators, and the belief that victims should accept sexual victimization (Davis, Norris, George, Martell, & Heiman, 2006; Norris, Davis, George, Martell, & Heiman, 2004). Moreover, both men’s and women’s use of pornography has been associated with a decreased selfreported likelihood that they will intervene to prevent sexual assault (Brosi, Foubert, Bannon, & Yandell, 2011; Foubert, Brosi, & Bannon, 2011). Taken together, results support decades-old assertions that pornographic media contribute to a culture of sexual callousness, especially toward violence against women (Zillmann & Bryant, 1982).” (John D. Foubert and Ana J. Bridges, “What is the Attraction? Porngraphy Use Motives in Relation to Bystander Intervention”, Oklahoma State University, 2015, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26209307)

“Hussey said men’s sexuality is often affected in ways that real sex, even in relationships, becomes boring. Women in porn have ‘perfect’ bodies, videos are well-lit and the sexual retelling is fine-tuned and edited. ‘It’s all power and pumping and exactly what somebody wants it to be on a fantasy level, but real-life sex is kind of a letdown comparatively for people because it doesn’t have said production value,’ Hussey said. ‘... It really kind of screws up the ability for someone to enjoy real sex.’ Hussey said he’s heard men say that women in real life don’t turn them on, or that they won’t do what they like women in porn to do. Men feel detached from real sex, and it’s more of a letdown on the fantasy and visual stimulation level.” (Heather Schroering, “The Porn Problem,” Chicago Tribune, July 14, 2015, www.chicagotribune.com/news/redeye-porn-addiction-20150714-story.html#page=1)

“‘As with most use of anything that provides an immediate...dopamine release, [porn] has left me lonely, self-loathing and hopeless,’ Middleton said in an email. ‘I consider my past porn usage...to be just as dangerous as my drug and alcohol usage. It tarnished my character, made me a weaker person and took a considerable toll on my sense of self.’” (Heather Schroering, “The Porn Problem,” Chicago Tribune, July 14, 2015, www.chicagotribune.com/news/redeye-porn-addiction-20150714-story.html#page=1)

“As noted by Symons (1979), men tend to fantasize about a place where, ‘sex is sheer lust and physical gratification, devoid of more tender feelings and encumbering relationships, in which women are always aroused, or at least easily arousable, and ultimately are always willing.” (Symons, D. (1979). The Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

343

Evolution of Human Sexuality. New York: Oxford University Press, p171) (Patrick M. Markey, Charlotte N. Markey, “Online Pornography Seeking Behaviors,” accessed March 17, 2016, http://interpersonalresearch.weebly.com/uploads/1/0/4/0/10405979/online_pornography_seeking_behavio rs_-_markey__markey_4-11-11.pdf)

“Regardless of the studies, research, and individual stories, the connection between pornography and sexual exploitation is just common sense, biblically speaking. Lust and pornography are mutually destructive partners. Pornography ignites sexual lust, but rather than being satisfied by its partner, lust demands more and more. No wonder Jesus spoke metaphorically of the need to take extreme measures to combat sexual lust (Matthew 5:27-30). Once lust gains a foothold in the mind and heart, it becomes an enslaving idol that destroys not just the lustful person, but equally harms the victims it uses to satisfy its desires. That’s because sexual lust is more than just sexual desire and its temporary fulfillment. Lust is the strong desire to possess something or someone that is not yours to have. Lust isn’t satisfied until it owns or controls what it wants. Lust refuses to look at the object of lust as anything other than a “thing” for its own pleasure. Pornography takes that basic aspect of lust (“I want!” “I need!” “I must have!”) and spins a destructive message through its images, one that dehumanizes, objectifies and enslaves. It does so in three primary ways:” (Nicholas Black, “Pornography and Injustice: The Social Impact of Sexual Sin”, Harvest USA, June 4, 2014, https://truthandmercy.wordpress.com/2014/06/04/pornography-andinjustice-the-social-impact-of-sexual-sin/)

“University of Arkansas A survey of 487 male college students by researchers found that the more young men watched porn, the more likely they were to use it during sex and request pornographic acts from their partner.” (The Health Site, December 15, 2014)

“Specifically, pornography was linked to significant ‘lower sexual and relational satisfaction’ among male viewers.” “GQ MAGAZINE TELLS MEN: QUIT WATCHING PORN BEFORE IT RUINS YOUR SEX LIFE” “It’s an idea popping up with increasing frequency in the mainstream media: Porn is ruining sex for everyone.” (Kirsten Anderson, “GQ Magazine tells men: Quit watching porn before it ruins your sex life”, Life Site News, December 13, 2013, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gq-magazine-tells-men-quit-watching-porn-before-it-ruins-your-sexlife)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

344

“The rise of the Internet has made porn more ubiquitous than ever, and a growing number of scientists and cultural observers are arguing that it’s toxic to real relationships. No longer is opposition to pornography strictly the realm of religious believers and hard-core feminists. Outlets as varied as GQ, Vice, and New York Magazine have recently begun to publicly question whether all the imaginary sex people are having is spoiling the real thing.” (Kirsten Anderson, “GQ Magazine tells men: Quit watching porn before it ruins your sex life”, Life Site News, December 13, 2013, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gq-magazine-tells-men-quitwatching-porn-before-it-ruins-your-sex-life)

“A November 20 article on the GQ Magazine website purports to give ‘Ten Reasons Why You Should Quit Watching Porn.’” (Kirsten Anderson, “GQ Magazine tells men: Quit watching porn before it ruins your sex life”, Life Site News, December 13, 2013, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gq-magazine-tells-men-quit-watchingporn-before-it-ruins-your-sex-life)

“Drawing evidence from a recent survey of Redditors on the site’s ‘NoFap’ online community, author Scott Christian argues that porn can lead to physical addiction, a decline in sexual satisfaction with one’s mate, and decreased sexual performance.” (Kirsten Anderson, “GQ Magazine tells men: Quit watching porn before it ruins your sex life”, Life Site News, December 13, 2013, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gq-magazine-tells-men-quit-watching-porn-before-itruins-your-sex-life)

“‘With such an inexhaustible supply of porn at our disposal, there is a growing concern that it is beginning to effect [sic] our brains, our relationships, and even our bodies,’ Christian wrote. ‘A recent survey of a Reddit community called NoFap – made up of nearly 75,000 people committed to quitting porn and masturbation – has helped researchers open the door to a better understanding of the effects of pornography on our lives.’” (Kirsten Anderson, “GQ Magazine tells men: Quit watching porn before it ruins your sex life”, Life Site News, December 13, 2013, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gq-magazine-tells-men-quit-watching-porn-before-it-ruinsyour-sex-life)

“Christian highlighted ten findings of the NoFap survey that he said are strong indicators that porn may be giving people more problems than pleasure. These included the fact that 53% of respondents said they developed a porn habit between the tender ages of 12 and 14, while another 16% started watching smut before they even turned 12.” (Kirsten Anderson, “GQ Magazine tells men: Quit watching porn before it ruins your sex life”, Life Site News, December 13, 2013, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gq-magazine-tellsmen-quit-watching-porn-before-it-ruins-your-sex-life)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

345

“The survey also found that 59% of the respondents watched porn between four and 15 hours every week, that 42% of male college students said they visited porn sites regularly, 64% said that their tastes in porn ‘have become more extreme or deviant,’ while many admitted to suffering from premature ejaculation or being disinterested in their real life partners.” (Kirsten Anderson, “GQ Magazine tells men: Quit watching porn before it ruins your sex life”, Life Site News, December 13, 2013, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gq-magazine-tells-men-quit-watching-porn-before-it-ruinsyour-sex-life)

“‘For those addicted to porn, arousal actually declined with the same mate, while those who regularly found different mates were able to continual their arousal,’ Christian wrote. ‘It's known as the Coolidge Effect, or novelty-seeking behavior. Porn, after all, trains the viewer to expect constant newness.’” (Kirsten Anderson, “GQ Magazine tells men: Quit watching porn before it ruins your sex life”, Life Site News, December 13, 2013, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gq-magazine-tells-men-quit-watching-porn-before-it-ruinsyour-sex-life)

“However, he also pointed out that the survey showed that there is hope for the addicted, with 60% of those who embraced the ‘nofap’ (no masturbation/porn) challenge saying that they saw an increase in their sexual functions, and another 67% saying it improved energy levels and productivity.” (Kirsten Anderson, “GQ Magazine tells men: Quit watching porn before it ruins your sex life”, Life Site News, December 13, 2013, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gq-magazine-tells-men-quit-watching-porn-before-it-ruinsyour-sex-life)

“Christian isn’t the only young writer to take to the mainstream press with concerns over the damage porn is doing to people’s sex lives. Davy Rothbart, writing for New York Magazine, complained of his own inability to climax with a human partner after what he called ‘overmasturbation’ while viewing porn sites. For his piece, called, ‘He’s Just Not That into Anyone,’ he interviewed a number of other young men who indicated he was far from alone.” (Kirsten Anderson, “GQ Magazine tells men: Quit watching porn before it ruins your sex life”, Life Site News, December 13, 2013, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gq-magazine-tells-men-quit-watching-porn-before-itruins-your-sex-life)

“‘The initial symptom for a lot of guys who frequently find themselves bookmarking their favorite illicit clips appears to be a waning desire for their partners,’ Rothbart wrote. ‘For a lot of guys, switching gears

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

346

from porn’s fireworks and whiz-bangs to the comparatively mundane calm of ordinary sex is like leaving halfway through an Imax 3-D movie to check out a flipbook.’” (Kirsten Anderson, “GQ Magazine tells men: Quit watching porn before it ruins your sex life”, Life Site News, December 13, 2013, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gq-magazine-tells-men-quit-watching-porn-before-it-ruinsyour-sex-life)

“He shared the story of Stefan, 43, who is happily married but cannot climax during sex with his wife unless he replays pornographic images in his mind’s eye. ‘Something is lost there,’ Stefan told Rothbart. ‘I’m no longer with my wife; I’m inside my own head.’” (Kirsten Anderson, “GQ Magazine tells men: Quit watching porn before it ruins your sex life”, Life Site News, December 13, 2013, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gq-magazine-tells-men-quitwatching-porn-before-it-ruins-your-sex-life)

“Another victim of porn’s aggressive allure was Perry, a 41-year-old lawyer. ‘I used to race home to have sex with my wife,’ Perry told Rothbart. ‘Now I leave work a half-hour early so I can get home before she does and masturbate to porn.’ Added Perry, ‘It’s like I’ve got this ‘other woman’ … and the ‘other woman’ is porn.’” (Kirsten Anderson, “GQ Magazine tells men: Quit watching porn before it ruins your sex life”, Life Site News, December 13, 2013, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gq-magazine-tells-men-quitwatching-porn-before-it-ruins-your-sex-life)

“Rothbart talked to a behavioral therapist named Andrea Kuszewski who explained that when people have orgasms, their brains release a potent mixture of dopamine and oxytocin, the two chemicals responsible for pleasure (and addiction), and emotional bonding, respectively. Studies have shown that the dopamine rush acts like a drug, leading porn users to crave their next fix. But the oxytocin gives them a powerful emotional bond to the source of the increased flow. Normally, that’s another human being. But for porn users, Kuszewski told Rothbart, it’s the porn itself. ‘You’re bonding with it,’ she said.” (Kirsten Anderson, “GQ Magazine tells men: Quit watching porn before it ruins your sex life”, Life Site News, December 13, 2013, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gqmagazine-tells-men-quit-watching-porn-before-it-ruins-your-sex-life)

“Rich Santos told Marie Claire magazine that porn had taken all the excitement out of his relationships with young women. ‘Before the internet porn, a kiss would make my heart race, my lips and body tingle, and I'd get butterflies in my stomach. Since changing my habits, I've lost that feeling: the newness of a real kiss. It has somehow muted my feelings,’ Santos wrote. But as he has tried to Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

347

reduce his online porn use, he reports, ‘those feelings are slowly coming back.’” (Kirsten Anderson, “GQ Magazine tells men: Quit watching porn before it ruins your sex life”, Life Site News, December 13, 2013, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gqmagazine-tells-men-quit-watching-porn-before-it-ruins-your-sex-life)

“Mark Manson, another young writer, got hooked on online porn at 13 and had spent 8 to 10 years viewing it ‘almost daily.’ Manson decided he was sick of the spiral he found himself in as he continued to crave increasingly depraved pornography, but found himself unable to perform in real life. He, along with a number of online acquaintances who shared the same problem, decided to commit to a 60-day ‘reboot,’ fasting from porn for the duration.” (Kirsten Anderson, “GQ Magazine tells men: Quit watching porn before it ruins your sex life”, Life Site News, December 13, 2013, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gq-magazine-tells-men-quit-watching-porn-before-it-ruinsyour-sex-life)

“As their experiment progressed, Manson said he experienced strong cravings for pornography and even had dreams about it. ‘No, not dreams about having sex, dreams about pornography,’ he clarified, adding that he thought that was ‘[messed] up.’ But the longer he went without porn, the more his desire for the real thing returned.” (Kirsten Anderson, “GQ Magazine tells men: Quit watching porn before it ruins your sex life”, Life Site News, December 13, 2013, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gq-magazine-tells-men-quitwatching-porn-before-it-ruins-your-sex-life)

“‘I began to find normal, everyday girls to be more beautiful,’ wrote Manson. ‘Minor flaws and blemishes that used to bug me were now endearing and sometimes even sexy.’” (Kirsten Anderson, “GQ Magazine tells men: Quit watching porn before it ruins your sex life”, Life Site News, December 13, 2013, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gq-magazine-tells-men-quit-watching-porn-before-it-ruinsyour-sex-life)

“After his sixty days were up, Manson tried to watch porn again, but he found his tastes had changed. ‘Porn I used to enjoy now felt excessive, dehumanizing and honestly, not very attractive,’ he wrote. ‘There were a few videos I saw where I couldn’t believe I used to watch stuff like that.’” (Kirsten Anderson, “GQ Magazine tells men: Quit watching porn before it ruins your sex life”, Life Site News, December 13, 2013, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gq-magazine-tells-men-quit-watching-porn-before-it-ruinsyour-sex-life)

“‘I couldn’t help but notice how unhappy and inauthentic the girls in the videos often were,’ added Manson. ‘Not to say I haven’t noticed some of the actresses obviously faking their way through a scene in Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

348

the past, but this was deeper. Like you could tell they just weren’t very happy people and didn’t have much self-respect.’” (Kirsten Anderson, “GQ Magazine tells men: Quit watching porn before it ruins your sex life”, Life Site News, December 13, 2013, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gq-magazine-tells-men-quit-watchingporn-before-it-ruins-your-sex-life)

“Concluded Manson, ‘For me, yes, porn had a noticeable impact on my sex life, and I’m much better off not watching it.’” (Kirsten Anderson, “GQ Magazine tells men: Quit watching porn before it ruins your sex life”, Life Site News, December 13, 2013, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gq-magazine-tells-men-quit-watching-porn-before-itruins-your-sex-life)

Consequences Men Face Watching Porn 1. “He is using pornography as a substitute for real human relationships…” (Gerald Korson, “Overcoming Obstacles, Pornography”, For Your Marriage, Accessed December 22, 2015, http://www.foryourmarriage.org/everymarriage/overcoming-obstacles/pornography/)

2. “Men who play video games ‘in excess’ and watch online porn are facing what has been called a masculinity crisis, according to a leading US psychologist.” (“Porn and video game addicts risk ‘masculinity crisis’, says Stanford Professor", RT Question More, May 10, 2015, https://www.rt.com/news/257269-porngaming-study-youth/)

3. “Men who view pornography rate their partners as less attractive and they are less satisfied with their partner’s sexual performance.” (“Pornography: A Public Health Crisis”, National Center on Sexual Exploitation, July 14, 2015, http://shop.endsexualexploitation.org/collections/frontpage/products/pornography-a-public-healthcrisis-how-porn-fuels-sex-trafficking-child-exploitation-sexual-violence-booklet-and-freedownload?variant=8300519939)

4. “Men who view pornography are more likely to show an increased behavioral intent to rape, and are more likely to believe rape myths.” (Foubert, JD; Brosi MW; Bannon, RS. “Pornography Viewing amoung Fraternity Men: Effects on Bystander Intervention, Rape Myth Acceptance and Behavioral Intent to Commit Sexual Assult,” Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 2011; 18(4): 212-231, athttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10720162.2011.625552#.VLGJH2sfrtQ) (“Pornography”, Enough is Enough, Accessed 3.20.2017, http://www.enough.org/stats_porn_industry)

The idea that porn is victimless is a cruel joke,” Laurie Hall, author of An Affair of the Mind, says. “Forty percent of professional men who are Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

349

involved with pornography are going to lose their jobs due to their involvement with porn.” (“9 Warning Signs of Porn Addiction”, First Things, Accessed September 26, 2017, http://firstthings.org/warning-signs/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

350

#25 TOLERANCE TO PORN “A 2000 study of college freshmen found that the habitual use of pornography led to greater tolerance of sexually explicit material, thus requiring more novel and bizarre material to achieve the same level of arousal or interest.” (Dolf Zillmann, “Influence of Unrestrained Access to Erotica on Adolescents’ and Young Adults’ Dispositions toward Sexuality,” Journal of Adolescent Health 27S (2000): 41-44 (42).) (Pat Fagan, “The Effects of Pornography on Individuals, Marriage, Family and Community,” Family Research Council, March 2011, IF11C04, http://www.frc.org/issuebrief/the-effects-of-pornography-onindividuals-marriage-family-and-community)

“Concern about escalation. Tolerance – the need to do more to get the same results – is a common feature of addictive disorders. Online viewing which begins as harmless recreation can become an all-consuming activity, and it can also lead to real sexual encounters, either with sexual partners met online, or escalation of the sex addiction in general. Even when the sex involves only the computer, there is often escalation of conflict in the relationship.” (Jennifer P. Schneider, “Effects of cybersex addiction on the family: Results of a survey”, site accessed 9.21.17, http://www.jenniferschneider.com/articles/cybersex_family.html)

“For example, habituation may lead to watching ‘depictions of group sex, sadomasochistic practices, and sexual contact with animals, engaging in anal intercourse and trivializing ‘nonviolent forms of the sexual abuse of children.’” (James B. Weaver III, “The Effects of Pornography Addiction on Families and Communities” (Testimony presented before the Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space of the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, Washington, DC, November 18, 2004), 4.) (Häggström-Nordin, Hanson, and Tydén, “Associations between Pornography Consumption and Sexual Practices among Adolescents in Sweden,” 104-5.) (Pat Fagan, “The Effects of Pornography on Individuals, Marriage, Family and Community,” Family Research Council, March 2011, IF11C04, http://www.frc.org/issuebrief/the-effects-of-pornography-on-individuals-marriage-family-and-community)

“Journalist Pamela Paul reached similar conclusions in her survey of pornography users. She discovered that for many individuals, using pornography quickly becomes a slippery slope, where users seek out and become habituated to material they once held in disgust, such as “bestiality, group sex, hard-core S&M, genital torture, and child pornography.” For some, this slippery slope quickly leads to a form of addiction.” (Cassandra Hough, “Post-Kinsey: Is There Anything Normal About Pornography?”, Public Discourse, October 12, 2011, http://www.thepublicdiscourse.com/2011/10/3677/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

351

“Noah Church is a 26-year-old part-time wildland firefighter in Portland, Ore. When he was 9, he found naked pictures on the Internet. He learned how to download explicit videos. When he was 15, streaming videos arrived, and he watched those. Often. Several times a day, doing that which people often do while watching that genre by themselves.” “After a while, he says, those videos did not arouse him as much, so he moved on to different configurations, sometimes involving just women, sometimes one woman and several guys, sometimes even an unwilling woman. "I could find anything I imagined and a lot of stuff I couldn't imagine," he says. After the appeal of those waned, he moved on to the next level, more intense, often more violent.” “In his senior year of high school, he had an opportunity to have actual sex, with a real partner. He was attracted to her and she to him, as demonstrated by the fact that she was naked in her bedroom in front of him. But his body didn't seem to be interested. "There was a disconnect between what I wanted in my mind and how my body reacted," he says. He simply couldn't get the necessary hydraulics going.” “He put it down to first-timers' nerves, but six years went by, and no matter which woman he was with, his body was no more cooperative. It responded only to the sight of porn. Church came to believe that his adolescent Internet indulgence had somehow caused his problems and that he had what some are calling porn-induced erectile dysfunction (PIED).” "The result in some Internet porn users is higher brain activation to internet porn, and less arousal to sex with a real person," Wilson argues. And then there's habituation: the need for more to get the same hit. "Extreme novelty, certain fetishes, shock and surprise and anxiety--all those elevate dopamine," he says. "So they need those to be sexually aroused." (Belinda Luscombe, March 31, 2016, Time, “Porn and the Threat to Virility”, http://time.com/4277510/porn-and-thethreat-to-virility/)

“A well-known characteristic of addictions is tolerance, which is the need to do more and more to get the same results. This may involve an increase in the quantity of the drug or behavior, or an escalation in the type of activity. Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

352

For sex addicts, this may mean more hours on the internet, a larger number of partners, more bizarre or riskier activities, or going form virtual to actual sexual encounters.” “Cybersex really accelerated the addiction on his part. It went from just magazines and movies (after his credit card was maxed out with phone charges) to spending hours on end on the computer looking at images, to hours on end chatting with anyone who would ‘talk.’ It took only 3 months to go from simple e-mail to all this, and he said it would have only been a matter of time before he did start to meet women in person had I not found the disk. [30 year old woman who found a porn disk in the drive]” (Jennifer P. Schneider, “Effects of cybersex addiction on the family: Results of a survey”, site accessed 9.21.17, http://www.jenniferschneider.com/articles/cybersex_family.html)

Porn is an escalating behavior because as some consumers develop tolerance, the porn that used to excite them starts to seem boring. [24] Predictably, they often try to compensate by spending more time with porn and/or seeking out more hardcore material in an effort to regain the excitement they used to feel. [25] Many porn consumers find themes of aggression, violence, and increasingly “edgy” acts creeping into their porn habits and fantasies. [26] But no matter how shocking their tastes become, you can bet there will be pornographers waiting to sell it to them. If you are, or know someone who is, being pulled into more and more porn, it’s not too late! It’s possible to quit porn and replace it with healthy habits. The brain can start to heal, and consumers can regain the ability to fully feel and enjoy their lives again. Thousands already have. [27] [25] Park, B. Y., Et Al. (2016). Is Internet Pornography Causing Sexual Dysfunctions? A Review With Clinical Reports. Behavioral Sciences, 6, 17. Doi:10.3390/Bs6030017; Kalman, T.P. (2008). Clinical Encounters With Internet Pornography. Journal Of The American Academy Of Psychoanalysis And Dynamic Psychiatry, 36(4) 593-618. Doi:10.1521/Jaap.2008.36.4.593 [26] Park, B. Y., Et Al. (2016). Is Internet Pornography Causing Sexual Dysfunctions? A Review With Clinical Reports. Behavioral Sciences, 6, 17. Doi:10.3390/Bs6030017; Kalman, T.P. (2008). Clinical Encounters With Internet Pornography. Journal Of The American Academy Of Psychoanalysis And Dynamic Psychiatry, 36(4) 593618. Doi:10.1521/Jaap.2008.36.4.593 [27] See, E.G. Your Brain On Porn. (2010, December 5). Rebooting Accounts. Retrieved From Https://Yourbrainonporn.Com/Rebooting-Accounts; NoFap. Success Stories. Retrieved From Https://Www.Nofap.Com/Forum/Index.Php?Forums/Success-Stories.24/; Bronner, G., & Ben-Zion, I. Z. (2014). Unusual Masturbatory Practice As An Etiological Factor In The Diagnosis And Treatment Of Sexual Function In Young Men. Journal Of Sexual Medicine, 11, 1798-1806. Doi:10.1111/Jsm.12501 (“Why Consuming

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

353

Porn is an Escalation Behavior”, Fight the New Drug, August 23, 2017, http://fightthenewdrug.org/whyconsuming-porn-is-an-escalating-behavior/)

“According to Fight the New Drug, porn physically changes the brain over time. When one looks at porn, there is a surge of the chemical dopamine that feels really good. Dopamine helps create new brain pathways that essentially lead the user back to the behavior that triggered the chemical release. Porn users can quickly build up a tolerance as their brains adapt to the high levels of dopamine released by viewing porn. Even though porn is still releasing dopamine into the brain, the user can’t feel its effects as much.” (“Fighting the New Drug: Pornography”, First Things, Accessed September 26, 2017, http://firstthings.org/fighting-the-new-drug-pornography/)

“A well-known characteristic of addictions is tolerance, which is the need to do more and more to get the same results. This may involve an increase in the quantity of the drug or behavior, or an escalation in the type of activity. For sex addicts, this may mean more hours on the internet, a larger number of partners, more bizarre or riskier activities, or going form virtual to actual sexual encounters.” (Jennifer P. Schneider, “Effects of cybersex addiction on the family: Results of a survey”, site accessed 9.21.17, http://www.jenniferschneider.com/articles/cybersex_family.html)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

354

#26 BYSTANDER WILLINGNESS TO INTERVENE IN SEXUAL VIOLENCE “Students from two research universities completed items measuring the frequency of their using different kinds of pornography, and measures of their willingness and intent to intervene to help a bystander who might be experiencing sexual violence. Hierarchical logistic regressions showed that for men, violent/degrading pornography use, but not explicit but nondegrading pornography use, was significantly associated with reduced bystander willingness to intervene, but not associated with bystander efficacy. Women did not show the same impact of violent/degrading pornography use on the two bystander intervention variables. Results suggest violence/degrading pornography may contribute to a culture of acceptance of violence against women.” (John D. Foubert and Ana J. Bridges, “Predicting Bystander Efficacy and Willingness to Intervene in College Men and Women: The Role of Exposure to Varying Levels of Violence in Pornography”, Sage Publishing, 2016, http://media.wix.com/ugd/9e4c55_3005afc5635d414188270d248dc9bac4.pdf)

“Initial research has found that the use of pornography, particularly violent pornography, is associated with decreased bystander intervention intentions and efficacy in both male and female college students (Brosi et al., 2011; Foubert et al., 2011). This is particularly concerning given that encouraging bystander intervention is the prevailing prevention approach used on college campuses for sexual assault education, with a wide variety of programs demonstrating its efficacy (Foubert, 2011; Katz, Heisterkamp, & Fleming, 2011; McMahon & Banyard, 2012).” (John D. Foubert and Ana J. Bridges, “What is the attraction? Pornography use motives in relation to bystander intervention”, Selected Works of John D. Foubert, January 2015, https://works.bepress.com/john_foubert/58/)

“Our first research question was whether there would be differential effects on bystander intervention based on participant motives for viewing pornography. We found that greater endorsement of the following motives was associated with lower willingness to intervene: “to make sex more interesting,” “to enjoy a social event,” “for sexual thrills,” and “to learn about sex,” after controlling for gender and

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

355

frequency of pornography use. However, no association between “to reduce sexual tension” or “to turn on my partner” motives and bystander willingness to intervene was observed.” (John D. Foubert and Ana J. Bridges, “What is the attraction? Pornography use motives in relation to bystander intervention”, Selected Works of John D. Foubert, January 2015, https://works.bepress.com/john_foubert/58/)

“Regarding our second research question, we found that none of the associations between motives and bystander willingness were moderated by gender. The relationships were the same for both men and women. Although men and women have been shown to differ in a variety of ways when it comes to pornography (Carroll et al., 2008; Sabina et al., 2008), they seem to have no greater or lesser degree of association between their motives for viewing pornography and how that affects bystander willingness. Women report less intensity in their motives for viewing pornography, though this decrement does not differentially affect willingness to intervene. Willingness to intervene as a construct, thus, does not seem to have differential impacts through motivation to use pornography concerning gender.” (John D. Foubert and Ana J. Bridges, “What is the attraction? Pornography use motives in relation to bystander intervention”, Selected Works of John D. Foubert, January 2015, https://works.bepress.com/john_foubert/58/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

356

FROM PROBLEM CHAPTER… #27 MISCELLANEOUS “Keep in mind also,that humans evolved to learn by watching others doing things, so videos are more powerful ‘how to’ lessons than stills.” (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, p79)

“With science-fiction weirdness that would have made Tinbergen say, ‘I told you so’, today's porn users often find internet erotica more stimulating than real partners. Users might not want to spend hours hunched in front of a computer staring at porn and compulsively clicking on new images. They might prefer to spend time socialising with friends and meeting potential partners in the process. Yet reality struggles to compete at the level of the brain's response, especially when one throws into the balance the uncertainties and reversals of social interaction. As Noah Church puts it in his memoir Wack: Addicted to Internet Porn, ‘it's not that I didn't want real sex, it's just that it was so much harder and more confusing to pursue than pornography.’” (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, p79) “As Dr. Jim Pfaus, a pioneer in the field of the science of sexual behavior from Canada’s Concordia University, puts it, porn use can take an emotional toll on relationships because men who use it are ‘neurologically bonding’ not with their partners, but with the porn.” (Naomi Wolf, “How Porn is Destroying Modern Sex Lives, Feminist Writer Naomi Wolf has an Unsettling Explanation for why Britons are Having Less Sex,” Your Brain on Porn.com, December 12, 2013, http://www.yourbrainonporn.com/how-porn-destroying-modern-sex-lives-feminist-writer-naomi-wolf-hasunsettling-explanation-why)

“The situation very much resembles the marketing of cigarettes without health warnings in the Sixties.” (Naomi Wolf, “How Porn is Destroying Modern Sex Lives, Feminist Writer Naomi Wolf has an Unsettling Explanation for why Britons are Having Less Sex,” Your Brain on Porn.com, December 12, 2013, http://www.yourbrainonporn.com/how-porn-destroying-modern-sex-lives-feminist-writer-naomiwolf-has-unsettling-explanation-why)

“Porn’s Harm Is Changing Fast”

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

357

“Later, in a study with over 20,000 men Dr. Wright conducted with Dr. Robert Tokunaga, they found that the more men view media where women are treated as objects rather than as people, the more they thought that women really were merely things that existed to sexually please men. In addition, the more men thought of women as objects, the more they also supported violence against women. (Wright, P. J. & Tokunaga, R. S. (2015). Men’s Objectifying Media Consumption, Objectification of Women, and Attitudes Supportive of Violence Against Women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, doi: 10.1007/s10508-015-0644-8)

Sociologists Walter DeKeseredy and Martin Schwartz note that pornography teaches men to think of women as objects, not as people. These lessons to think of women as lesser than a person often occur in the context of group pornography viewing. In their study of rural women who survived sexual assault during their separation or divorce from their husbands, DeKeseredy & Schwartz noted that the former husbands of these women frequently viewed pornography with their male friends. Nearly a third of these women stated that pornography was directly involved in the sexual abuse their husbands committed against them.) (DeKeseredy, W. & Schwartz, M. (2009). Dangerous exits: escaping abusive relationships in rural American. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.) (John D. Foubert, “How Pornography Harms”, John Foubert.com, April 2016, http://www.johnfoubert.com/how-pornharms)

“In partnerships, a decrease in sexual satisfaction and a tendency to adopt pornographic scripts have been associated with frequent Internet pornography consumption”. (Knudsen SV, Mårtenson LL, Månsson S-A.Generation P? Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus Universitetsforlag; 2007) (Simone Kühn, Ph.D., Jürgen Gallinat, PhD, “Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity Associated with Pornography Consumption,” JAMA Psychiatry, July 2014, Vol.71, No.7, http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1874574)

The Effects of Porn on Learning 1. “A split-second look at an image can convey more information than a split-second look at words. Words are often perceived as opinions while images are often perceived as events or facts.” (Mary Anne Layden, PhD, “Pornography and Violence: A New Look at Research,” Social Costs of Pornography, Accessed November 19, 2015, http://www.socialcostsofpornography.com/Layden_Pornography_and_Violence.pdf)

2. “We also learn better when aroused.” (Mary Anne Layden, PhD, “Pornography and Violence: A New Look at Research,” Social Costs of Pornography, Accessed November 19, 2015, http://www.socialcostsofpornography.com/Layden_Pornography_and_Violence.pdf)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

358

3. “…learning is better if it is reinforced.” (Mary Anne Layden, PhD, “Pornography and Violence: A New Look at Research,” Social Costs of Pornography, Accessed November 19, 2015, http://www.socialcostsofpornography.com/Layden_Pornography_and_Violence.pdf)

4. “Learning is also better if we see role models perform a behavior.” (Mary Anne Layden, PhD, “Pornography and Violence: A New Look at Research,” Social Costs of Pornography, Accessed November 19, 2015, http://www.socialcostsofpornography.com/Layden_Pornography_and_Violence.pdf)

5. “…we learn better when the learning is rewarded.” (Mary Anne Layden, PhD, “Pornography and Violence: A New Look at Research,” Social Costs of Pornography, Accessed November 19, 2015, http://www.socialcostsofpornography.com/Layden_Pornography_and_Violence.pdf)

“NATIONAL REVIEW: GETTING SERIOUS ON PORNOGRAPHY” “Imagine a drug so powerful it can destroy a family simply by distorting a man's perception of his wife. Picture an addiction so lethal it has the potential to render an entire generation incapable of forming lasting marriages and so widespread that it produces more annual revenue — $97 billion worldwide in 2006 — than all of the leading technology companies combined. Consider a narcotic so insidious that it evades serious scientific study and legislative action for decades, thriving instead under the everexpanding banner of the First Amendment.” (“National Review: Getting Serious on Pornography”, NPR, March 31, 2010, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=125382361)

“… an estimated 40 million people use this drug on a regular basis.” (“National Review: Getting Serious on Pornography”, NPR, March 31, 2010, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=125382361)

“My husband is not alone. According to Dr. Victor Cline, a nationally renowned clinical psychologist who specializes in sexual addiction, pornography addiction is a process that undergoes four phases. First, addiction, resulting from early and repeated exposure accompanied by masturbation. Second, escalation, during which the addict requires more frequent porn exposure to achieve the same ‘highs’ and may learn to prefer porn to sexual intercourse. Third, desensitization, during which the addict views as normal what was once considered repulsive or immoral.”(“National Review: Getting Serious on Pornography”, NPR, March 31, 2010, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=125382361)

“And finally, the acting-out phase, during which the addict runs an increased risk of making the leap from screen to real life.” (“National Review: Getting Serious on Pornography”, NPR, March 31, 2010, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=125382361) Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

359

“A 2004 study published in Social Science Quarterly found that Internet users who had had an extramarital affair were 3.18 times more likely to have used online porn than Internet users who had not had an affair.” (“National Review: Getting Serious on Pornography”, NPR, March 31, 2010, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=125382361)

“Then there are the forces of supply and demand, and the way that pornography creates more and more demand for the commercial sex industry. Pornography is like the gateway drug. People get addicted, and then they want something more. Pornography fuels prostitution (heightening the demand for prostitutes), and a higher demand for prostitutes means more lucrative opportunities for pimps, which means more women and children exploited by them for these purposes. So if you’re looking at porn, even if you’re not paying for it, you’re showing the advertisers and producers of pornography and all those involved in the sex business that demand is high, which then motivates them to shame and exploit even more people.” (Ben Reaoch, “What Christians Do About Modern Day Slavery”, Desiring God, February 16, 2013, http://www.desiringgod.org/articles/what-christiansdo-about-modern-day-slavery)

“Think about that the next time you’re tempted to click on that website. Your momentary “pleasure” is contributing to the absolute devastation of women and girls and boys around the world.” (Ben Reaoch, “What Christians Do About Modern Day Slavery”, Desiring God, February 16, 2013, http://www.desiringgod.org/articles/what-christians-do-about-modern-day-slavery)

“For example, researchers found that the severity of ADHD symptoms correlates with the severity of internet addiction, even when they take into account anxiety, depression and personality traits.” (E. Dalbudak and C. Evren, "The relationship of Internet addiction severity with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms in Turkish University students; impact of personality traits, depression and anxiety," ComprPsychiatry, 55/3 (2014): 497-503, doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2013.11.018) (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, p67)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

360

#28 MILITARY “Pornography has become the new drug of many Airmen, and the service must help its members deal with this addictive new health hazard.” (Kenneth Artz and Peter J. Smyczek, “Sexual Assaults in the Military: Porn is Part of the Problem”, Public Discourse, June 14, 2013, http://www.thepublicdiscourse.com/2013/06/10360/)

“The thermonuclear missile base, Francis. E. Warren Air Force Base, is located on the windswept grassy plains of eastern Wyoming. A few years back, the base was struck by a rash of child pornography cases among its ranks. Numerous Airmen were prosecuted for possession of child pornography after local authorities discovered that they had downloaded images and videos from file sharing websites. The legal office spent years prosecuting these tragic cases.” (Kenneth Artz and Peter J. Smyczek, “Sexual Assaults in the Military: Porn is Part of the Problem”, Public Discourse, June 14, 2013, http://www.thepublicdiscourse.com/2013/06/10360/)

“Current sexual assault prevention training can best be described as changing conditions without changing people. This is a recipe for failure.” (Kenneth Artz and Peter J. Smyczek, “Sexual Assaults in the Military: Porn is Part of the Problem”, Public Discourse, June 14, 2013, http://www.thepublicdiscourse.com/2013/06/10360/)

“Pornographic consumption and addiction are believed to be much higher in the military, the general population, though, because of the largely young male population and frequent deployments.” (Kenneth Artz and Peter J. Smyczek, “Sexual Assaults in the Military: Porn is Part of the Problem”, Public Discourse, June 14, 2013, http://www.thepublicdiscourse.com/2013/06/10360/)

“In fact, in an interview with the Army Times, Navy Lt. Michael Howard, a licensed therapist and military chaplain, believes that at least 20 percent of the military is addicted to online pornography. The common theme among many military chaplains is that addiction to internet pornography is one of the biggest, if not the biggest, personal problem facing our military members today.” (Kenneth Artz and Peter J. Smyczek, “Sexual Assaults in the Military: Porn is Part of the Problem”, Public Discourse, June 14, 2013, http://www.thepublicdiscourse.com/2013/06/10360/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

361

“Another infamous serial killer, Arthur Gary Bishop, who was executed in 1983 for sodomizing and killing five young boys, stated that “pornography was not the only negative influence in my life, but its effect on me was devastating…pornography was a determining factor in my downfall.” (Kenneth Artz and Peter J. Smyczek, “Sexual Assaults in the Military: Porn is Part of the Problem”, Public Discourse, June 14, 2013, http://www.thepublicdiscourse.com/2013/06/10360/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

362

#29 WOMAN RAPE MYTH “Studies show that pornography can serve as rape training. Again from Dr. Flood’s report: “There is consistent evidence that exposure to pornography is related to male sexual aggression against girls and women. In a recent longitudinal study of U.S. youth aged 10 to 15, with three waves of data over three years, individuals who intentionally consumed violent X-rated materials were over six times as likely as other to engage in sexually aggressive behavior.” (Kristen Jenson, October 6, 2016, Protect Young Minds.org, “5 Proven Ways Porn Harms Kids that No One Talks About”, https://protectyoungminds.org/2016/10/06/5-proven-ways-porn-harms-kids/)

“In 1995, a meta-analysis of 24 studies, involving more than 4,000 participants, measured the average correlation between porn use and the beliefs people hold around rape and sexual assault. The studies all used the ‘rape myth’ scale, which measures a person’s beliefs by asking them to rate how much they agree with statements including: ‘A woman who goes to the home or apartment of a man on their first date implies that she is willing to have sex.’” “Those who watched porn accepted more rape myths compared to a control group, but only in the experimental studies. Non-experimental studies – which relied on participants reporting information – showed no correlation. So, the findings were somewhat inconclusive.” (Jessica Brown, BBC Future, September 26, 2017, “Is porn harmful? The evidence, the myths and the unknowns,” http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20170926-is-porn-harmful-the-evidence-the-myths-and-the-unknowns)

“When I first spoke on this issue at the University of Ottawa with my fellow anti-porn colleagues Daniel Gilman and Peter Mahaffey, many people showed up angry, desperately wanting to refute the idea that porn fuels rape culture. But when it came time to take questions, there were none. As we heard from many people afterwards, the fact that pornography is a celebration of degradation was just too obvious.” (Jonathon Van Maren, “Porn is fuelling a new, violent sexual ideology in our teens. It has to stop.”, Life Site News, April 28, 2015, https://www.lifesitenews.com/blogs/porn-is-fuelling-a-new-violent-sexual-ideology-in-our-teens.-it-has-tostop)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

363

“The 46% of women who viewed hardcore pornography during the last 12 months indicated a greater belief in rape myths than women who did not view hardcore pornography. Thus, women who have looked at pornography within the past 12 months were significantly more likely to believe false or stereotyped beliefs about rape, rape victims, or rapists. It appears that when females viewed hardcore pornography, their conceptualization of rape was subject to becoming skewed. Research has shown that what is portrayed in hardcore pornography, particularly that which has been produced during the last 15 years, depicts activity more consistent with nonconsensual than consensual acts (Dines, 2010). In short, “porn plays out ‘fantasy’ sex that looks more like sexual assault than making love” (Dines, 2010, p. xxvii). Thus, this confirms other studies indicating that women who have watched media that blurs the line between consensual and nonconsensual acts would report a less accurate understanding of rape, rape victims, and rapists than those women who abstain from pornography.” (Matthew W. Brosi, John D. Foubert, R. Sean Bannon, and Gabe Yandell, “Effects of women’s pornography use on bystander intervention in a sexual assault situation and rape myth acceptance”, The Research Journal of the Association of Fraternity/Sorority Advisors, 2011, https://works.bepress.com/john_foubert/8/)

“The present study showed that sorority members who used pornography, particularly sadomasochistic pornography, reported higher rape myth acceptance, lower willingness to intervene in a sexual assault situation, and lower efficacy to intervene in a sexual assault situation.” (Matthew W. Brosi, John D. Foubert, R. Sean Bannon, and Gabe Yandell, “Effects of women’s pornography use on bystander intervention in a sexual assault situation and rape myth acceptance”, The Research Journal of the Association of Fraternity/Sorority Advisors, 2011, https://works.bepress.com/john_foubert/8/)

“Up until now, the response has been a feeble attempt at further sex education, which many experts think may have a hand in the problem to begin with—once you open the Pandora’s Box of teen sex, it’s very hard to unring that bell. And once those teenagers start taking their cues from an increasingly misogynist entertainment culture, a hypersexualized marketing industry, and violent pornography, you have all the ingredients you need to create a rape culture. The sex education being used now is not working, Pearson writes angrily—’not when tens of thousands of girls are revealing ‘serious distress and harm following abusive behavior from boyfriends.’” (Jonathon Van Maren, “Porn is fuelling a new, violent sexual ideology in our teens. It has to stop.”, Life Site News, April 28, 2015, https://www.lifesitenews.com/blogs/porn-is-fuelling-a-new-violent-sexualideology-in-our-teens.-it-has-to-stop)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

364

“In a paper presented at Stanford Law School last year, he reported that, after adjusting for other differences, states where Internet access expanded the fastest saw rape decline the most. A 10 percent increase in Internet access, Kendall found, typically meant a 7.3 percent reduction in the number of reported rapes. For other types of crime, he found no correlation with Web use. What this research suggests is that sexual urges play a big role in the incidence of rape – and that pornographic Web sites provide a harmless way for potential predators to satisfy those desires.” (Steve Chapman, “Is Pornography a Catalyst of Sexual Violence?”, Reason.com, November 5, 2007, https://reason.com/archives/2007/11/05/is-pornography-a-catalyst-of-s)

“That of course, is only a theory, and the evidence he cites is not conclusive...” (Steve Chapman, “Is Pornography a Catalyst of Sexual Violence?”, Reason.com, November 5, 2007, https://reason.com/archives/2007/11/05/is-pornography-a-catalyst-of-s)

“Shere Hite found that of the men who read pornographic magazines, 67% admitted that they had wanted to rape a woman while only 19% said that they had never wanted to rape a woman.” (Christopher Carmouche, “The Scope and Detrimental Effects of worldwide Pornography”, The World Congress of Families, June 2, 2010, http://worldcongress.org/wcfreg.spkrs/wcf.reg.uk.carmouche.htm)

“Lonsway and Fitzgerald (1994), “Rape myths are attitudes and generally false beliefs about rape that are widely and persistently held, and that serve to deny and justify male sexual aggression against women” (p. 133). Examples of rape myths include the beliefs that women deserve to be raped or that no woman can be raped against her will.” (Lonsway, K. A., & Fitzgerald, L. F. (1994), Rape myths. In review. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 18, 133–164. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.1994.tb00448.x) (Matthew W. Brosi, John D. Foubert, R. Sean Bannon, and Gabe Yandell, “Effects of women’s pornography use on bystander intervention in a sexual assault situation and rape myth acceptance”, The Research Journal of the Association of Fraternity/Sorority Advisors, 2011, https://works.bepress.com/john_foubert/8/)

“Notably, research has shown when women in popular mainstream pornographic movies experience physical aggression by a male, 95% of the time they respond with either a response of pleasure or no response at all. Today’s mainstream pornography reinforces the notion that violence against women in sexual situations is acceptable and the belief that women enjoy the violence.” (Bridges et al., 2010). (Matthew W. Brosi, John D. Foubert, R. Sean Bannon, and Gabe Yandell, “Effects of women’s pornography use on bystander intervention in a sexual assault situation and rape myth acceptance”, The Research Journal of the Association of Fraternity/Sorority Advisors, 2011, https://works.bepress.com/john_foubert/8/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

365

“According to a report by Edward Donnerstein [Donnerstein, Edward. Unpublished Transcript Of Testimony to the Public Hearings on Ordinances to Add Pornography as Discrimination Against Women. Committee on Government Operations. City Council. Minneapolis, MN, pp. 4-12.], over 25% of male college students selected at random admitted that there was some likelihood they would rape a woman if they could be assured of getting away with it. The proportion of potential rapists increased to 57% after the young men were exposed to sexually violent images, especially those of women shown as enjoying being raped.” (Christopher Carmouche, “The Scope and Detrimental Effects of worldwide Pornography”, The World Congress of Families, June 2, 2010, http://worldcongress.org/wcfreg.spkrs/wcf.reg.uk.carmouche.htm)

“(Corne, Briere & Esses, 1992; Davis, et al., 2006; Norris et al., 2004), the researchers formulated the following hypothesis: Women who used each type of pornography would report higher rape myth acceptance, a lower efficacy to intervene as a bystander in a potential rape situation, and a lower willingness to intervene as a bystander in a potential rape situation.” (Matthew W. Brosi, John D. Foubert, R. Sean Bannon, and Gabe Yandell, “Effects of women’s pornography use on bystander intervention in a sexual assault situation and rape myth acceptance”, The Research Journal of the Association of Fraternity/Sorority Advisors, 2011, https://works.bepress.com/john_foubert/8/)

“Ultimately, pornography appears to pose a danger to both men and women, particularly as an influence on potential sexual assault behaviors and victimization. Research has shown that men who view pornography are at increased risk for committing sexual assault (Carr & VanDeusen, 2004). However, as indicated in this study, when women view pornography, particularly films with sadomasochistic themes, they are less likely to look out for the safety and security of others and are more likely to stand by and do nothing while a sister is being assaulted.” (Matthew W. Brosi, John D. Foubert, R. Sean Bannon, and Gabe Yandell, “Effects of women’s pornography use on bystander intervention in a sexual assault situation and rape myth acceptance”, The Research Journal of the Association of Fraternity/Sorority Advisors, 2011, https://works.bepress.com/john_foubert/8/)

“Men who view pornography are more likely to show an increased behavioral intent to rape, and are more likely to believe rape myths.” (Foubert, JD; Brosi MW; Bannon, RS. “Pornography Viewing amoung Fraternity Men: Effects on Bystander Intervention, Rape Myth Acceptance and Behavioral Intent to Commit Sexual Assult,” Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 2011; 18(4): 212-231, athttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10720162.2011.625552#.VLGJH2sfrtQ) (“Pornography”, Enough is Enough, Accessed 3.20.2017, http://www.enough.org/stats_porn_industry)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

366

“The present study showed that sorority members who used pornography, particularly sadomasochistic pornography, reported higher rape myth acceptance, lower willingness to intervene in a sexual assault situation, and lower efficacy to intervene in a sexual assault situation.” (Matthew W. Brosi, John D. Foubert, R. Sean Bannon, and Gabe Yandell, “Effects of women’s pornography use on bystander intervention in a sexual assault situation and rape myth acceptance”, The Research Journal of the Association of Fraternity/Sorority Advisors, 2011, https://works.bepress.com/john_foubert/8/)

“Regardless of mediating or moderating variable, increase ‘rape myth acceptance’ significantly, such as victim blaming, sexual callousness, disinterest in the suffering of others, desensitization to violence against women, adversarial sexual beliefs, willingness to rape (Allen, Emmers, et al. 1995, 7-8, 13-16, 18-19), as well as increasing ‘aggression” (Allen, Brezegel, and D’Alessio 1995, 258; cf. Oddone-Paolucci, Genius, and Violato 2000, 48, 52-53). Prolonged exposure to common nonviolent pornography produces unfounded beliefs in sexual promiscuity and acceptance of male dominance and female servitude. Zillman and Bryant (1984, 133-35) found that subjects moderately and massively exposed to nonviolent materials recommended lower punishment for rapists, trivialized sexual abuse, and were less supportive of the women’s liberation movement and that men’s callousness toward women increased exponentially. Linz, Penrod, and Donnerstein (1988, 760-62, 766) found decreasing sympathy and empathy with rape victims among normal male college-age mock jurors after exposure to violent materials, despite pictures clearly showing injury (subjects scoring relatively high on hostility and psychoticism scales were omitted).” (Max Waltman, Stockholm University, Sweden, Political Research Quarterly 63, no.1 (2010): 218-37 (contributor-created version), http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1065912909349627)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

367

#30 PORN WEBSITES “Internet porn is especially enticing to the reward circuitry because novelty is always just a click away. It could be a novel ‘mate’, unusual scene, strange sexual act, or – you fill in the blank. And the most popular sites – the so-called tube sites – build this pursuit of novelty into their layout. Every page presents dozens of different clips and genres to choose from. They are engrossing precisely because they offer what seems like inexhaustible novelty.” (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, p76) “Second, internet porn offers countless artificially enhanced breasts and Viagrasustained gargantuan penises, exaggerated grunts of desire, pile-driving thrusts, double or triple penetration, gang-bangs and other unrealistic scenarios.” (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, p79)

“Today's internet porn, however, is laced with supernormal stimulation. First, it offers endless novel hotties available at a click. Research confirms that anticipation of reward and novelty amplify one another to increase excitement and rewire the reward circuitry of the brain.” (R.M. Krebs, D. Heipertz, H. Schuetze, E. Duzel, "Novelty increases the mesolimbic functional connectivity of the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA) during reward anticipation: Evidence from high-resolution fMRI," Neuroimage 58/2 (2011): 647-55, doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.06.038) (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, p79)

“Third, for most people, static images cannot compare with today's hi-def 3minute videos of people engaged in intense sex. With stills of naked bunnies all you had was your own imagination. You always knew what was going to happen next, which wasn't much in the case of a pre-internet 13year old. In contrast, with an endless stream of ‘I can't believe what I just saw’ videos, your expectations are constantly violated (which the brain finds more stimulating).” (J. Spicer, et al., "Sensitivity of the nucleus accumbens to violations in expectation of reward," Neuroimage 34/1 (2007): 455-461) (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, p79)

“In China, a church of 25,000 has 4,000 active participants in their 24-34year-old group. During my visit, the two coordinators of this group came to me and were troubled. They said, “Almost 100% of our young adults watch porn on the internet…we can hardly ever find a young adult in our church who does not watch porn.” Have you told the pastor? “Yes, but he doesn’t

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

368

believe us and says ‘we don’t have that problem…you are not to talk about it.’” (J1CA-Porn Research, “China Porn Question Letter”)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

369

#31 PORN AND SEXUAL PRACTICES “In Zillmann and Bryant’s experiment, when asked how common certain sexual activities were in society— activities like anal sex, group sex, sadomasochism, and bestiality— the percentages given by the Massive Exposure Group were two to three times higher than the No Exposure Group. Pornography led them to believe these sexual activities were more common.” (Dolf Zillmann, Jennings Bryant, “Pornography’s Impact on Sexual Satisfaction”, Journal of Applied Scoial Psychology, April 1988, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1988.tb00027.x/abstract) (Luke Gilkerson, “Your Brain on Porn”, Covenant Eyes, Accessed July 29, 2016, http://www.covenanteyes.com/brain-ebook/)

Effects of Pornography Addiction on Families and Communities “Immediate reactions,” “Perceptions of sexuality,” “Sexual callousness,” “Rape proclivity,” “Family values and desire for progeny, and” “Sexual satisfaction. Immediate Reactions” “Initial reactions of emotional discomfort and disgust dissipate rapidly with repeated exposure to pornography, eventually vanishing entirely.” “Initial hesitations to enjoy the material are rapidly lost with repeated exposure and give way to unadulterated reactions of enjoyment.” “Prolonged consumption of pornography eventually produces sexual and, more generally, excitatory habituation as well as boredom.” (James B. Weaver III, “Effects of Pornography Addiction on Families and Communities”, Dr. Judith Reisman, November 18, 2014, http://www.drjudithreisman.com/archives/Senate-Testimony20041118_Weaver.pdf)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

370

“Perceptions of Sexuality” 1. “Prolonged exposure to pornography leads to an overestimation of almost all sexual activities performed by sexually active adult.” (James B. Weaver III, “Effects of Pornography Addiction on Families and Communities”, Dr. Judith Reisman, November 18, 2014, http://www.drjudithreisman.com/archives/Senate-Testimony20041118_Weaver.pdf)

2. “Prolonged exposure to pornography fosters increased estimates of the incidence of pre and extramarital sexual activity, as well as increased assessments of male and female promiscuity.” (James B. Weaver III, “Effects of Pornography Addiction on Families and Communities”, Dr. Judith Reisman, November 18, 2014, http://www.drjudithreisman.com/archives/Senate-Testimony20041118_Weaver.pdf)

3. “Prolonged exposure to pornography thither leads to the related perception of less honesty and trust, specific to covert sexual engagements, among intimates.” (James B. Weaver III, “Effects of Pornography Addiction on Families and Communities”, Dr. Judith Reisman, November 18, 2014, http://www.drjudithreisman.com/archives/Senate-Testimony-20041118_Weaver.pdf)

4. “Prolonged exposure to pornography fosters and strengthens the belief that promiscuous behavior is healthy, whereas sexual repression constitutes a health risk” (James B. Weaver III, “Effects of Pornography Addiction on Families and Communities”, Dr. Judith Reisman, November 18, 2014, http://www.drjudithreisman.com/archives/Senate-Testimony-20041118_Weaver.pdf)

“Sexual Satisfaction” 1. “Prolonged exposure to pornography fosters sexual dissatisfaction among both male and female viewers.” (James B. Weaver III, “Effects of Pornography Addiction on Families and Communities”, Dr. Judith Reisman, November 18, 2014, http://www.drjudithreisman.com/archives/Senate-Testimony-20041118_Weaver.pdf)

2. “It also fosters, although to a lesser degree, dissatisfaction with an intimate partner*s affection” (James B. Weaver III, “Effects of Pornography Addiction on Families and Communities”, Dr. Judith Reisman, November 18, 2014, http://www.drjudithreisman.com/archives/Senate-Testimony-20041118_Weaver.pdf)

“Studies Link Porn To Sexual Violence” “‘The latest research is a meta-analysis assessing 22 different studies from

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

371

seven different countries around the world.” (“Studies Link Porn to Sexual Violence”, Family First, January 7, 2016, https://www.familyfirst.org.nz/2016/01/studies-link-porn-to-sexual-violence/)

“The study “A Meta-Analysis of Pornography Consumption and Actual Acts of Sexual Aggression in General Population Studies” published in the Journal of Communication found that “….the association for physical sexual aggression, although smaller than the association for verbal sexual aggression, was still positive and significant. Pornography consumption was associated with an increased probability of the use or threat of force to obtain sex.” (“Studies Link Porn to Sexual Violence”, Family First, January 7, 2016, https://www.familyfirst.org.nz/2016/01/studies-link-porn-to-sexual-violence/)

“This latest study from Indiana University says that ‘the accumulated data leave little doubt that, on the average, individuals who consume pornography more frequently are more likely to hold attitudes conducive to sexual aggression and engage in actual acts of sexual aggression than individuals who do not consume pornography or who consume pornography less frequently.’” (“Studies Link Porn to Sexual Violence”, Family First, January 7, 2016, https://www.familyfirst.org.nz/2016/01/studies-link-porn-to-sexualviolence/)

“‘But the wife whose marriage has been destroyed by her spouse’s pornography addiction has little interest in whether the latest research studies confirm that pornography might have harmful effects. To the men and women whose lives have been damaged by pornography, this is not an academic issue.’” (Christopher Carmouche, “The Scope and Detrimental Effects of worldwide Pornography”, The World Congress of Families, June 2, 2010, http://worldcongress.org/wcfreg.spkrs/wcf.reg.uk.carmouche.htm)

“Per The Aurora Center for Advocacy and Education at the University of Minnesota; Two-thirds (67%) of offenders who committed any of the types of Internet sex crimes against minors possessed child pornography.” (Christopher Carmouche, “The Scope and Detrimental Effects of worldwide Pornography”, The World Congress of Families, June 2, 2010, http://worldcongress.org/wcfreg.spkrs/wcf.reg.uk.carmouche.htm)

“The FBI reports that the most common interest among serial killers is hardcore pornography.” (Christopher Carmouche, “The Scope and Detrimental Effects of worldwide Pornography”, The World Congress of Families, June 2, 2010, http://worldcongress.org/wcfreg.spkrs/wcf.reg.uk.carmouche.htm)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

372

“And according to one of the most extensive and exhaustive sex studies ever - conducted by William Marshall, ‘Report on the Use of Pornography by Sexual Offenders,’ Report to the Federal Department of Justice, Ottawa, Canada, 1983 - 87 percent of child molesters studied were regular consumers of hardcore pornography.” (Christopher Carmouche, “The Scope and Detrimental Effects of worldwide Pornography”, The World Congress of Families, June 2, 2010, http://worldcongress.org/wcfreg.spkrs/wcf.reg.uk.carmouche.htm)

“Marshall also found that, in a study of outpatient sex offenders treated over a six-year period, one-third reported they had used pornography immediately before at least one of their crimes.” (Christopher Carmouche, “The Scope and Detrimental Effects of worldwide Pornography”, The World Congress of Families, June 2, 2010, http://worldcongress.org/wcfreg.spkrs/wcf.reg.uk.carmouche.htm)

“GQ Magazine Tells Men: Quit Watching Porn Before It Ruins Your Sex Life” “It’s an idea popping up with increasing frequency in the mainstream media: Porn is ruining sex for everyone.” (Kirsten Anderson, “GQ Magazine tells men: Quit watching porn before it ruins your sex life”, Life Site News, December 13, 2013, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gq-magazine-tells-men-quit-watching-porn-before-it-ruins-your-sexlife)

“The rise of the Internet has made porn more ubiquitous than ever, and a growing number of scientists and cultural observers are arguing that it’s toxic to real relationships. No longer is opposition to pornography strictly the realm of religious believers and hard-core feminists. Outlets as varied as GQ, Vice, and New York Magazine have recently begun to publicly question whether all the imaginary sex people are having is spoiling the real thing.” (Kirsten Anderson, “GQ Magazine tells men: Quit watching porn before it ruins your sex life”, Life Site News, December 13, 2013, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gq-magazine-tells-men-quitwatching-porn-before-it-ruins-your-sex-life)

“A November 20 article on the GQ Magazine website purports to give ‘Ten Reasons Why You Should Quit Watching Porn.’” (Kirsten Anderson, “GQ Magazine tells men: Quit watching porn before it ruins your sex life”, Life Site News, December 13, 2013, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gq-magazine-tells-men-quit-watchingporn-before-it-ruins-your-sex-life)

“Drawing evidence from a recent survey of Redditors on the site’s ‘NoFap’ online community, author Scott Christian argues that porn can lead to physical addiction, a decline in sexual satisfaction with

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

373

one’s mate, and decreased sexual performance.” (Kirsten Anderson, “GQ Magazine tells men: Quit watching porn before it ruins your sex life”, Life Site News, December 13, 2013, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gq-magazine-tells-men-quit-watching-porn-before-itruins-your-sex-life)

“‘With such an inexhaustible supply of porn at our disposal, there is a growing concern that it is beginning to effect [sic] our brains, our relationships, and even our bodies,’ Christian wrote. ‘A recent survey of a Reddit community called NoFap – made up of nearly 75,000 people committed to quitting porn and masturbation – has helped researchers open the door to a better understanding of the effects of pornography on our lives.’” (Kirsten Anderson, “GQ Magazine tells men: Quit watching porn before it ruins your sex life”, Life Site News, December 13, 2013, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gq-magazine-tells-men-quit-watching-porn-before-it-ruinsyour-sex-life)

“‘For those addicted to porn, arousal actually declined with the same mate, while those who regularly found different mates were able to continual their arousal,’ Christian wrote. ‘It's known as the Coolidge Effect, or novelty-seeking behavior. Porn, after all, trains the viewer to expect constant newness.’” (Kirsten Anderson, “GQ Magazine tells men: Quit watching porn before it ruins your sex life”, Life Site News, December 13, 2013, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gq-magazine-tells-men-quit-watching-porn-before-it-ruinsyour-sex-life)

“However, he also pointed out that the survey showed that there is hope for the addicted, with 60% of those who embraced the ‘nofap’ (no masturbation/porn) challenge saying that they saw an increase in their sexual functions, and another 67% saying it improved energy levels and productivity.” (Kirsten Anderson, “GQ Magazine tells men: Quit watching porn before it ruins your sex life”, Life Site News, December 13, 2013, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gq-magazine-tells-men-quit-watching-porn-before-it-ruinsyour-sex-life)

“Christian isn’t the only young writer to take to the mainstream press with concerns over the damage porn is doing to people’s sex lives. Davy Rothbart, writing for New York Magazine, complained of his own inability to climax with a human partner after what he called ‘overmasturbation’ while viewing porn sites. For his piece, called, ‘He’s Just Not That into Anyone,’ he interviewed a number of other young men who indicated he was far from alone.” (Kirsten Anderson, “GQ Magazine tells men: Quit watching porn before it ruins your sex life”, Life Site News, December 13, 2013, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gq-magazine-tells-men-quit-watching-porn-before-itruins-your-sex-life)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

374

“‘The initial symptom for a lot of guys who frequently find themselves bookmarking their favorite illicit clips appears to be a waning desire for their partners,’ Rothbart wrote. ‘For a lot of guys, switching gears from porn’s fireworks and whiz-bangs to the comparatively mundane calm of ordinary sex is like leaving halfway through an Imax 3-D movie to check out a flipbook.’” (Kirsten Anderson, “GQ Magazine tells men: Quit watching porn before it ruins your sex life”, Life Site News, December 13, 2013, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gq-magazine-tells-men-quit-watching-porn-before-it-ruinsyour-sex-life)

“He shared the story of Stefan, 43, who is happily married but cannot climax during sex with his wife unless he replays pornographic images in his mind’s eye. ‘Something is lost there,’ Stefan told Rothbart. ‘I’m no longer with my wife; I’m inside my own head.’” (Kirsten Anderson, “GQ Magazine tells men: Quit watching porn before it ruins your sex life”, Life Site News, December 13, 2013, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gq-magazine-tells-men-quitwatching-porn-before-it-ruins-your-sex-life)

“Another victim of porn’s aggressive allure was Perry, a 41-year-old lawyer. ‘I used to race home to have sex with my wife,’ Perry told Rothbart. ‘Now I leave work a half-hour early so I can get home before she does and masturbate to porn.’ Added Perry, ‘It’s like I’ve got this ‘other woman’ … and the ‘other woman’ is porn.’” (Kirsten Anderson, “GQ Magazine tells men: Quit watching porn before it ruins your sex life”, Life Site News, December 13, 2013, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gq-magazine-tells-men-quitwatching-porn-before-it-ruins-your-sex-life)

“Rothbart talked to a behavioral therapist named Andrea Kuszewski who explained that when people have orgasms, their brains release a potent mixture of dopamine and oxytocin, the two chemicals responsible for pleasure (and addiction), and emotional bonding, respectively. Studies have shown that the dopamine rush acts like a drug, leading porn users to crave their next fix. But the oxytocin gives them a powerful emotional bond to the source of the increased flow. Normally, that’s another human being. But for porn users, Kuszewski told Rothbart, it’s the porn itself. ‘You’re bonding with it,’ she said.” (Kirsten Anderson, “GQ Magazine tells men: Quit watching porn before it ruins your sex life”, Life Site News, December 13, 2013, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gqmagazine-tells-men-quit-watching-porn-before-it-ruins-your-sex-life)

“Rich Santos told Marie Claire magazine that porn had taken all the excitement out of his relationships with young women. ‘Before the Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

375

internet porn, a kiss would make my heart race, my lips and body tingle, and I'd get butterflies in my stomach. Since changing my habits, I've lost that feeling: the newness of a real kiss. It has somehow muted my feelings,’ Santos wrote. But as he has tried to reduce his online porn use, he reports, ‘those feelings are slowly coming back.’” (Kirsten Anderson, “GQ Magazine tells men: Quit watching porn before it ruins your sex life”, Life Site News, December 13, 2013, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gqmagazine-tells-men-quit-watching-porn-before-it-ruins-your-sex-life)

“Mark Manson, another young writer, got hooked on online porn at 13 and had spent 8 to 10 years viewing it ‘almost daily.’ Manson decided he was sick of the spiral he found himself in as he continued to crave increasingly depraved pornography, but found himself unable to perform in real life. He, along with a number of online acquaintances who shared the same problem, decided to commit to a 60-day ‘reboot,’ fasting from porn for the duration.” (Kirsten Anderson, “GQ Magazine tells men: Quit watching porn before it ruins your sex life”, Life Site News, December 13, 2013, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gq-magazine-tells-men-quit-watching-porn-before-it-ruinsyour-sex-life)

“As their experiment progressed, Manson said he experienced strong cravings for pornography and even had dreams about it. ‘No, not dreams about having sex, dreams about pornography,’ he clarified, adding that he thought that was ‘[messed] up.’ But the longer he went without porn, the more his desire for the real thing returned.” (Kirsten Anderson, “GQ Magazine tells men: Quit watching porn before it ruins your sex life”, Life Site News, December 13, 2013, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gq-magazine-tells-men-quitwatching-porn-before-it-ruins-your-sex-life)

“‘I began to find normal, everyday girls to be more beautiful,’ wrote Manson. ‘Minor flaws and blemishes that used to bug me were now endearing and sometimes even sexy.’” (Kirsten Anderson, “GQ Magazine tells men: Quit watching porn before it ruins your sex life”, Life Site News, December 13, 2013, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gq-magazine-tells-men-quit-watching-porn-before-it-ruinsyour-sex-life)

“After his sixty days were up, Manson tried to watch porn again, but he found his tastes had changed. ‘Porn I used to enjoy now felt excessive, dehumanizing and honestly, not very attractive,’ he wrote. ‘There were a few videos I saw where I couldn’t believe I used to watch stuff like that.’” (Kirsten Anderson, “GQ Magazine tells men: Quit watching porn before it ruins your sex life”, Life Site News, December 13, 2013, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gq-magazine-tells-men-quit-watching-porn-before-it-ruinsyour-sex-life)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

376

“‘I couldn’t help but notice how unhappy and inauthentic the girls in the videos often were,’ added Manson. ‘Not to say I haven’t noticed some of the actresses obviously faking their way through a scene in the past, but this was deeper. Like you could tell they just weren’t very happy people and didn’t have much self-respect.’” (Kirsten Anderson, “GQ Magazine tells men: Quit watching porn before it ruins your sex life”, Life Site News, December 13, 2013, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gq-magazine-tells-men-quit-watchingporn-before-it-ruins-your-sex-life)

“Concluded Manson, ‘For me, yes, porn had a noticeable impact on my sex life, and I’m much better off not watching it.’” (Kirsten Anderson, “GQ Magazine tells men: Quit watching porn before it ruins your sex life”, Life Site News, December 13, 2013, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/gq-magazine-tells-men-quit-watching-porn-before-itruins-your-sex-life)

“2 Big Ways Porn Affects Those Who Watch It” “Dr. William Struthers, a neuroscientist, talks about the observations he’s made about the impact of porn on those who watch it. How does porn affect people?” (Luke Gilkerson, “2 Big Ways Porn Affects Those Who Watch It”, Covenant Eyes, April 16, 2013, http://www.covenanteyes.com/2013/04/16/how-does-porn-affect-people/)

“For some, watching porn leads to a seeming inability to stop” “While some call this a ‘porn addiction’ or even ‘arousal addiction,’ the label is less important to understand than the actual experience. For these men and women, they feel a drive to return to porn again and again because it has become a way to ‘self-medicate,’ much the same way an alcoholic returns to the bottle.” (Luke Gilkerson, “2 Big Ways Porn Affects Those Who Watch It”, Covenant Eyes, April 16, 2013, http://www.covenanteyes.com/2013/04/16/how-does-porn-affect-people/)

“The pattern becomes a never-ending cycle: feelings of loneliness, depression, stress, anxiety, or anger turn into a desire to numb these emotions. Porn temporarily offers euphoria by tapping the body’s natural sexual chemistry. Once the high is over, the negative emotions are still present, and they are now often combined with feelings of guilt or shame. The cycle starts all over. People who try to quit porn even share experiences of withdrawal symptoms.” (Luke Gilkerson, “2 Big Ways Porn Affects Those Who Watch It”, Covenant Eyes, April 16, 2013, http://www.covenanteyes.com/2013/04/16/how-doesporn-affect-people/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

377

“For others, porn affects them by subtly changing the way they think about people” (Luke Gilkerson, “2 Big Ways Porn Affects Those Who Watch It”, Covenant Eyes, April 16, 2013, http://www.covenanteyes.com/2013/04/16/how-does-porn-affect-people/)

“For these people, there is no ‘compulsion’ or ‘addiction,’ but pornography is still warping the way they think about themselves and others.” (Luke Gilkerson, “2 Big Ways Porn Affects Those Who Watch It”, Covenant Eyes, April 16, 2013, http://www.covenanteyes.com/2013/04/16/how-does-porn-affect-people/)

“Dr. Struthers has explained elsewhere that viewing pornography and masturbating weakens the region of our brain known as the cingulate cortex, the region that is responsible for moral and ethical decision making. In other words, repeatedly watching porn dulls one’s conscience and critical thinking skills.” (Luke Gilkerson, “2 Big Ways Porn Affects Those Who Watch It”, Covenant Eyes, April 16, 2013, http://www.covenanteyes.com/2013/04/16/how-does-porn-affect-people/)

“Many other studies have demonstrated that pornography influences our beliefs. The research done by Dolf Zillmann and Jennings Bryant about the impact of video pornography on sexual attitudes and beliefs is noteworthy. After exposing groups to differing amounts of video pornography numerous times over a 6 week period, they studied the correlation between the amount of pornography consumed and a variety of other factors: sexual satisfaction, attraction to casual sex, the belief that minors should be protected from seeing porn, the acceptance of premarital sex, the trivialization of rape, the support of women’s rights, beliefs about the commonness of sexual practices in the broader culture, and gender stereotypes—all with negative outcomes.” (Luke Gilkerson, “2 Big Ways Porn Affects Those Who Watch It”, Covenant Eyes, April 16, 2013, http://www.covenanteyes.com/2013/04/16/how-does-porn-affect-people/)

“Don’t be fooled. You’ll never be good at loving one person well when you’re constantly being entertained by a digital harem.” (Matt Fradd, “5 Ways Watching Porn is Terrible for your Romantic Relationships”, Life Site News, April 23, 2015, https://www.lifesitenews.com/blogs/5-ways-watching-porn-is-terrible-for-your-romantic-relationships)

“This behavior may manifest itself in the form of promiscuity, voyeurism, exhibitionism, group sex, rape, sadomasochism, or even child molestation. The final phase may also be characterized by one or more extramarital affairs. A 2004 study published in Social Science Quarterly found that Internet users who had had an extramarital affair were 3.18 times more likely to have used online porn than Internet users who had not had an affair. Among other things, the Witherspoon report is a stern warning to all Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

378

married women to take seriously the signs of a sexual addiction, before it is too late.” (Anonymous, “National Review: Getting Serious on Pornography,” NPR, March 31, 2010, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=125382361)

“Perhaps the greatest hardship for women who fear they have lost (or are losing) a husband to Internet porn is the absence of a public consensus about the harmful effects of pornography on marriage. Consider what we know. In a study published in Sexual Addiction and Compulsivity, Schneider found that among the 68 percent of couples in which one person was addicted to Internet porn, one or both had lost interest in sex. Results of the same study, published in 2000, indicated that porn use was a major contributing factor to increased risk of separation and divorce. This finding is substantiated by results of a 2002 meeting of the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers, during which surveyed lawyers claimed that ‘an obsessive interest in Internet pornography’ was a significant factor in 56 percent of their divorce cases the prior year.” (Anonymous, “National Review: Getting Serious on Pornography,” NPR, March 31, 2010, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=125382361)

“Porn use creates the impression that aberrant sexual practices are more common than they really are, and that promiscuous behavior is normal. For example, in a 2000 meta-analysis of 46 published studies put out by the National Foundation for Family Research and Education at the University of Calgary, regular exposure to pornography increased risk of sexual deviancy (including lower age of first intercourse and excessive masturbation), increased belief in the ‘rape myth’ (that women cause rape and rapists are normal), and was associated with negative attitudes regarding intimate relationships (e.g., rejecting the need for courtship and viewing persons as sexual objects). Indeed, neurological imaging confirms the latter finding. Susan Fiske, professor of psychology at Princeton University, used MRI scans to analyze the brain activity of men viewing pornography. She found that after viewing porn, men looked at women more as objects than as human beings.” (Anonymous, “National Review: Getting Serious on Pornography,” NPR, March 31, 2010, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=125382361)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

379

“X-RATED, SEXUAL ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIORS ASSOCIATED WITH U.S. EARLY ADOLESCENTS’ EXPOSURE TO SEXUALLY EXPLICIT MEDIA” Sexual Attitude & Behavior Associated with Early Adolescent Porn Viewing 1. “…being black, being older, and having less educated parents, lower socioeconomic status, and high need for sensation were related to greater exposure for both males and females. Longitudinal analyses showed that early exposure for males predicted less progressive gender role attitudes, more permissive sexual norms, sexual harassment perpetration, and having oral sex and sexual intercourse two years later.” (Jane D. Brown, Kelly L. L’Engle, “X-Rated, Sexual Attitudes and behaviors Assocaited with U.S. Early Adolescents’ Exposure to Sexually Explicit Media”, Communications Research, Volume 36 No. 1, February 2009, http://crx.sagepub.com/content/36/1/129.abstract)

2. “… destructive consequences of porn use:” (“Top Pornography FAQ’s – What About Pornography”, Moral Revolution, Accessed November 13, 2015, http://moralrevolution.com/pornography-faqs/)

3. “In partnerships, a decrease in sexual satisfaction and a tendency to adopt pornographic scripts have been associated with frequent Internet pornography consumption”. (Knudsen SV, Mårtenson LL, Månsson SA.Generation P? Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus Universitetsforlag; 2007)

4. “…accessing pornography online was predictive of compulsive computer use after 1 year.” (Meerkerk G-J, Van Den Eijnden RJ, Garretsen HFL. Predicting compulsive Internet use: it’s all about sex! Cyberpsychol Behav. 2006;9(1):95-103) (Simone Kuhn, Jurgen Gallinat, “Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity Associated with Pornography Consumption”, JAMA Psychiatry, Volume 71, Number 7, July, 2014, http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1874574)

5. “…pornography has an impact on the behavior and social cognition of its consumers.” (Simone Kuhn, Jurgen Gallinat, “Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity Associated with Pornography Consumption”, JAMA Psychiatry, Volume 71, Number 7, July, 2014, http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1874574)

6. “Pornography is frequently cited as the ‘explanation’ for anal sex, and that ‘people must like it if they do it,’ contradicting the expectation that Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

380

it will be painful for women. Men also are expected to persuade or coerce reluctant partners, which has become normalized as well as ‘accidental’ penetration. (Marston, C. & Lewis, R. (2014) “Anal Heterosex Amoung Young People and Implications for Health Promotion: A Qualitative Study in the UK.” BMI Open.) (“Pornography”, Enough is Enough, Accessed 3.20.2017, http://www.enough.org/stats_porn_industry)

7. “The more pornography a man watches, the more he needs to conjure images of pornography to maintain arousal, and will be more likely to ask for particular sexual acts with his partner and have concerns over his sexual performance and body image.” (Sun. A., Bridges, A., Johnson, J. & Ezzell, M. (2014) “Pornography and the Male Sexual Script: An Analysis of Consumption and Sexual Relations.” Archives of Sexual Behavior.) (“Pornography”, Enough is Enough, Accessed 3.20.2017, http://www.enough.org/stats_porn_industry)

8. “Porn use creates the impression that aberrant sexual practices are more common than they really are, and that promiscuous behavior is normal. For example, in a 2000 meta-analysis of 46 published studies put out by the National Foundation for Family Research and Education at the University of Calgary, regular exposure to pornography increased risk of sexual deviancy (including lower age of first intercourse and excessive masturbation), increased belief in the ‘rape myth’ (that women cause rape and rapists are normal), and was associated with negative attitudes regarding intimate relationships (e.g., rejecting the need for courtship and viewing persons as sexual objects).” (Elizabeth Paolucci, Mark Genuis and Claudio Violato, “A Meta-Analysis of the Published Research on the Effects of Pornography, The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, Volume 135, Issue 1, 2001, http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00223980109603677) (“National Review: Getting Serious on Pornography”, NPR, March 31, 2010, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=125382361)

“Disturbing ‘new’ trend: teens having group sex. 1 in 13 teenaged girls confessed to participating in group sex in a recent survey by Boston University’s School of Public Health. Those who viewed porn in the previous month were 5 times more likely to participate in group sex.” (New Jersey News Room, 12-21-11)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

381

#32 FINANCES AND PORN “Job security is also jeopardized when online sexual activity is occurring in the workplace. According to the statistics collected by Family Safe Media (2006), 20% of men admitted to accessing internet pornography at work. It is obvious that work productivity is drastically affected by one’s excessive computer usage, whether it occurs at home or at work. Approximately 70% of all adult content traffic on the internet occurs during the 9am to 5pm workday, it is apparent that cybersex user’s financial and employment status are at stake.” (Vivan Chan, MC, RCC, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Wells, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/theimpact-of-pornography-on-marital-relationships/)

“59 percent of pornography users will suffer severe financial consequences due to the monetary cost of their addiction, while27 percent will lose their jobs or be demoted.” (Mary Anne Layden, If Pornography Made Us Healthy, We’d Be Healthy By Now, Catholic News Agency, www.catholicnewsagency.com/resource.php?n=1078 (last visited Sept. 27, 2013) (“Marriage & Family: Harms of Pornography,” The Policy Pages from Center for Arizona, January 2014, http://azpolicypages.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/Marriage-Family_HarmsofPornography.pdf)

“In 2010, worldwide pornography revenues from a variety of sources (the Internet, sex shops, videos rented in hotel rooms) were approximately $100 billion. (Ropelato J. (2010) Internet pornography statistics. TopTenReviews.com. Available at http://Internet-filterreview.toptenreviews.com/Internet-pornography-statistics.html) That staggering amount of money is more than the combined revenues of Microsoft, Google, Amazon, eBay, Yahoo, Apple, and Netflix that same year. (DeKeseredy, W. S. & Corsianos, M. (2016). Violence Against Women in Pornography. New York: Routledge.) The money that porn makes in the United States each year, about $13 billion, exceed the combined revenues of the National Football League, Major League Baseball, and the National Basketball Association.” (Ropelato J. (2010) Internet pornography statistics. TopTenReviews.com. Available at http://Internet-filterreview.toptenreviews.com/Internet-pornography-statistics.html (accessed November 5, 2015).) (John D. Foubert, “How Pornography Harms”, John Foubert.com, April 2016, http://www.johnfoubert.com/how-porn-harms)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

382

“Not long ago, Time Warner reportedly made so much money off of pornography that it had the rapt attention of their then CEO, Glenn Britt. In an article for a pornography business trade publication, Britt is quoted as complaining that revenues from their video on demand service were falling. He blamed the decline in profits on the rising availability of free online pornography.” (Hymes, T. (2011). Time Warner cable: Free porn is hurting our bottom line. XBIZ, July 29, 2011.) (John D. Foubert, “How Pornography Harms”, John Foubert.com, April 2016, http://www.johnfoubert.com/how-porn-harms)

“Among professionals who are sex addicted, as many as 40 percent will lose their professions due to their sexual acting out.” (Mary Anne Layden, If Pornography Made Us Healthy, We’d Be Healthy By Now, Catholic News Agency, www.catholicnewsagency.com/resource.php?n=1078 (last visited Sept. 27, 2013) (“Marriage & Family: Harms of Pornography,” The Policy Pages from Center for Arizona, January 2014, http://azpolicypages.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/Marriage-Family_HarmsofPornography.pdf)

“Relationships aren't the only area where compulsive porn use can be damaging. Psychologists describe anecdotal reports of people losing their jobs because they couldn't control the urge to visit adult websites at work, for instance. ‘When porn use becomes so intense in frequency or duration, it starts to interfere with the other aspects of a person's life,’ Bridges says.” (Kirsten Weir, “Is Pornography Addictive”, American Psychological Association, April 2014, http://www.apa.org/monitor/2014/04/pornography.aspx)

“58% suffer financial loss. 1/3 lose their jobs” (Christian Post, December 30, 2013) “…that approximately 70 percent of all adult content traffic occurs during the 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. workday,111 the risk of financial and employment raifications becomes more apparent.” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“… by Family Safe Media (2006), 20% of men admitted to accessing internet pornography at work. … Approximately 70% of all adult content traffic on the internet occurs during the 9am to 5pm workday…” (Vivan Chan, MC, RCC, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Wells, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impact-of-pornography-on-marital-relationships/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

383

#33 TIME ON INTERNET AND PORN

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

384

#34 THE INTERNET AND PORN “How can we apply authoritative parentings' high level of demandingness to kids' tech? We need to help children understand that learning should take precedence over digital self-amusements. Kids also need to be taught that technology should be used primarily as a tool rather than a toy. And because children's and teens' less developed brains deny them the ability to limit their own screen and phone use, parents need to provide kids plenty of structure and supervision.” (Richard Freed, “What is Good Parenting in the Digital Age?” Huffington Post, December 21, 2015, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/richard-freed/what-is-goodparenting-in_b_8846942.html)

“Guess Who Uses Authoritative Parenting Principles” “Interestingly, leading tech executives use authoritative parenting principles when raising their own children. The New York Times' article, "Steve Jobs Was a Low-Tech Parent," says that tech industry leaders emphasize the family connection (responsiveness) and tech limits (demandingness) to foster their children's health and success. Walter Isaacson, who wrote Steve Jobs' biography, observes, "Every evening Steve made it a point of having dinner at the big long table in their kitchen, discussing books and history and a variety of things.... No one ever pulled out an iPad or computer."” (Richard Freed, “What is Good Parenting in the Digital Age?” Huffington Post, December 21, 2015, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/richard-freed/what-is-good-parenting-in_b_8846942.html)

“From a male perspective, Cooper, Galbreath, and Becker’s 2004 study of men with online sexual problems revealed two important subgroups with regard to the impact on sexual activity with a committed partner. The researchers found that sexual activity with a partner increased for men who used the Internet to:” (Cooper, A., Galbreath, N., & Becker, M. A. (2004). Sex on the Internet: Furthering our understanding of men with online sexual problems. Psychology of Addictive Behavior, 18(3), 223–230.) (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Educate themselves,” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“Meet people to date and/or with whom to have offline sexual relations” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

385

“Socialize as compared to men who do not go online for these reasons.” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“In contrast, participants who turned to online sexual activity to deal with stress had increased problems in their real-time relationships and received complaints from others about this involvement. These findings corroborate earlier research and support Schneider’s claim that the emotional distance online sexual problems foster can be just as damaging to the relationship as real-life sexual infidelity.” (Cooper, A., GriffinShelley, E., Delmonico, D. L., & Mathy, R. M. (2001). Online sexual problems: Assessment and predictive variables. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 8, 267–286.) (Schneider, J. P. (2002). Effects of cybersex problems on the spouse and family. In A. Cooper (Ed.), Sex and the Internet: A guidebook for clinicians (pp. 169–186). New York: Brunner-Routledge.) (Jill C. Manning, “The

Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“To put Cooper, Galbreath, and Becker’s results in context, it is important to keep in mind that being in a marital relationship was not a criterion for the study, so the results reflect the general impact on various levels of commitment. Sixty percent of the 384 male participants were in “some kind of a committed relationship,” 51 percent indicated they were married and 88 percent indicated being heterosexual. The results are further put into perspective when we consider that the majority of the participants fell into the second subgroup—the group that experienced problems in their real-time relationships. Results showed that:” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family 1. “80.5 percent used online sexual activity (OSA) to distract themselves or take a break,” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

2. “56.5 percent used OSA to deal with stress,” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

386

News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

3. “43.0 percent used OSA to engage in sexual activities they would not do in real life,” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

4. “25.3 percent used OSA to educate themselves,” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

5. “16.1 percent used OSA to meet people with whom to have offline sexual activities,” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

6. “11.7 percent used OSA to meet people to date” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

7. “9.1 percent used OSA to get support with sexual matters.” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“The group who used online sexual activity to deal with stress also reported having increased masturbatory activity, “thus engaging in what might be a long-term pattern of turning inward and away from others as a primary coping strategy” (Cooper, A., Galbreath, N., & Becker, M. A. (2004). Sex on the Internet: Furthering our understanding of men with online sexual problems. Psychology of Addictive Behavior,

of which decreased marital intimacy would be a part.” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf) 18(3), p. 227.)

“While the marital bond may be the most vulnerable relationship to online sexual activity, children and adolescents are considered the most vulnerable audience of sexually explicit material.” “Youth are considered a vulnerable audience because they…” Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

387

1. “Can be easily coerced into viewing pornography or manipulated into the production of it;” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf) 2. “Have limited ability to emotionally, cognitively, and physiologically process obscene material they encounter voluntarily or involuntarily;” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

3. “Can be the victims of another’s pornography consumption in ways adults are often more resilient to;” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

4. “Can have their sexual and social development negatively impacted through exposure to fraudulent and/or traumatic messages regarding sexuality and relationships; and” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

5. “Can develop unrealistic expectations about their future sexual relationship through repeated exposure to fantasy-based templates.” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“For these reasons and others, it is illegal to knowingly display or distribute obscenity or pornography defined as harmful to minors. However, this legal reality is rapidly losing momentum as widespread availability and accessibility of pornography normalizes illegal exposure.” (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“There are obvious ethical barriers to studying the impact of Internet pornography on unaffected youth. Subsequently, it is important to carefully consider the findings on related topics and research from other countries, Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

388

as well as clinical observations and expert opinion. Research from Australia and Sweden is particularly relevant because, after the United States, Sweden has the second highest Internet use and Australia has the third highest Internet use. Although more research is needed, the voids in the research need not delay responding to what we do know.” (Malamuth, N.M. (1993). Pornography’s impact on male adolescents. Adolescents Medicine: State of the Art Revies, 4(3), 563-576.) (Stanley, J. (Summer 2001). Child abuse and the Internet. National Child Protection Clearinghouse, 15, 1-18.) (Jill C. Manning, “The Impact of Internet Pornography on Marriage and the Family: A Review of the Research”, Amazon News, November 10, 2005, http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2010/pdf/ManningTST.pdf)

“The number of children exposed to such risks is unfortunately increasing as Internet usage starts earlier and becomes more popular. For example, between 1998 and 2001, Internet usage among 3 to 4 year-olds jumped from 4.1 percent to 14.3 percent; 5 to 9 year-olds experienced a 16.8 percent to 38.9 percent increase; and 14 to 17 year-olds experienced a 51.2 percent to 75.6 percent hike in Internet usage.” (Mitchell, K. J., Finkelhor, D., & Wolak, J. (2003). Victimization of youths on the Internet. In J. L. Mullings, J. W. Marquart, & D. J. Hartley (Eds.), The victimization of children: Emerging issues. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Maltreatment & Trauma Press.)

Why is the Internet so Problematic “Interactive ‐ it seems relational” “Inexpensive ‐ nothing worse than seemingly free excitement” “Imposing ‐ there is so much to choose from on the web” “Integral ‐ it seems to be part and parcel of everyday activity” “Isolating ‐ hamper human interaction” “Intoxicating ‐ seems to affect part of the brain and body the same way as drugs” (“The Internet and Pornography”, The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, Accessed March 9, 2016, http://www.usccb.org/issues-and-action/child-and-youthprotection/resources/upload/InternetPornography-Slattery.pdf)

“To suppose that boys in general, even boys from good families, are not exposed to pornography in some form or another is naïve. [Headmaster of Private Secular School, October 13, 2014]…Porn is inescapable because it Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

389

is immediately accessible. It is always just a click away, and hence it is everywhere.” (Sean Fitzpatrick, “Boys, Porn and Education”, Crisis Magazine, October 31, 2014, http://www.crisismagazine.com/2014/boys-porn-education)

“Inability to control use and use that interferes with one's life are two cardinal signs of addiction. Priorities have shifted due to changes in the brain that we'll look at later. In effect, life's natural rewards, such as friendship, exercise and accomplishment, can no longer compete. Your brain now believes that IT – in this case internet porn use – is an important goal, and equates it with your survival.” (Gary Wilson, “Your Brain on Porn,” Commonwealth Publishing, 2014, p39)

“A few small studies of U.S adolescents’ exposure to sexually explicit magazines and movies in the 1980s found that even then exposure was almost universal by the end of high school. The average age of first exposure to Playboy was 11 years for males and 12 for females; by 15 years old, most had also seen an X-rated film. Appetite for sexually explicit media has been a primary driver for the success of the Internet.” (Bryant, J., & Brown, D. (1989). Uses of pornography. In D. Zillmann & J. Bryant (Eds.), Pornography: Research advances and policy considerations (pp. 25-55). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum) (Jane D. Brown, Kelly L. L’Engle, “X-Rated, Sexual Attitudes and behaviors Assocaited with U.S. Early Adolescents’ Exposure to Sexually Explicit Media”, Communications Research, Volume 36 No. 1, February 2009, http://crx.sagepub.com/content/36/1/129.abstract)

“…accessing pornography online was predictive of compulsive computer use after 1 year.” (Meerkerk G-J, Van Den Eijnden RJ, Garretsen HFL. Predicting compulsive Internet use: it’s all about sex! Cyberpsychol Behav. 2006;9(1):95-103) (Simone Kuhn, Jurgen Gallinat, “Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity Associated with Pornography Consumption”, JAMA Psychiatry, Volume 71, Number 7, July, 2014, http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1874574)

“The proliferation of the Internet in the late 1990s and early 2000s was very rapid. The Census Bureau reports that in 1996 only 9.4% of Americans had accessed the Internet at all within the 30 days prior to the survey. By 1998, 26.2% of Americans had an Internet connection in their homes. This grew to 50.5% in 2001 and in 2010 stood at 71.1%. A sizeable portion of the Internet is pornographic content. Forbes Magazine reports that, between July 2009 and July 2010, 13% of all Internet searches were for erotic content.” (Michael Malcolm, George Naufal, “Are Pornography and Marriage Substitutes for Young Men? IZA Discussion Paper No. 8679, November 2014, http://ftp.iza.org/dp8679.pdf)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

390

“… ‘a hidden public health hazard exploding, …Manning closes by stating, ‘Internet pornography is grooming young generations of Americans in such a way that their chances of enjoying healthy and enduring relationships are handicapped’ (Manning, 2005).” (Allison Cook, “Pornography and its impact on parenting”, The United Families International, October 13, 2014, https://unitedfamiliesinternational.wordpress.com/2014/10/13/pornography-and-its-impact-on-parenting/)

“Since the early days of the World Wide Web, pornography has been one of the most widely available forms of internet content.” (“Independent Parliamentary Inquiry into Online Child Protection”, Media March, May, 2012, http://www.mediamarch.org.uk/Images/final-report.pdf)

“Stack, Wasserman, and Kern (2004) found individuals who have had an extramarital affair were 3.18 times more likely to have used internet pornography than individuals who had not had an affair. …people who have engaged in paid sex (i.e. prostitution) were 3.7 times more apt to use internet pornography than those who had not used internet pornography. … the statistics indicate that internet pornography is associated with activities that undermine marital exclusivity and fidelity.” (Vivan Chan, MC, RCC, “The Impact of Pornography on Marital Relationships”, The Wishing Wells, January 11, 2009, http://www.wishingwellscounselling.com/family/the-impact-of-pornography-on-marital-relationships/)

“Commenting on recent trends in the pornography industry, Dr. Dines noted” (John D. Foubert, “How Pornography Harms”, John Foubert.com, April 2016, http://www.johnfoubert.com/how-porn-harms)

“Another big, big moneymaker that is about to hit is webcams, because webcams are real time and you can’t pirate the stuff. The problem is that on MindGeek, a lot of it is pirated. A lot of the porn companies that are producing it are very upset with all the pirating. You can’t pirate webcams because they are real time. The webcams are sucking up business on the free porn sites. If you go into a free porn site, you’ve got tons of ads for webcams. The webcam business is now becoming monopolized and consolidated through another website. Users have to pay for private sessions with the webcam women.” (John D. Foubert, “How Pornography Harms”, John Foubert.com, April 2016, http://www.johnfoubert.com/how-porn-harms)

“Sitting at my laptop the other day, a pop-up invited me to ‘see more.’ I declined. The pornography industry is aggressive in recruiting men, and women too, to view nudity and sex online.” (Meredith Curtis, “5 Ways Pornography Devastates Lives”, Charisma News, June 23, 2015, http://www.charismanews.com/opinion/50198-5ways-pornography-devastates-lives)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

391

#35 GLOBAL PORN STATS “THE SCOPE AND DETRIMENTAL EFFECTS OF WORLDWIDE PORNOGRAPHY” “Per Audiovisual Magazine in 2005, hardcore video rentals increased from 75 million annually in 1985 to 490 million in 1992, and to 665 million in 1996. By 1978, 100 hard-core films were released. By 1996, 8,000 hardcore films were released. By 2002, 11,300 hard-core films were released, compared with only 470 Hollywood features released that same year.” (Christopher Carmouche, “The Scope and Detrimental Effects of worldwide Pornography”, The World Congress of Families, June 2, 2010, http://worldcongress.org/wcfreg.spkrs/wcf.reg.uk.carmouche.htm)

“FBI findings. The Federal Bureau of Investigation found that eighty percent (29 of 36) of recent mass murderers used pornography extensively and used it as an integral part of their murderous sexual activity, which often included serial rape-murders.” (“Pornography: one of the greatest enemies of the family today”, April 2, 2012, http://www.tldm.org/News6/purity2.htm)

“If, as brain science research now shows, emotionally threatening/stimulating media bypass the neocortex, overwhelming rational thought, then pornographic lust would psychopharmacologically subvert the first amendment goals of informed consent and free speech – the search for truth.” (Daniel Goleman, Emotional Intelligence, Bantam Books, New York, 1997, f5 at 17) (Judith A. Reisman, PhD, DRAFT - “The Psychopharmacology of Pornography: A Clear & Present Danger”, The Institute for Media Education, January 2000)

“If users and/or victims are organically unable to critique the psychopharmacological changes formed in their brains, minds and memories, the users/victims cannot consent to the unforeseen consequences of their neurochemical ‘resculpting’ or ‘brainwashing.’ The argument that pornographic lust/stimuli are ‘information’ or ‘speech’ is then scientifically contraindicated since such stimuli, processed by the emotional, not the thinking brain would undermine the goal of rational debate and discourse, the foundation of civil society and the First Amendment protections. And, as noted, it is no small thing that Shakespeare himself defined ‘lust’ as standing outside cognition, dominated by shame, cruelty, savagery and ‘madness’.” (Judith A. Reisman, PhD, DRAFT - “The Psychopharmacology of Pornography: A Clear & Present Danger”, The Institute for Media Education, January 2000)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

392

FOR COMPLETE, REVISED ARTICLE, PLEASE GO TO: The Psychopharmacology of Pictorial Pornography - Restructuring Brain, Mind & Memory & Subverting Freedom of Speech “…an article in the Daily Telegraph of the United Kingdom this week called ‘Pornography has changed the landscape of adolescence beyond all recognition’” (Jonathon Van Maren, “Porn is fuelling a new, violent sexual ideology in our teens. It has to stop.”, Life Site News, April 28, 2015, https://www.lifesitenews.com/blogs/porn-is-fuelling-a-newviolent-sexual-ideology-in-our-teens.-it-has-to-stop)

“‘Another study of British teenagers found that most youngsters’ first experience of anal sex occurred within a relationship, but it was ‘rarely under circumstances of mutual exploration of sexual pleasure.’ Instead, it was the boys who pushed the girls to try it, with boys reporting that they felt ‘expected’ to take that role.’” (Jonathon Van Maren, “Porn is fuelling a new, violent sexual ideology in our teens. It has to stop.”, Life Site News, April 28, 2015, https://www.lifesitenews.com/blogs/porn-is-fuelling-a-new-violent-sexual-ideology-inour-teens.-it-has-to-stop)

“Dr. Paul Wright and his research team released a study just as this book was going into print. They analyzed recent data on pornography use and sexual violence from 22 studies and 7 different nations. They found that in correlational, cross-sectional, and longitudinal studies, pornography use and acts of sexual aggression were directly connected. This connection held true for both men and women, and for verbal and physical aggression. Violent pornography was even more strongly linked to sexual violence. (Wright, P.J., Tokunaga, R.S., & Kraus, A. (2015). A Meta-Analysis of Pornography Consumption and Actual Acts of Sexual Aggression in General Population Studies. Journal of Communication. doi:10.1111/jcom.12201) Moreover,

after reviewing over 500 studies to determine whether consumption of pornography causes genderbased violence, Dr. Max Waltman of Stockholm University concluded that the weight of the evidence shows the direction of the connection clearly.” (Waltman, M. (2014). The politics of legal challenges to pornography. Doctoral Dissertation.) (John D. Foubert, “How Pornography Harms”, John Foubert.com, April 2016, http://www.johnfoubert.com/how-porn-harms)

“…a research team in the Netherlands studied the relationship between adolescents looking at pornography and whether they believed women were objects, instead of people. They found that the more boys and girls viewed pornography, the more they believed that Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

393

females are sex objects.” (Peter, J., & Valkenburg, P. M. (2007). Adolescents’ exposure to a sexualized media environment and notions of women as sex objects. Sex Roles, 56, 381–395.) (Peter, J., & Valkenburg, P. M. (2009). Adolescents’ exposure to sexually explicit Internet material and notions of women as sex objects: Assessing causality and underlying processes. Journal of Communication, 59, 407–433. doi:10.1111/j.14602466.2009.01422.x) (John D. Foubert, “How Pornography Harms”, John Foubert.com, April 2016, http://www.johnfoubert.com/how-porn-harms)

“The frequency of pornography consumption has been shown to predict various negative outcome measures in humans. A representative Swedish study on adolescent boys has shown that boys with daily consumption showed more interest in deviant and illegal types of pornography and more frequently reported the wish to actualize what was seen in real life.” (Gunter B. Media Sex: What Are the Issues? London, United Kingdom: Routledge; 2001.; Svedin CG, Åkerman I, Priebe G. Frequent users of pornography: a population based epidemiological study of Swedish male adolescents. J Adolesc. 2011; 34(4):779-788.; Fattore L, Melis M, Fadda P, Pistis M, FrattaW. The endocannabinoid system and nondrug rewarding behaviours. Exp Neurol. 2010;224(1):23-36.; Müller CP, Schumann G. To use or not to use: expanding the view on non-addictive psychoactive drug consumption and its implications. Behav Brain Sci. 2011;34(6):328-347.) (Simone Kuhn, Jurgen Gallinat, “Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity Associated with Pornography Consumption”, JAMA Psychiatry, Volume 71, Number 7, July, 2014, http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1874574)

“Researchers from Indiana University and the University of Hawaii at Manoa performed a meta-analysis of 22 studies from around the globe. … Significantly, they found that it made no difference whether the porn consumer was male or female – and whether the content was viewed on the internet or another medium.” (Ben Johnson, “Porn viewers more likely to rape, sexually harass, use threats to ‘obtain sex’: massive study”, Life Site News, January 7, 2016, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/pornography-viewers-more-likely-to-be-sexually-aggressive-studyfinds)

“A representative Swedish study on adolescent boys has shown that boys with daily consumption showed more interest in deviant and illegal types of pornography and more frequently reported the wish to actualize what was seen in real life.” (Gunter B. Media Sex: What Are the Issues? London, United Kingdom: Routledge; 2001.Svedin CG, Åkerman I, Priebe G. Frequent users of pornography: a population based epidemiological study of Swedish male adolescents. J Adolesc. 2011; 34(4):779-788. Fattore L, Melis M, Fadda P, Pistis M, FrattaW. The endocannabinoid system and nondrug rewarding behaviours. Exp Neurol. 2010;224(1):23-36. Müller CP, Schumann G. To use or not to use: expanding the view on nonaddictive psychoactive drug consumption and its implications. Behav Brain Sci. 2011;34(6):328-347) (Simone Kühn, PhD; Jürgen Gallinat, PhD, “Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity Associated with Pornography Consumption,” JAMA Psychiatry. 2014;71(7):827-834, http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1874574)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

394

“A representative Swedish study on adolescent boys has shown that boys with daily consumption showed more interest in deviant and illegal types of pornography and more frequently reported the wish to actualize what was seen in real life.” (Gunter B.Media Sex: What Are the Issues? London, United Kingdom: Routledge; 2001; Svedin CG, Åkerman I, Priebe G. Frequent users of pornography: a population based epidemiological study of Swedish male adolescents. J Adolesc. 2011;34(4):779-788; Fattore L, Melis M, Fadda P, Pistis M, Fratta W. The endocannabinoid system and nondrug rewarding behaviours. Exp Neurol. 2010;224(1):23-36; Müller CP, Schumann G. To use or not to use: expanding the view on nonaddictive psychoactive drug consumption and its implications. Behav Brain Sci. 2011;34(6):328-347) (Simone Kühn, Ph.D., Jürgen Gallinat, PhD, “Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity Associated with Pornography Consumption,” JAMA Psychiatry, July 2014, Vol.71, No.7, http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1874574)

“A representative Swedish study on adolescent boys has shown that boys with daily consumption showed more interest in deviant and illegal types of pornography and more frequently reported the wish to actualize what was seen in real life.” (Gunter B. Media Sex: What Are the Issues? London, United Kingdom: Routledge; 2001.Svedin CG, Åkerman I, Priebe G. Frequent users of pornography: a population based epidemiological study of Swedish male adolescents. J Adolesc. 2011; 34(4):779-788. Fattore L, Melis M, Fadda P, Pistis M, FrattaW. The endocannabinoid system and nondrug rewarding behaviours. Exp Neurol. 2010;224(1):23-36. Müller CP, Schumann G. To use or not to use: expanding the view on non-addictive psychoactive drug consumption and its implications. Behav Brain Sci. 2011;34(6):328-347) (Simone Kühn, PhD; Jürgen Gallinat, PhD, “Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity Associated with Pornography Consumption,” JAMA Psychiatry. 2014;71(7):827-834, http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1874574)

“FBI’s Joseph Campbell says ‘the level of pedophilia is unprecedented right now.’ A ‘survey of high school graduates’ found 13.5% had sex with a teacher.” (Judith Reisman and Mary E. McAlister, “‘The Sexual Revolution’ Gave Us ‘The Rape Culture’”, Breitbart, January 1, 2016, http://www.breitbart.com/big-government/2016/01/01/the-sexual-revolution-gave-us-the-rapeculture/)

“Pornhub (just one of 26,000,000 porn websites):” (“How many people are watching porn right now? (Hint: It’s a lot), Fightthenewdrug.org)

Statistics on Pornhub • “1916…23 billion visits” • “729 viewers per second” • “65,000,000 per day”

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

395

• • • •

“Porn watched in 1 year would fill 194,000,000 USB sticks” “The sticks end on end…circle the moon.” “91,980,225,000 watched last year” “Equals 12.5 video for every man, woman, and child on the face of the earth.” • “Last year 4,599,000,000 hours of video watched.” • “Porn watched equals to 5,246 centuries” • “Woman are 113% more likely to look at “hardcore” porn than men.” • “Women will search for “gangbang” and “rough sex” over 105% than men.” • “Women account for 1/3 of online porn viewers.” • “Children are 25% likely to mistype a URL and get porn by accident.” • “2008…93% of boys; 62% of girls are exposed to porn in their early adolescent years.” • “By age of 10, 22% of those who see porn before 18 years old” (“How many people are watching porn right now? (Hint: It’s a lot), Fightthenewdrug.org) Porn Size: • “4.4 billion pages viewed every 30 days: Pornhub” • “Tech site gizmodo: top porn sites are on par – Google & Facebook traffic” • “Triple web traffic then CNN: Pornhub” • “30% of web traffic is porn related” • “USA #1 on rape views” • “Mind geek, biggest online porn company control 8 of the top 10 busiest porn sites on global web.” • “3 top mind geek websites experience 100 plus million visits per day.” (“The Major Companies That are Now Using Porn Sites to Advertise Their Products,” Fightthenewdrug.org; 9/25/17)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

396



“Parent Television Council: last year a 407% increase of full nudity on U.S. TV. Why: trying to compete with popularity of porn.” (“The Major Companies That are Now Using Porn Sites to Advertise Their Products,” Fightthenewdrug.org; 9/25/17)



“Globe and Mail: 40% of all Canadian teen boys 7-11tj grades view porn.” (“The Major Companies That are Now Using Porn Sites to Advertise Their Products,” Fightthenewdrug.org; 9/25/17)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

397

#36 WHY USE PORN “There are many reasons why people choose to look at porn. Some common examples include, but are not limited to: curiosity, boredom, comfort, a need to feel powerful, peer pressure, needs for intimacy, escape, fantasy indulgence, needing to feel, coping and self-medication and sexual arousal and masturbation.” (“Top Pornography FAQ’s – What About Pornography”, Moral Revolution, Accessed November 13, 2015, http://moralrevolution.com/pornographyfaqs/)

“The late psychologist, Dr. Al Cooper, believed three main factors draw people into online sexual activity:” (Al Cooper, Cybersex: The Dark Side of the Force (London: Brunner-Routledge, 2000).) (Luke Gilkerson, “Your Brain on Porn”, Covenant Eyes, Accessed July 29, 2016, http://www.covenanteyes.com/brain-ebook/)

1. “Accessibility (porn is accessible easily from any Internet connection)” (Luke Gilkerson, “Your Brain on Porn”, Covenant Eyes, Accessed July 29, 2016, http://www.covenanteyes.com/brain-ebook/)

2. “Affordability (millions of free or very cheap images are available online)” (Luke Gilkerson, “Your Brain on Porn”, Covenant Eyes, Accessed July 29, 2016, http://www.covenanteyes.com/brain-ebook/)

3. “Anonymity (home computers and Smartphones have made it very easy to be secretive)” (Luke Gilkerson, “Your Brain on Porn”, Covenant Eyes, Accessed July 29, 2016, http://www.covenanteyes.com/brain-ebook/)

[Josh D. McDowell makes it an engine 4. Available; 5. Appealing; 6. Addictive or the sexteplet A Engine] “He dubbed this the ‘Triple-A Engine’ of Internet porn.” (Luke Gilkerson, “Your Brain on Porn”, Covenant Eyes, Accessed July 29, 2016, http://www.covenanteyes.com/brain-ebook/)

“These three factors work like three legs on a stool: remove just one of the legs and the stool will fall (or at least make it awkward to sit on).” (Luke Gilkerson, “Your Brain on Porn”, Covenant Eyes, Accessed July 29, 2016, http://www.covenanteyes.com/brain-ebook/)

“Recent research on why adolescents use Internet pornography found that they visit such sites because they are sexually curious (50%), by accident

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

398

(46%), and to seek information (17%; Braun-Courville & Rojas, 2009). Using an Italian sample of adolescents, the majority of boys (70%) and girls (82%) first watched pornography because their friends were watching. Other reasons cited by boys were that it was sexually exciting (53%) and that they liked it (44%). Girls were more likely to say that they were curious (37%). Both boys (49%) and girls (36%) watched to get “information about sex” (Romito & Beltramini, 2012). In a sample of U.S. adults, Bridges and Morokoff (2011) found the primary reason why men used pornography was for solitary sexual stimulation (i.e., masturbation), while for women, the primary motive was as part of sexual activity with a romantic partner. Additional motives for pornography use in both men and women included to satisfy curiosity, relieve boredom, and reduce stress and loneliness.” (John D. Foubert and Ana J. Bridges, “What is the Attraction? Porngraphy Use Motives in Relation to Bystander Intervention”, Oklahoma State University, 2015, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26209307)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

399

Why Use Porn

“David Kinnamen, “The Porn Phenonmenon”, Barna Group, April 2016, https://resources.barna.org/products/porn-phenomenon)

Reason’s People Search for Porn by Age Percentage among US teens and adults 13 and older who actively seek out porn Ages 13-17 • 67% - Personal arousal • 46% - Boredom Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

400

• • • • • •

42% – Curiosity 27% - It’s just fun 26% - To get tips or ideas for my own sex life 22% - Because it’s less risky than actually having sex. 18% - to express my sexuality 6% - To set the mood with a girlfriend/boyfriend/partner

Ages 18 - 24 • • • • • • • •

67% - Personal arousal 42% - Boredom 42% - Curiosity 38% - It’s just fun 36% - To get tips or ideas for my own sex life 24% - To express my sexuality 17% - To set the mood with a girlfriend/boyfriend/partner 16% - Because it’s less risky than actually having sex

Ages 25 - 30 • • • • • • • •

70% - Personal arousal 38% - Curiosity 38% - To get tips or ideas for my own sex life 33% - Boredom 29% - It’s just fun 23% - To set the mood with a girlfriend/boyfriend/partner 15% - To express my sexuality 9% - Because it’s less risky than actually having sex

Ages 31 - 50 • • • • •

62% - Personal arousal 32% - To set the mood with a girlfriend/boyfriend/partner 31% - Curiosity 30% - To get tips or ideas for my own sex life 28% - It’s just fun

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

401

• 20% - Boredom • 14% - Because it’s less risky than actually having sex • 12% - To express my sexuality Ages 51 - 69 • • • • • • • •

53% - Personal arousal 28% - It’s just fun 21% - Curiosity 19% - Because it’s less risky than actually having sex 18% - Boredom 17% - To set the mood with a girlfriend/boyfriend/partner 18% - To get tips or ideas for my own sex life 10% - To express my sexuality

“David Kinnamen, “The Porn Phenonmenon”, Barna Group, April 2016, https://resources.barna.org/products/porn-phenomenon)

When examining reasons for pornography use (which included for sexual thrills, to turn on a sexual partner, to learn about sex, to relieve sexual tension, to enjoy a social event, and to make sex more interesting), men endorsed all reasons to a greater extent than did women, with the exception of use to turn a partner on sexually, where men’s and women’s reasons were statistically equivalent (p > .30). The most common reasons why both men and women used pornography were to relieve sexual tension, to learn about sex, and for sexual thrills. (John D. Foubert and Ana J. Bridges, “What is the Attraction? Porngraphy Use Motives in Relation to Bystander Intervention”, Oklahoma State University, 2015, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26209307)

“…participants reporting a greater variety of motives for engaging in pornography use showed lower willingness to intervene in a bystander situation than participants with fewer motives, after controlling for gender and pornography use frequency.” (John D. Foubert and Ana J. Bridges, “What is the Attraction? Porngraphy Use Motives in Relation to Bystander Intervention”, Oklahoma State University, 2015, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26209307)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

402

“…the Bridges and Morokoff (2011) study, in the present study, the most common motives stated by both men and women for consuming pornography were remarkably similar. The most common reasons both men and women reported were as follows: “to relieve sexual tension,” “to learn about sex,” and “for sexual thrills.” However, men endorsed most motives at a higher rate than did women. The one exception was in the motive “to turn on a sexual partner,” which was endorsed at similar rates by men and women.” (John D. Foubert and Ana J. Bridges, “What is the Attraction? Porngraphy Use Motives in Relation to Bystander Intervention”, Oklahoma State University, 2015, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26209307)

“Doidge writes: ‘Pornographers promise healthy pleasure and relief from sexual tension, but what they often deliver is an addiction, tolerance, and an eventual decrease in pleasure. Paradoxically, the male patients I worked with often craved pornography but didn’t like it.’” (Sam Black, “Porn Can’t Give No Satisfaction”, Covenant Eyes, April 26, 2013, http://www.covenanteyes.com/2013/04/26/porn-nosatisfaction/)

“Why do people look at pornography: curiosity, boredom, comfort, a need to feel powerful, peer pressure, needs for intimacy, escape, fantasy indulgence, needing to feel, coping and self-medication and sexual arousal and masturbation.” (“Top Pornography FAQ’s – What About Pornography”, Moral Revolution, Accessed November 13, 2015, http://moralrevolution.com/pornography-faqs/)

“… destructive consequences of porn use:” (“Top Pornography FAQ’s – What About Pornography”, Moral Revolution, Accessed November 13, 2015, http://moralrevolution.com/pornographyfaqs/)

“…addiction, isolation, increased aggression, distorted beliefs and perceptions about relationships and sexuality, negative feelings about themselves, and neglecting other areas of their lives.” (“Top Pornography FAQ’s – What About Pornography”, Moral Revolution, Accessed November 13, 2015, http://moralrevolution.com/pornography-faqs/)

“…that desire to ‘check out’ of life. This is the birthplace of addictions.” (Soo Prince, “Pornography and Addiction – The Reality: An Abundant Life”, Moral Revolution, Accessed November 13, 2015, http://moralrevolution.com/pornography-and-addiction/)

“Pitts…report that 36.4% of men who paid for sex did so because ‘paying for sex is less trouble.’” (Pitts, Marian K., Smith, Anthony M.A., Grierson, Jeffrey, O’Brien, Mary and Misson, Sebastian (2004). Who Pays for Sex and Why? An Analysis of Social and Motivational Factors Associated with Male Clients of Sex Workers. Archives of Sexual Behavior 33: 353-358.) (Michael Malcolm, George Naufal, “Are Pornography and Marriage Substitutes for Young Men?” The

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

403

Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), November, 2014, http://www.iza.org/en/webcontent/publications/papers/viewAbstract?dp_id=8679)

“Along similar lines, Thorbek and Pattanaik find that many men who engage in sex tourism do so, by their own admission, because they do not want to invest in a stable relationship.” (Thorbek, Susanne and Pattanaik, Bandana Eds. (2002). Transnational Prostitution: Changing Global Patterns. London: Zed Books.) (Michael Malcolm, George Naufal, “Are Pornography and Marriage Substitutes for Young Men?” The Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), November, 2014, http://www.iza.org/en/webcontent/publications/papers/viewAbstract?dp_id=8679)

“Why do people look at pornography: curiosity, boredom, comfort, a need to feel powerful, peer pressure, needs for intimacy, escape, fantasy indulgence, needing to feel, coping and self-medication and sexual arousal and masturbation.” (“Top Pornography FAQ’s – What About Pornography”, Moral Revolution, Accessed November 13, 2015, http://moralrevolution.com/pornography-faqs/)

“There are many reasons why people choose to look at porn. Some common examples include, but are not limited to: curiosity, boredom, comfort, a need to feel powerful, peer pressure, needs for intimacy, escape, fantasy indulgence, needing to feel, coping and self-medication and sexual arousal and masturbation.” (“Top Pornography FAQ’s – What About Pornography”, Moral Revolution, Accessed November 13, 2015, http://moralrevolution.com/pornographyfaqs/)

Recent research on why adolescents use Internet pornography found that they visit such sites because they are sexually curious (50%), by accident (46%), and to seek information (17%; Braun-Courville & Rojas, 2009). Using an Italian sample of adolescents, the majority of boys (70%) and girls (82%) first watched pornography because their friends were watching. Other reasons cited by boys were that it was sexually exciting (53%) and that they liked it (44%). Girls were more likely to say that they were curious (37%). Both boys (49%) and girls (36%) watched to get “information about sex” (Romito & Beltramini, 2012). In a sample of U.S. adults, Bridges and Morokoff (2011) found the primary reason why men used pornography was for solitary sexual stimulation (i.e., masturbation), while for women, the primary motive was as part of sexual activity with a romantic partner. Additional motives for pornography use in both men and women included to satisfy curiosity, relieve boredom, and reduce stress and loneliness.” (John D. Foubert and Ana J. Bridges, “What is the Attraction? Porngraphy Use Motives in Relation to Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

404

Bystander Intervention”, Oklahoma State University, 2015, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26209307)

“In the Springs of 2012, PBS published the results of a survey by the Kinsey Institute. There were 10,453 respondents, 80% of who were men. When asked why they used porn, the top 5 reasons given were: 1. To masturbate / for physical release. 2. For sexual arousal. 3. From curiosity. 4. ‘Because I can fantasize about things I wouldn’t necessarily want to do in real life.’ 5. For distraction.” (PBS Frontline; American Porn)

“Perhaps your daughter was searching for “what is sex.” Perhaps your son has a crush on a cheerleader at school, so he typed in “cheerleader.” Perhaps your child saw a billboard for Hooters and looked it up. Perhaps your child heard a sexual word at school that they wanted to know about. Or maybe your child has been into porn or erotic chatting for a while, and he or she is searching for more graphic terms.” (Luke Gilkerson, “When Your Child is Looking at Porn”, Covenant Eyes, 2013, http://www.covenanteyes.com/when-your-child-is-looking-at-porn/) “People use porn for the obvious: arousal. But also for boredom, curiosity, and fun.” (David Kinnaman, “The Porn Phenomenon”, Barna, January 19, 2016, https://www.barna.org/blog/culture-media/david-kinnaman/the-porn-phenomenon#.VvrvEuIrK70)

• “Younger adults and teens are more likely than older adults to use porn for boredom, curiosity and fun.” (David Kinnaman, “The Porn Phenomenon”, Barna, January 19, 2016, https://www.barna.org/blog/culture-media/david-kinnaman/the-pornphenomenon#.VvrvEuIrK70)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

405

• “Those 25- to 50-year-old tend to use for getting sex tips or to set a mood with a partner.” (David Kinnaman, “The Porn Phenomenon”, Barna, January 19, 2016, https://www.barna.org/blog/culture-media/david-kinnaman/the-porn-phenomenon#.VvrvEuIrK70)

• “‘Being less risky than actual sex’ is higher motivation among both teens and older adults—for different reasons, presumably.” (David Kinnaman, “The Porn Phenomenon”, Barna, January 19, 2016, https://www.barna.org/blog/culturemedia/david-kinnaman/the-porn-phenomenon#.VvrvEuIrK70)

“The most common reason that women cite for viewing pornography is to please a sexual partner.” (Foubert, J.D. & Bridges, A. J. (in press). What is the attraction? Understanding gender differences in reasons for viewing pornography in relationship to bystander intervention. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 1-19, DOI: 10.1177/0886260515596538.) (John D. Foubert, “How Pornography Harms”, John Foubert.com, April 2016, http://www.johnfoubert.com/how-porn-harms)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

406

#37 PASTORS AND PORN “Don’t assume that porn isn’t a problem in the church. One evangelical leader was skeptical of survey findings that said 50 percent of Christian men have looked at porn recently. So he surveyed his own congregation. He found that 60 percent had done so within the past year, and 25 percent within the past 30 days. Other surveys reveal that one in three visitors to adult websites ware women.” (Timothy C. Morgan, “Porn’s Stranglehold”, Christianity Today, March 7, 2008, http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2008/march/20.7.html)

“In 2002, of 1351 pastors surveyed, 54% said they had viewed Internet pornography within the last year, and 30% of these had visited within the last 30 days.” (Pastors.com Survey, Qtd. In “Wounded Clergy.” Hope & Freedom Counseling Services, Media A-Team, Inc., March 2002.) (“Pornography among Youth: Problems, Roadblocks and Solutions”, Covenant Eyes, 2011, http://www.covenanteyes.com/lemonade/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/pornography-amongyouth.pdf)

‘Pornography keeps us from all kinds of ministry, disqualifying many and demotivating even more.” (Marshall Segal, “Never Harmless, Never Private, Never Safe”, Desiring God.Org, October 26, 2016, http://www.desiringgod.org/articles/never-harmless-neverprivate-never-safe)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

407

#38 JIHADIST AND PORN

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

408

#39 MORALITY AND PORN “Pornography users are more likely to hold a college degree, more likely to have moved, and they also attend church less frequently, although the differential again is small – around one fourth of a standard deviation difference for holding a college degree and mobility…” (Michael Malcolm, George Naufal, “Are Pornography and Marriage Substitutes for Young Men?” The Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), November, 2014, http://www.iza.org/en/webcontent/publications/papers/viewAbstract?dp_id=8679)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

409

#40 CULTURE AND PORN “Never before in the history of telecommunications media in the United States has so much indecent and obscene material been so easily accessible by so many minors in so many American homes with so few restrictions.” (U.S. Department of Justice. Post Hearing Memorandum of Points and Authorities, at l, ACLU v. Reno, 929 F. Supp. 824, 1996.) (Matt Fradd, “Trust Your Kids. Just Don’t Trust the Internet…Ever,” Lifesite, February 24, 2015, https://www.lifesitenews.com/blogs/your-kidsmight-not-be-looking-for-porn.-but-porn-is-definitely-looking-for#_ftn1)

“… who don’t need another physical person to satisfy their sexual needs – ‘sexual singularity’. In Japan, there is even a phrase for the kind of man no longer interested in real sex, soshoku danshi – or herbivorous men. Zimbardo’s fear is that herbivorous men are becoming a global phenomenon. He also fears that, thanks to how online pornography is becoming more interactive and immersive, real-life romantic relationships will become even less appealing.” (Stuart Jeffries, “Psychologist Philip Zimbardo: ‘Boys Risk Becoming Addicted to Porn, Video Games and Ritalin’”, The Guardian, May 9, 2015, http://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2015/may/09/philip-zimbardo-boys-are-a-mess)

“As James Conley mentioned in his analysis on how pornography is reshaping the mind of American men, he says this: “Ariel Castro’s addiction is no excuse for his actions, but it points to a deep and sobering reality: Free, anonymous, and ubiquitous access to pornography is quietly transforming American men and American culture.” (James D. Conley, “Ariel Castro’s Addiction,” First Things, August 2013, http://www.firstthings.com/web-exclusives/2013/08/ariel-castros-addiction) (Nicholas Black, “Pornography and Injustice: The Social Impact of Sexual Sin”, Harvest USA, June 4, 2014, https://truthandmercy.wordpress.com/2014/06/04/pornography-and-injustice-the-social-impact-ofsexual-sin/)

“…designed to be so powerful and immersive it tricks people into believing they are fully present in a simulated world. The porn industry has taken that step further, partnering with makers of digitally-connected sex toys – a budding field known as teledildonics – to sync virtual videos with the physical movements of toys.” (Jennifer Booton, “Porn industry’s billion-dollar new frontier”, Market Watch, July 26, 2015, http://www.marketwatch.com/story/how-the-future-of-virtual-realitydepends-on-porn-2015-07-15)

“…views pornography as his generation’s version of cigarettes – something harmful and addictive that we’re learning the consequences in retrospect.” (Sam Parker, “Why Thousands of Young Men are Giving up Pornography in 2014”, Esquire - UK, July 31, 2014, http://www.esquire.co.uk/culture/article/6624/why-young-men-are-quitting-porn-in-2014/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

410

“National Review: Getting Serious On Pornography” “Imagine a drug so powerful it can destroy a family simply by distorting a man's perception of his wife. Picture an addiction so lethal it has the potential to render an entire generation incapable of forming lasting marriages and so widespread that it produces more annual revenue — $97 billion worldwide in 2006 — than all of the leading technology companies combined. Consider a narcotic so insidious that it evades serious scientific study and legislative action for decades, thriving instead under the everexpanding banner of the First Amendment.” (Anonymous, “National Review: Getting Serious on Pornography,” NPR, March 31, 2010, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=125382361)

“Sexual Sabotage” “One need only look around to see the disastrous effects of the so-called sexual revolution: pornography at every turn, widespread sexual abuse, rampant promiscuity, abortion, adultery, grossly immodest fashions, people living in and celebrating fornicatory and homosexual relationships, and people who have died as a result of engaging in a deviant (and dangerous) sexual practice known as autoerotic asphyxiation.” Matt C. Abbott, “Kinsey and ‘Sexual Sabotage’”, Renew America, January 16, 2012, http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/abbott/120116)

“Judith A. Reisman, Ph.D., is a noted researcher and author who has battled the vast sex industry and has exposed the true and terrible legacy of one of the sexual revolution's chief architects, Alfred Kinsey. Below is a substantial excerpt (minus endnotes) from chapter one of Dr. Reisman's book Sexual Sabotage: How One Mad Scientist Unleashed a Plague of Corruption and Contagion on America. Thanks to Dr. Reisman and WorldNetDaily.com for allowing me to reprint her material. (This should be obvious, but I'll write it anyway: Due to the nature of the book's content, it is appropriate only for adults.)” Matt C. Abbott, “Kinsey and ‘Sexual Sabotage’”, Renew America, January 16, 2012, http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/abbott/120116)

“‘Mother's Flags’ hung in the windows of most homes in my neighborhood in 1942. Walking past them, I knew that when a blue star was replaced with a gold one, another son or daughter had died to protect me and my country. My gratitude and sense of obligation Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

411

began then, as 416,800 soldiers died, sixteen million fought under arms, and millions of stateside Americans shouldered the burdens of war. Little did we know that, having survived the enemy forces in Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Pacific Ocean, our heroes would come home only to be sabotaged, betrayed by a cult of American draft dodgers lounging on the grassy slopes of Indiana University.” Matt C. Abbott, “Kinsey and ‘Sexual Sabotage’”, Renew America, January 16, 2012, http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/abbott/120116)

“There, strolling along the tree covered green campus and the undisturbed wilderness of Dunn's Woods, Alfred C. Kinsey, a zoologist, studied gall wasps, taught classes, conducted ‘sexual research,’ and, in 1948 and 1953, published reports that defamed our heroes, their families, and everything they fought and died for. With a cadre of devoted followers, this ‘scientist’ lied about our forebears and slandered the World War II generation as promiscuous, adulterous, homosexual, and even bestial. Abundant evidence proves that these sexual perversions reflected the activities and character of the Indiana University professors — not of our accused World War II fighting men and women. Nonetheless, this false ‘statistical survey’ of the morals of World War II Americans would be believed and relied upon for generations to come. Indeed, it continues to seduce our nation, even today.” Matt C. Abbott, “Kinsey and ‘Sexual Sabotage’”, Renew America, January 16, 2012, http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/abbott/120116)

“In 1948, when Kinsey's first book was published, I was thirteen years old and wholly unaware that my freedom and safety were a legacy granted me largely by unknown women bred as independent ladies and unknown men bred with ‘religion and the spirit of a gentleman.’ Little did we know, in 1948, that the nation's character would be transformed from Tom Sawyer and Becky Thatcher to that of the tortured youth of the 1948 pornographic novel, Amboy Dukes. We were still being lifted aloft to higher things by the virtues of the founders' generation reflected in our own World War II parents.” Matt C. Abbott, “Kinsey and ‘Sexual Sabotage’”, Renew America, January 16, 2012, http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/abbott/120116)

“In 1948, my parents, like most people on our street, never locked the car or our front door. The paint spray can was not invented until 1949, and graffiti did not mar shops and signs, even on the tough side of town. Stores did not have wrought-iron bars protecting their windows.

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

412

Burglar alarms were rare indeed.” Matt C. Abbott, “Kinsey and ‘Sexual Sabotage’”, Renew America, January 16, 2012, http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/abbott/120116)

“In 1948, I walked the mile from my house to Bancroft Junior High School in Los Angeles. My fellow students discussed weekend plans — parties, dances, and church and synagogue events — and we commiserated with several movie stars' children, whose parents were divorced.” Matt C. Abbott, “Kinsey and ‘Sexual Sabotage’”, Renew America, January 16, 2012, http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/abbott/120116)

“On Saturdays, I often took the trolley from Hollywood to the beach, where I spread my towel on the sand, searched my lunch bag for an apple, and lolled about reading my book, swimming, and finding seashells. Catching the last streetcar back to L.A., I sauntered home after dark. Some Saturdays I might have tarried on Hollywood Boulevard, peeking in the shops, enjoying an ice cream cone before I moseyed home in the evening.” Matt C. Abbott, “Kinsey and ‘Sexual Sabotage’”, Renew America, January 16, 2012, http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/abbott/120116)

“Once college begins, most students have seen, and are likely affected by, pornography with nearly all men and two thirds of women having been exposed (Brown & Engle, 2009). Experimental and correlational research has shown that use of Internet and other types of pornography is associated with a variety of sexually violent behavior (Kingston et al., 2009). A meta-analysis found that men’s use of pornography is strongly associated with acceptance of sexual violence (Hald, Malamuth, & Yuen, 2010). In addition, a comprehensive literature review of more than 50 studies found that men who frequently use pornography are more likely to have perpetrated rape and other forms of sexual aggression (Malamuth et al., 2000). High pornography use adds significant predictive capacity to the ability to determine whether men will be sexually aggressive, over and above other predictive factors (Vega & Malamuth, 2007). It appears that men who have attitudes supporting sexual violence seek out violent pornography and that the two are mutually reinforcing (Malamuth, Hald, & Koss, 2012).” (John D. Foubert and Ana J. Bridges, “What is the Attraction? Porngraphy Use Motives in Relation to Bystander Intervention”, Oklahoma State University, 2015, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26209307)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

413

“Effects on Women Traditionally considered a strictly male phenomenon, the once pronounced gender gap found in pornography consumption has diminished (Carroll et al., 2008; Yoder et al., 2005). Some people attribute increased use by women to widespread accessibility and greater anonymity permitted through the Internet (W. A. Fisher & Barak, 2001). Like in men, greater pornography use in women is associated with increased assignment of responsibility to victims and less responsibility to male perpetrators of rape (Davis et al., 2006; Norris et al., 2004) In addition, pornography use in women is associated with greater acceptance of personal sexual victimization (Davis et al., 2006; Norris et al., 2004). Notably, research has shown that when actresses in popular mainstream pornographic movies experience physical aggression, 95% of the time they provide either a response of pleasure or no response at all (Bridges et al., 2010). Given that the content of pornography today reinforces the script that women do not resist when hit during a sexual encounter (Bridges et al., 2010), it stands to reason that exposure to pornography sends the message that women enjoy physical aggression during sex. If women internalize the messages that women enjoy violence, it raises a barrier for potential intervention to help another woman who is at current risk of sexual assault (McMahon & Banyard, 2012). It also raises a barrier for men to help women if they internalize the script that women enjoy being aggressed against.” (John D. Foubert and Ana J. Bridges, “What is the Attraction? Porngraphy Use Motives in Relation to Bystander Intervention”, Oklahoma State University, 2015, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26209307)

“If in fact pornographic media create a cultural climate that permits violence against women (Krafka et al., 1997), then perhaps reducing pornography use would help reduce the acceptability of sexual violence against women, just as experimental evidence suggests reducing use increases commitment to a romantic partner (Lambert, Negash, Stillman, Olmstead, & Fincham, 2012).” (John D. Foubert and Ana J. Bridges, “What is the Attraction? Porngraphy Use Motives in Relation to Bystander Intervention”, Oklahoma State University, 2015, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26209307)

“In 1948, as my friends and I meandered through beaches, parks, and streets, we had no idea of the ‘sex, drugs, and rock 'n' roll’ that would soon Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

414

assault us. Like me, Elvis was thirteen, and John Lennon was only eight years old. Few kids smoked cigarettes or drank alcohol. Drugs? A very sophisticated friend once asked me if I'd like to smoke marijuana. ‘What is it?’ I asked. When she told me, I was stunned. ‘Why would I ever want to do that?’ I chalked up this strangeness to the fact that her father was a film director. Again, we all knew about ‘movie people.’” Matt C. Abbott, “Kinsey and ‘Sexual Sabotage’”, Renew America, January 16, 2012, http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/abbott/120116)

“Though very few kids had cars in the late 1940s and early 1950s, one nice sixteen-year-old boy rode a motorcycle and occasionally picked me up after classes at Fairfax High School. Of course, he never tried to kiss me. The phrase ‘sweet sixteen and never been kissed’ still applied to most girls I knew. We never heard of ‘date rape.’” Matt C. Abbott, “Kinsey and ‘Sexual Sabotage’”, Renew America, January 16, 2012, http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/abbott/120116)

“In 1948, my parents did not worry much about my safety. They knew I didn't take rides from strangers and I was a ‘good girl.’ Even our liberal crowd was not a sexually liberal crowd. Child molesters were considered rare indeed, and though some of those queer fellows lurked about in movie theaters, parents still usually felt their children's independence and freedom outweighed the rare possibility of harm.” Matt C. Abbott, “Kinsey and ‘Sexual Sabotage’”, Renew America, January 16, 2012, http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/abbott/120116)

“This was the common reality in 1948. Americans of all races and religions and from most socioeconomic backgrounds tended to share similar morals. In fact, most single men were quite likely to be virgins as adults, including Playboy's Hugh Hefner and liberal CBS newscaster Andy Rooney. Drafted in 1941, Rooney recalled his Colgate college football team, saying that none of his friends there had smoked and ‘we didn't say 's--t' or 'f--k,' and we didn't sleep with our girlfriends. Sex was only a rumor to us.’” Matt C. Abbott, “Kinsey and ‘Sexual Sabotage’”, Renew America, January 16, 2012, http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/abbott/120116)

“Former NBC anchorman Tom Brokaw wrote what is perhaps the most celebrated study of World War II Americans in his 1998 book, The Greatest Generation. Through stories, private letters, poems, pictures, and diaries, he documented and summarized their values and ethical character. Brokaw wrote that their morals were as Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

415

important for victory as were ‘tanks and planes and ships and guns.’ He thought it would be wonderful to have a ‘statistical survey of America's strengths.’ Indeed, such research would have been valuable.” Matt C. Abbott, “Kinsey and ‘Sexual Sabotage’”, Renew America, January 16, 2012, http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/abbott/120116)

“For tragically, the world would soon view a false ‘statistical survey’ of World War II Americans defining this generation's moral and ethical character. While our fathers and grandfathers fought World War II, and while our mothers and grandmothers both overseas and on the home front bore the burdens of war, Alfred C. Kinsey did not. Instead, when America entered the war December 7, 1941, the forty-one-yearold zoologist was an Indiana University teacher ‘researching’ human sexuality. Wrapping himself in the mantle of ‘science,’ Kinsey, a secret sexual psychopath, would project his own sexual demons onto the men and women appreciably called the Greatest Generation, the Americans who saved the world from Hitler's national socialism.” Matt C. Abbott, “Kinsey and ‘Sexual Sabotage’”, Renew America, January 16, 2012, http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/abbott/120116)

“Riding on the financial support and seemingly impeccable credentials of the Rockefeller Foundation, the National Research Council, and Indiana University, Kinsey published his distorted data in Sexual Behavior in the Human Male in 1948 and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female in 1953 and, as his fans say, the world was never the same. With a Madison Avenue advertising blitz, these two reports were aggressively marketed and gained credibility as Kinsey focused the western world on the imagined mote in the eye of his fellow citizens, rather than on the beam in his own.” Matt C. Abbott, “Kinsey and ‘Sexual Sabotage’”, Renew America, January 16, 2012, http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/abbott/120116)

“The men who came home after World War II surely would have agreed with 1960s pop singers Paul Simon and Art Garfunkel: ‘Gee, but it's great to be back home. Home is where I want to be.’ But while these heroes were trying to resume their lives, they were being sabotaged by a subversive barrage, a twisted campaign that informed the world that American men were sexually deviant. Under this assault, they surely would also have agreed with other Simon and Garfunkel lyrics: ‘Everywhere I go, I get slandered, libeled. I hear words I never heard in the Bible. . . .’” Matt C. Abbott, “Kinsey and ‘Sexual

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

416

Sabotage’”, Renew America, January 16, 2012, http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/abbott/120116)

“‘Kinsey not only studied sexuality,’ wrote one of his admirers, ‘he helped create it . . . in such a way that it is difficult for us to recognize what pre-1950s sexuality looked like.’ True. But while Kinsey's narrative described "a period of sexual repression," his statistics claimed that the generation was sexually immoral, promiscuous, and deviant. Why the contradiction? As one who was there, I witnessed firsthand his sexual slander of heroic Americans. And, as one of the elders now, I have researched Alfred Kinsey for thirty-five years, finding that he and his cult libeled our World War II warrior generation in order to validate his own cowardly perversions by creating a ‘sexual revolution.’” Matt C. Abbott, “Kinsey and ‘Sexual Sabotage’”, Renew America, January 16, 2012, http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/abbott/120116)

“Sadly, he succeeded. Morris Ernst, Kinsey's American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) lawyer, explained that Kinsey could collapse Victorian morality by libeling World War II fathers. Since ‘the whole of our laws and customs in sexual matters is to protect the family [and] the base of the family is the father [Kinsey would prove] 'is quite different from anything the general public had supposed.’’ Thus, slandering ‘father’ could gut the laws and customs that protected mothers, children, and the family. And it did.” Matt C. Abbott, “Kinsey and ‘Sexual Sabotage’”, Renew America, January 16, 2012, http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/abbott/120116)

“No match for Kinsey's media blitzkrieg, the war generation's humble reticence to ‘talk about what happened’ gave Kinsey & Company carte blanche. Domestic propagandists launched a stealth attack on their own homeland by defaming our heroes as hypocritical perverts, while our fighting men, still in shock from combat, tried to rebuild their lives. War-weary, America was bombarded with the highly publicized tale that Kinsey sold as reality. In believing the lies about the World War II generation's sexual character, our culture would see the hijacking of the hard-earned sexual laws and customs that protected the family, children, and civility. Alfred Kinsey decisively influenced and grievously damaged my society — and tarnished the legacy of the generation that saved the world. And as our society takes this slander for granted and allows the damage to spiral, Kinsey's coconspirators continue to terrorize our nation. This is why I track the Kinsey lobby. Our children deserve better. Our Greatest Generation Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

417

deserves better.” Matt C. Abbott, “Kinsey and ‘Sexual Sabotage’”, Renew America, January 16, 2012, http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/abbott/120116)

“In 2005, sixty years after the end of World War II, I watched the documentary, The League of Grateful Sons. In one scene, several elderly former marines stand at attention beside an Iwo Jima graveyard epitaph: ‘When You Go Home, Tell Them For Us . . . For Your Tomorrows, We Gave Our Today. Semper Fi.’ The narrator explains that, for ‘half a century they were silent.’ Finally, sighs an aged veteran, our ‘real history is being transferred to the younger generation.’” Matt C. Abbott, “Kinsey and ‘Sexual Sabotage’”, Renew America, January 16, 2012, http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/abbott/120116)

“That is my passion, to transfer the real history about the ‘Greatest Generation’ to their heirs and to expose the libel of our finest Americans. It is vital that we clear the reputations of our parents, grandparents, and great-grandparents. The younger generation must know that their ancestors have been betrayed and defamed — and understand why and by whom. It is up to us to set the historical record straight.” Matt C. Abbott, “Kinsey and ‘Sexual Sabotage’”, Renew America, January 16, 2012, http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/abbott/120116)

“Who Were We, Before Kinsey?” “Although black slavery ended with the Civil War in 1865, women continued to live largely under patriarchal control for another fifty-five years. Indeed, in the 1860s and early 1870s, a new national scandal thrived: Traffic in white female sex slaves flourished in scores of big cities. New York was the ‘center of commercialized sex in the United States.’ Child and adult brothels were everywhere. Catering to ‘heterosexual and homosexual pleasures,’ commercial sex pictures and prices were posted ‘in hotels, shops, and saloons throughout the city,’ using alcohol and sex devices to ‘tempt the crowds.’” Matt C. Abbott, “Kinsey and ‘Sexual Sabotage’”, Renew America, January 16, 2012, http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/abbott/120116)

“Catapulted by the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA), on March 3, 1873, New Yorkers passed an anti-obscenity statute to try and control the spread of venereal disease and crime. When he moved from Connecticut to New York, social reformer and crusader, Anthony Comstock, was horror-struck by the visible public traffic in Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

418

sex. In 1868, he organized a public ‘suppression of vice’ that resulted in massive arrests and a successful cleanup of New York City that spread nationwide over the next four decades.” Matt C. Abbott, “Kinsey and ‘Sexual Sabotage’”, Renew America, January 16, 2012, http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/abbott/120116)

“Markedly casual toward victims of the white slave traffic, sexually liberated psychiatrists, and psychologist-educators actively marketed the sexual freedom advocated by Clark University president G. Stanley Hall, his Viennese visitor, Dr. Sigmund Freud, and their colleagues. Thus — just as it does today — the battle raged between ‘repressed,’ pious, Americans and the ‘liberated’ licentious academic elites. By 1910, men increasingly joined the organized women's movement to end the white slave traffic. In 1917, America entered World War I, a conflict joyfully ended in 1918. By the 1920s, even New Yorkers increasingly lived in a relatively sexually restrained and, thus, safe and sane environment. This was the culture in which our future World War II heroes were born and raised. But the battle for America's character still raged.” Matt C. Abbott, “Kinsey and ‘Sexual Sabotage’”, Renew America, January 16, 2012, http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/abbott/120116)

“Stepping boldly into the fray, in the late 1920s, the Catholic Church began a campaign against Hollywood's brazen nudity and sadistic pornographic film indecency. As a result, with theaters half-empty, Hollywood studios were forced to hire writers and produce films that ‘fit’ the moral values of average Americans. This meant hiring brilliant, often very moral writers to produce fluffy, witty, or charming dialogue and good drama that did not run afoul of the new Motion Picture Production Code, popularly known as the ‘Hays Code’ for its creator, Will Hays. Under these highly moral guidelines, Hollywood entered its ‘golden era’ from 1934 until the 1960s....” Matt C. Abbott, “Kinsey and ‘Sexual Sabotage’”, Renew America, January 16, 2012, http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/abbott/120116)

“Ladies and Gentlemen” “On public transport, most males automatically gave up their seats to the elderly, women, and children, and men and older boys commonly held open the door for women, old folks, and children. They would commonly offer to carry a girl's parcels or books, should she wish. Before seating themselves, men commonly held the chair for ladies to Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

419

be seated, and waited to eat until the ladies had begun. Men asked permission to smoke and were especially careful to use ‘decent’ language in the company of women and girls, who were called ‘ladies’ and ‘young ladies.’ And a gentleman always defended ladies in any encounter. Patriarchy had many drawbacks if one's male intimate was alcoholic, violent or a slough, but the flip side was the male view of men as obligated, respectful, and of service to the female ‘weaker’ sex.” Matt C. Abbott, “Kinsey and ‘Sexual Sabotage’”, Renew America, January 16, 2012, http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/abbott/120116)

“In The Compleat Gentleman, Brad Miner, the former literary editor of National Review discussed American chivalry and gallantry: ‘I'll say plainly that the American republic . . . was founded by gentlemen and depends upon their gentlemanly ideals for both its prosperity and its posterity. Our republic, in fact, is the gentleman writ large . . . it's all about balance and restraint.’ Minor supports this concept in his discussion of the Titanic survival rates; when even the wealthiest gentlemen gave their lives to secure the safety of women and children of all classes. Despite the claims of the feature film, Titanic, ‘Upper and-middle-class men,’ Miner wrote, ‘had the lowest rate of survival on the Titanic.’” Matt C. Abbott, “Kinsey and ‘Sexual Sabotage’”, Renew America, January 16, 2012, http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/abbott/120116)

“On the other hand, men who are not reared to be courteous, to be gentlemen in service of ladies and children, often sink to the level of scoundrels. To paraphrase Voltaire, a belief in and fear of God are especially important for those in authority. They must fear a Higher Authority, who sees all that they do and who will mete out eternal punishment. Otherwise, they may do whatever evil pleases them. Voltaire also warned, ‘Those who can make you believe absurdities can make you commit atrocities.’ In 1948, Kinsey, the antithesis of a gentleman, caused millions to believe absurdities about the sexual morality of the Greatest Generation. Predictably, restraint slackened and sexual atrocities followed — and have skyrocketed.” Matt C. Abbott, “Kinsey and ‘Sexual Sabotage’”, Renew America, January 16, 2012, http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/abbott/120116)

“But as ‘our boys’ recovered from the ravages of World War II, the ethos of family and community supported faith, fidelity, personal responsibility, honor, and children's innocence. In a sign of Comstockian success, New York City's Central Park welcomed Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

420

couples and families who were unafraid and unaware of the misery and crime that had blighted the city a few decades earlier. In 1948, the safer, saner, softer, and superior society was visible to the naked eye. Cities that had once been vice-ridden saw women and children enjoying the freedom to casually roam streets, paths, and beaches. These venues were created because America's character supported public areas where men, women, and children — alone or otherwise — could safely wander, day or night. Today, however, these oncecongenial places of public recreation are again vandalized centers of crime and cruelty, unsafe after dusk. The comparison is stark.” Matt C. Abbott, “Kinsey and ‘Sexual Sabotage’”, Renew America, January 16, 2012, http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/abbott/120116)

“The sex industry had been thwarted — and vice squads contained its re-emergence — but elitist revolutionists often attacked our founders' beliefs in favor of lifestyles they fancied as licentious European cosmopolitanism. Building on the legacy of America's rugged provincialism and religious belief, World Wars I and II revived our national honor and stoked our confidence. Our refreshed patriotism made America great and kept us so for decades.” Matt C. Abbott, “Kinsey and ‘Sexual Sabotage’”, Renew America, January 16, 2012, http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/abbott/120116)

“This really was who we were before, during, and after World War II. This is the generation that I knew as a child. This was America — an extraordinary nation that came of age during the Great Depression and two World Wars and went on to build the greatest modern society the world has ever known. And these are the men and women, our fathers and mothers and grandsires, our heroes and heroines, whom Kinsey claimed to truthfully reveal in Sexual Behavior in the Human Male (1948) and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female (1953), the generation that was sabotaged by a deviant pseudo scientist who libeled our legacy and screwed our society.” (Matt C. Abbott, “Kinsey and ‘Sexual Sabotage’”, Renew America, January 16, 2012, http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/abbott/120116)

“…the “no harm” argument also fails to consider the production of internet pornography, which is produced by way of real human beings who are almost always engaged in illegal and dehumanizing acts such as prostitution, rape, sex trafficking, assault, and even murder.” (Morgan Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

421

Bennett, “Internet Pornography & the First Amendment,” The Public Discourse.com, October 10, 2013, http://www.thepublicdiscourse.com/2013/10/10998/)

“Pornography undermines civilized society: it erodes the relationship between men and women; it undermines marriage, the family unit, and the well-being and social standing of women and children; it causes sexual addictions that debilitate a person’s productivity, discernment, and ability to form healthy relationships.” (Morgan Bennett, “Internet Pornography & the First Amendment,” The Public Discourse.com, October 10, 2013, http://www.thepublicdiscourse.com/2013/10/10998/)

“…pornography has an impact on the behavior and social cognition of its consumers.” (Simone Kühn, PhD; Jürgen Gallinat, PhD, “Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity Associated with Pornography Consumption,” JAMA Psychiatry. 2014;71(7):827-834, http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1874574)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

422

#41 PORN AFFECTS SEXUAL TASTES “How Porn Affects Sexual Tastes” “As individuals consume more extreme and dangerous sex acts, they gradually begin to feel that those behaviors are more common and acceptable than they really are.” “… the kind of porn consumed usually changes over time.”A “In a survey of 1,500 young adult men, 56% said their tastes in porn had become “increasingly extreme or deviant.”B …getting aroused by things that used to disgust them or things that they might have previously considered to be inappropriate or unethical.”C “Porn consumers are more likely to express attitudes supporting violence against women,D and studies have shown a strong correlation between men’s porn consumption and their likelihood to victimize women.E In fact, a 2015 peer-reviewed research study that analyzed 22 different studies from 7 different countries concluded that there is “little doubt that, on the average, individuals who consume pornography more frequently are more likely to hold attitudes [supporting] sexual aggression and engage in actual acts of sexual aggression.”F “We crave happiness and love.” (“How Porn Affects Sexual Tastes”, Fight the New Drug, August 23, 2017, https://fightthenewdrug.org/how-porn-affects-sexual-tastes/) A. (Park, B. Y., Et Al. (2016). Is Internet Pornography Causing Sexual Dysfunctions? A Review With Clinical

Reports. Behavioral Sciences, 6, 17. Doi:10.3390/Bs6030017; Kalman, T.P. (2008). Clinical Encounters With Internet Pornography. Journal Of The American Academy Of Psychoanalysis And Dynamic Psychiatry, 36(4) 593-618. Doi:10.1521/Jaap.2008.36.4.593; Doidge, N. (2007). The Brain That Changes Itself. New York: Penguin Books, (109); Cline, V. B. (2001). Pornography’s Effect On Adults And Children. New York: Morality In Media; Zillmann, D. (2000). Influence Of Unrestrained Access To Erotica On Adolescents’ And Young Adults’ Dispositions Toward Sexuality. Journal Of Adolescent Health, 27, 2: 41– 44. Retrieved From Https://Www.Ncbi.Nlm.Nih.Gov/Pubmed/10904205) B. C.

(NoFap Survey (2012) http://Www.Reddit.Com/R/NoFap/Comments/Updy4/Rnofap_survey_data_complete_datasets/) (Wery, A. & Billieux, J. (2016). Online Sexual Activities: An Exploratory Study Of Problematic And NonProblematic Usage Patterns In A Sample Of Men. Computers In Human Behavior 56, 257-266.

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

423

Doi:10.1016/J.Chb.2015.11.046; Park, B. Y., Et Al. (2016). Is Internet Pornography Causing Sexual Dysfunctions? A Review With Clinical Reports. Behavioral Sciences, 6, 17. Doi:10.3390/Bs6030017; Paul, P. (2010). From Pornography To Porno To Porn: How Porn Became The Norm. In J. Stoner And D. Hughes (Eds.) The Social Costs Of Pornography: A Collection Of Papers (Pp. 3–20). Princeton, N.J.: Witherspoon Institute.) D. (Hald, G. M., Malamuth, N. M., & Yuen, C. (2010). Pornography And Attitudes Supporting

Violence Against Women: Revisiting The Relationship In Nonexperimental Studies. Aggression And Behavior 36, 1: 14–20. Doi: 10.1002/Ab.20328; Berkel, L. A., Vandiver, B. J., And Bahner, A. D. (2004). Gender Role Attitudes, Religion, And Spirituality As Predictors Of Domestic Violence Attitudes In White College Students. Journal Of College Student Development 45(2):119–131.) E.

(DeKeseredy, W. (2015). Critical Criminological Understandings Of Adult Pornography And Woman Abuse: New Progressive Directions In Research And Theory. International Journal For Crime, Justice And Social Democracy, 4(4), 4-21. Doi:10.5204/Ijcjsd.V4i4.184; Simmons, C. A., Lehmann, P., & Collier-Tenison, S. (2008). Linking Male Use Of The Sex Industry To Controlling Behaviors In Violent Relationships: An Exploratory Analysis. Violence Against Women, 14(4), 406-417. Doi:10.1177/1077801208315066; Shope, J. H. (2004), When Words Are Not Enough: The Search For The Effect Of Pornography On Abused Women. Violence Against Women, 10(1), 56-72. Doi: 10.1177/1077801203256003)

F.

(Wright, P., Tokunaga, R. S., & Kraus, A. (2015). A Meta-Analysis Of Pornography Consumption And Actual Acts Of Sexual Aggression In General Population Studies. Journal Of Communication, 66(1), 183-205. Doi:10.1111/Jcom.12201)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

424

#42 PORN PARTICIPANTS & CONSENUALITY “The Porn Industry’s Dark Secrets” “Would you support a business if you knew that they abused some (but not all) of their female employees? Pornographers don’t want you to think about it, but even if some of the humiliation, degradation, and sexual violence you see in porn is consensual, some is not.” “I got the &*%$ kicked out of me …. Most of the girls start crying because they’re hurting so bad …. I couldn’t breathe. I was being hit and choked. I was really upset and they didn’t stop. They kept filming. [I asked them to turn the camera off] and they kept going.”A “In the spring of 2004, during the American occupation of Iraq, the world was shocked to learn that US soldiers were abusing prisoners in Abu Ghraib. Hundreds of leaked photos showed Iraqi prisoners being made to crawl on the floor wearing leashes, wear panties on their heads, masturbate for the camera, touch other men’s naked bodies, and even more degrading behaviors that we are not comfortable mentioning here. What horrified the public was not only the human rights violations themselves, but the fact that the soldiers recorded the abuse with obvious glee. In many of the photos, soldiers grinned and flashed a ‘thumbs up’ to the camera as they stood over their victims. After an investigation, several soldiers were dishonorably discharged from the military and others served time in prison for what they had done at Abu Ghraib.”B “That same year, pornographers video-recorded and photographed thousands of women enduring nearly identical treatment and worse. Those images were published on the internet and viewed by millions of porn consumers. There was no public outcry.” “Comparing porn to what happened in Abu Ghraib will ruffle some people’s feathers. A knee-jerk reaction is to say, ‘Those are totally different! In porn, women give their consent!’”

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

425

“There is a tendency to believe that ‘human trafficking’ refers to a Third World problem: forced prostitution or child pornography rings in some faroff, developing country. The truth is, sex trafficking is officially defined as a ‘modern-day form of slavery in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such an act is under the age of 18 years.’C That means any instance in which the individual on screen was forced, tricked, or pressured. By that definition, human trafficking is everywhere”D (“The Porn Industry’s Dark Secrets”, Fight the New Drug, August 23, 2017, https://fightthenewdrug.org/the-porn-industrys-dark-secrets/) G. “REGAN STARRFORMER PORN ACTOR (Amis, M. (2001, March 17). A Rough Trade. The Guardian (U.K.), March 17. Retrieved From Https://Www.Theguardian.Com/Books/2001/Mar/17/Society.Martinamis1)” H. (Whisnant, R. (2016). Pornography, Humiliation, And Consent. Sexualization, Media, & Society, 2(3), 1-7. Doi:10.1177/2374623816662876) I. (Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) Of 2000. Pub. L. No. 106-386, Section 103 (8) (A).) J. (Peters, R. W., Lederer, L. J., And Kelly, S. (2012). The Slave And The Porn Star: Sexual Trafficking And Pornography. In M. Mattar & J. Braunmiller (Eds.) Journal Of Human Rights And Civil Society 5: 1-21. Retrieved From Http://Www.Protectionproject.Org/WpContent/Uploads/2012/11/TPP-J-HR-Civ-Socy_Vol-5_2012-W-Cover.Pdf; Malarek, V. (2009). The Johns: Sex For Sale And The Men Who Buy It. (Pp. 202-204) New York, NY: Arcade; Farley, M. (2007). Renting An Organ For Ten Minutes: What Tricks Tell Us About Prostitution, Pornography, And Trafficking. In D. E. Guinn & J. DiCaro (Eds.) Pornography: Driving The Demand In International Sex Trafficking, (P. 145). BLoomington, IN: Xlibris. D. M. Hughes. (2000). “Welcome To The Rape Camp”: Sexual Exploitation And The Internet In Cambodia. Journal Of Sexual Aggression, 6(1-2), 29-51. Doi:10.1080/13552600008413308)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

426

#43 PORN & LONELINESS “Why Porn Leaves Consumers Lonely” “Author and political activist Naomi Wolf has traveled all over the United States talking with college students about relationships. ‘When I ask about loneliness, a deep, sad silence descends on audiences of young men and young women alike,’ she says. ‘They know they are lonely together … and that [porn] is a big part of that loneliness. What they don’t know is how to get out.’”A “‘The more one uses pornography, the more lonely one becomes,’ says Dr. Gary Brooks, a psychologist who has worked with porn addicts for the last 30 years.”B “‘When one partner uses porn at a high frequency,’ explains researcher Dr. Ana Bridges, ‘there can be a tendency to withdraw emotionally from the relationship.’”C “According to Bridges, as a porn consumer withdraws from his or her relationships, they experience ‘increased secrecy, less intimacy and also more depression.’”D “Studies have consistently shown that porn consumers tend to feel less love and trust in their marriages.E They also experience more negative communication with their partners, feel less dedicated to their relationship, have a harder time making adjustments to their partner, enjoy less sexual satisfaction, and commit more infidelity.F Meanwhile, spouses of porn consumers report decreased intimacy in their marriages and a feeling of being less understood by their porn-consuming partners.G Relationship experts, Doctors John and Julie Gottman explain, ‘there are many factors about porn use that can threaten a relationship’s intimacy [which] for couples is a source of connection and communication between two people. But when one person becomes accustomed to masturbating to porn, they are actually turning away from intimate interaction.’”

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

427

“Porn promises immediate satisfaction, endless excitement, and easy intimacy, but in the end, it robs a consumer of all three.” (“Why Porn Leaves Consumers Lonely”, Fight the New Drug, August 23, 2017, https://fightthenewdrug.org/why-porn-leaves-consumers-lonely/) A. (Wolf, N. (2003). The Porn Myth. New York Magazine, Oct. 20.) B. (Brooks, G. R., (1995). The Centerfold Syndrome: How Men Can Overcome Objectification And Achieve Intimacy With Women. San Francisco: Bass. Cited In Yoder, V. C., Virden, T. B., & Amin, K. (2005). Internet Pornography And Loneliness: An Association? Sexual Addiction And Compulsivity, 12, 19-44. Doi:10.1080/10720160590933653) C. Weir, K. (2014, April). Is Pornography Addictive? Monitor On Psychology. 45(4) 46. Retrieved From Http://Www.Apa.Org/Monitor/2014/04/Pornography.Aspx) D. (Weir, K. (2014, April). Is Pornography Addictive? Monitor On Psychology. 45(4) 46. Retrieved From Http://Www.Apa.Org/Monitor/2014/04/Pornography.Aspx) E. (Henline, B. H., Lamke, L. K., & Howard, M. D. (2007). Exploring Perceptions Of Online Infidelity. Personal Relationships, 14, 113-128. Doi:10.1111/J.1475-6811.2006.00144.X; Stack, S., Wasserman, I., & Kern, R. (2004). Adult Social Bonds And The Use Of Internet Pornography. Social Science Quarterly, 85, 75-88. Doi:10.1111/J.0038-4941.2004.08501006.X; Schneider, J. P. (2000). Effects Of Cybersex Addiction On The Family: Results Of A Survey. Sexual Addiction And Compulsivity, 7, 31-58. Doi:10.1080/10720160008400206) F. (Maddox, A. M., Rhoades, G. K., & Markman, H. J. (2011). Viewing Sexually-Explicit Materials Alone Or Together: Associations With Relationship Quality. Archives Of Sexual Behavior, 40(2), 441-448. Doi:10.1007/S10508-009-9585-4) G. (Bergner, R., & Bridges, A. (2002). The Significance Of Heavy Pornography Involvement For Romantic Partners: Research And Clinical Implications. Journal Of Sex And Marital Therapy, 28, 193-206. Doi:10.1080/009262302760328235)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

428

#44 PORN & SEX CONSEQUENCE “Five studies among Swedish young people find that young men who are regular consumers of pornography are more likely to have had anal intercourse with a girl, and to have tried to perform acts they have seen in pornography, and that girls who have seen pornography also are more likely to have anal intercourse. (Anal intercourse leads increased risk of STD’s, tissue damage, and fecal incontinence.)” (Kristen Jenson, October 6, 2016, Protect Young Minds.org, “5 Proven Ways Porn Harms Kids that No One Talks About”, https://protectyoungminds.org/2016/10/06/5-proven-ways-porn-harms-kids/)

Josh McDowell Ministry 2018

429

Life Enjoy

" Life is not a problem to be solved but a reality to be experienced! "

Get in touch

Social

© Copyright 2013 - 2018 DOKUMENTIX.COM - All rights reserved.